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Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030063

Lectin- and Saccharide-Functionalized Nano-Chemiresistor Arrays for Detection and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Infection

1
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Southern Adventist University, Collegedale, TN 37315, USA
3
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
4
Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Current address: Nanomedical Diagnostics Inc., 6185 Cornerstone Court East #110, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Abstract

Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in this work. The use of a small bioreceptor array (based on lectin-carbohydrate binding) resulted in a unique response profile, which has the potential to be used for pathogen identification, as demonstrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of the chemiresistive device was tested with Escherichia coli K12, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Salmonella typhi. The limits of detection, based on concanavalin A (conA) lectin as the bioreceptor, are 4.7 × 103 cfu/mL, 25 cfu/mL, 7.4 × 104 cfu/mL, and 6.3 × 102 cfu/mL. This shows that the detection of pathogenic bacteria is achieved with clinically relevant concentrations. Importantly, responses measured in spiked artificial saliva showed minimal matrix interference. Furthermore, the exploitation of the distinctive outer composition of the bacteria and selectivity of lectin-carbohydrate interactions allowed for the discrimination of bacterial infections from viral infections, which is a current and urgent need for diagnosing common clinical infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathogens; lectins; CNTs; PCA; point-of-care; label-free detection pathogens; lectins; CNTs; PCA; point-of-care; label-free detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Saucedo, N.M.; Gao, Y.; Pham, T.; Mulchandani, A. Lectin- and Saccharide-Functionalized Nano-Chemiresistor Arrays for Detection and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Infection. Biosensors 2018, 8, 63.

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