Special Issue "Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Beatriz Jurado Sanchez

Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: self-propelled micro and nanomomotors; microfabrication; electrochemical sensors; biosensors; lab-on-a-chip

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Current progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology has paved the way for the design of many new multi-functional materials for (bio-) sensing purposes. Modern biosensors, based on such micro- and nanoscale materials, offer new opportunities in analytical chemistry, healthcare, and many other fields. Indeed, the reduction in the size to nanoscale dimensions may result in cheaper, portable, and easier-to-use analytical tools, allowing for real-time analytical measurements, detection in microfluidic systems and in vivo monitoring applications. Of great interest, self-propelled micromotors represent a new paradigm in the field as novel nanoscale biosensors for the development of ‘on-the-move’ sensing schemes.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the most recent and promising technologies in micro and nanoscale biosensors—including self-propelled micromotors—their materials, fabrication and applications. Reviews and original research papers are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Beatriz Jurado Sanchez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biosensor
  • Nanotechnology
  • Nanomaterials
  • Microfabrication
  • Self-propelled Micromotors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Microscale and Nanoscale Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030066
Received: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of
[...] Read more.
The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of seven papers (five research and two review papers) are included. Different but related topics are covered, from biosensor design (paper strips and digital microfluidic chips) to integrated configurations that monitor metabolites in cellular environments. The reviews are devoted to protein-based biosensors and moving biosensors based on self-propelled micromotors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)

Research

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Open AccessArticle New Carrier Made from Glass Nanofibres for the Colorimetric Biosensor of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020051
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used as pesticides in agriculture, but also form a group of organophosphates known as nerve chemical warfare agents. This calls for close attention regarding their detection, including the use of various biosensors. One such biosensor made in the Czech
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Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used as pesticides in agriculture, but also form a group of organophosphates known as nerve chemical warfare agents. This calls for close attention regarding their detection, including the use of various biosensors. One such biosensor made in the Czech Republic is the Detehit, which is based on a cholinesterase reaction that is assessed using a colour indicator—the Ellman’s reagent—which is anchored on cellulose filter paper together with the substrate. With the use of this biosensor, detection is simple, quick, and sensitive. However, its disadvantage is that a less pronounced yellow discoloration occurs, especially under difficult light conditions. As a possible solution, a new indicator/substrate carrier has been designed. It is made of glass nanofibres, so the physical characteristics of the carrier positively influence reaction conditions, and as a result improve the colour response of the biosensor. The authors present and discuss some of the results of the study of this carrier under various experimental conditions. These findings have been used for the development of a modified Detehit biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Droplet Velocity Measurement Based on Dielectric Layer Thickness Variation Using Digital Microfluidic Devices
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020045
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the number of interdisciplinary research works related to the development of miniaturized systems with integrated chemical and biological analyses is increasing. Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) are one kind of miniaturized systems designed for conducting inexpensive, fast, convenient and reliable biochemical
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In recent years, the number of interdisciplinary research works related to the development of miniaturized systems with integrated chemical and biological analyses is increasing. Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) are one kind of miniaturized systems designed for conducting inexpensive, fast, convenient and reliable biochemical assay procedures focusing on basic scientific research and medical diagnostics. The role of a dielectric layer in the digital microfluidic biochips is prominent as it helps in actuating microliter droplets based on the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technique. The advantages of using three different material layers of dielectric such as parafilm, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) were reported in the current work. A simple fabrication process of a digital microfluidic device was performed and good results were obtained. The threshold of the actuation voltage was determined for all dielectric materials of varying thicknesses. Additionally, the OpenDrop device was tested by utilizing a single-plate system to transport microliter droplets for a bioassay operation. With the newly proposed fabrication methods, these dielectric materials showed changes in contact angle and droplet velocity when the actuation voltage was applied. The threshold actuation voltage for the dielectric layers of 10–13 μm was 190 V for the open plate DMFBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sensor Access to the Cellular Microenvironment Using the Sensing Cell Culture Flask
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020044
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Sensing Cell Culture Flask (SCCF) is a cell culture monitoring system accessing the cellular microenvironment in 2D cell culture using electrochemical microsensors. The system is based on microfabricated sensor chips embedded in standard cell culture flasks. Ideally, the sensor chips could be
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The Sensing Cell Culture Flask (SCCF) is a cell culture monitoring system accessing the cellular microenvironment in 2D cell culture using electrochemical microsensors. The system is based on microfabricated sensor chips embedded in standard cell culture flasks. Ideally, the sensor chips could be equipped with any electrochemical sensor. Its transparency allows optical inspection of the cells during measurement. The surface of the sensor chip is in-plane with the flask surface allowing undisturbed cell growth on the sensor chip. A custom developed rack system allows easy usage of multiple flasks in parallel within an incubator. The presented data demonstrates the application of the SCCF with brain tumor (T98G) and breast cancer (T-47D) cells. Amperometric oxygen sensors were used to monitor cellular respiration with different incubation conditions. Cellular acidification was accessed with potentiometric pH sensors using electrodeposited iridium oxide films. The system itself provides the foundation for electrochemical monitoring systems in 3D cell culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020040
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D)
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The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Biosensors to Explore the Potential of Probiotic Strains to Reduce the SOS Response and Mutagenesis in Bacteria
Biosensors 2018, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8010025
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A model system based on the Escherichia coli MG1655 (pRecA-lux) Lux-biosensor was used to evaluate the ability of the fermentates of eight probiotic strains to reduce the SOS response stimulated by ciprofloxacin in bacteria and mutagenesis mediated by it. Preliminary attempts to estimate
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A model system based on the Escherichia coli MG1655 (pRecA-lux) Lux-biosensor was used to evaluate the ability of the fermentates of eight probiotic strains to reduce the SOS response stimulated by ciprofloxacin in bacteria and mutagenesis mediated by it. Preliminary attempts to estimate the chemical nature of active components of the fermentates were conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
Open AccessCommunication Self-Organized Nanostructure Modified Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Glutamate Detection in Stem Cells-Derived Brain Organoids
Biosensors 2018, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8010014
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Neurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate to communicate with each other and to coordinate brain functioning. As increased glutamate release is indicative of neuronal maturation and activity, a system that can measure glutamate levels over time within the same tissue and/or culture system
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Neurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate to communicate with each other and to coordinate brain functioning. As increased glutamate release is indicative of neuronal maturation and activity, a system that can measure glutamate levels over time within the same tissue and/or culture system is highly advantageous for neurodevelopmental investigation. To address such challenges, we develop for the first time a convenient method to realize functionalized borosilicate glass capillaries with nanostructured texture as an electrochemical biosensor to detect glutamate release from cerebral organoids generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) that mimic various brain regions. The biosensor shows a clear catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glutamate with a sensitivity of 93 ± 9.5 nA·µM−1·cm−2. It was found that the enzyme-modified microelectrodes can detect glutamate in a wide linear range from 5 µM to 0.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 5.6 ± 0.2 µM. Measurements were performed within the organoids at different time points and consistent results were obtained. This data demonstrates the reliability of the biosensor as well as its usefulness in measuring glutamate levels across time within the same culture system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Nanoscale Biosensors Based on Self-Propelled Objects
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030059
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to
[...] Read more.
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to novel in vitro and in vivo biosensing schemes. The potential and future prospect of such moving nanoscale biosensors are given in the conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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