Special Issue "Biomarkers"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ali Mobasheri

Acting Head of the Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7AL, UK
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Phone: +44 (0) 1483 689398
Fax: +44 1483 686736
Interests: cartilage biology; arthritis biomarkers; comparative medicine/comparative physiology; Techniques: quantitative immunohistochemical and immunomorhological techniques; post-genomic techniques including tissue microarray technology, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics
Guest Editor
Dr. Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen

Head of Rheumatology, NORDIC BIOSCIENCE, BIOMARKERS & RESEARCH, Herlev Hovedgade 205-207, 2730 Herlev, Denmark
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Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yves Henrotin

Institute of pathology (B23) +5, CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. However, in most disease areas, we need to develop predictive biomarker assays that can provide an earlier indication of pathophysiological alterations which could prompt earlier, targeted and personalized treatments. Biosensors is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that focuses on the basic science and technological innovations that support the development of biosensors. This Special Issue on “Biomarkers” will focus on publishing original research, reviews and perspectives on biomarkers that may be used in biosensors at the interface between surface chemistry, physical chemistry, biology and medicine.

Prof. Dr. Ali Mobasheri
Dr. Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen
Prof. Dr. Yves Henrotin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Olfactory Dysfunction as a Global Biomarker for Sniffing out Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020041
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are rising exponentially due to increasing global life expectancy. There are approximately 50 million sufferers worldwide, with prevalence rising most rapidly in low-income countries such as Africa and Asia. There is currently no definite diagnosis of AD until
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Cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are rising exponentially due to increasing global life expectancy. There are approximately 50 million sufferers worldwide, with prevalence rising most rapidly in low-income countries such as Africa and Asia. There is currently no definite diagnosis of AD until after death, thus an early biomarker for AD is urgently required in order to administer timelier and more effective interventions. Olfactory dysfunction (problems with the sense of smell) is one of the earliest, preclinical symptoms observed in AD. Olfaction is a promising early biomarker for use worldwide as it is easy, cheap to measure, and not reliant on specialist clinicians or laboratory analysis. We carried out a meta-analysis to determine the credibility of olfaction in diagnosing AD in the preclinical stages, by comparing olfaction in healthy controls against AD patients and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Data from 10 articles were subjected to two comparative meta-analyses. In the case of AD, the results illustrated that the overall magnitude of effect size was more apparent, d = −1.63, 95% CI [−1.95, −1.31], in comparison to that of MCI, d = −0.81, 95% CI [−1.08, −0.55]. This shows that olfaction worsens progressively as patients progress from MCI to AD, highlighting the potential for olfactory dysfunction to identify AD in the preclinical stages prior to MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Raman Spectroscopic and Microscopic Analysis for Monitoring Renal Osteodystrophy Signatures
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020038
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract
Defining the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and its treatment efficacy are difficult, since many factors potentially affect bone quality. In this study, confocal Raman microscopy and parallel statistical analysis were used to identify differences in bone composition between healthy and ROD bone
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Defining the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and its treatment efficacy are difficult, since many factors potentially affect bone quality. In this study, confocal Raman microscopy and parallel statistical analysis were used to identify differences in bone composition between healthy and ROD bone tissues through direct visualization of three main compositional parametric ratios, namely, calcium content, mineral-to-matrix, and carbonate-to-matrix. Besides the substantially lower values found in ROD specimens for these representative ratios, an obvious accumulation of phenylalanine is Raman spectroscopically observed for the first time in ROD samples and reported here. Thus, elevated phenylalanine could also be considered as an indicator of the disease. Since the image results are based on tens of thousands of spectra per sample, not only are the average ratios statistically significantly different for normal and ROD bone, but the method is clearly powerful in distinguishing between the two types of samples. Furthermore, the statistical outcomes demonstrate that only a relatively small number of spectra need to be recorded in order to classify the samples. This work thus opens the possibility of future development of in vivo Raman sensors for assessment of bone structure, remodeling, and mineralization, where different biomarkers are simultaneously detected with unprecedented accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Colorimetric Protein Array Assay Schemes for Detection of Recurrence of Bladder Cancer
Biosensors 2018, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8010010
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
A colorimetric microarray for the multiplexed detection of recurrence of bladder cancer including protein markers interleukin-8 (IL8), decorin (DCN), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was established to enable easy and cheap read-out by a simple office scanner paving the way for quick
[...] Read more.
A colorimetric microarray for the multiplexed detection of recurrence of bladder cancer including protein markers interleukin-8 (IL8), decorin (DCN), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was established to enable easy and cheap read-out by a simple office scanner paving the way for quick therapy monitoring at doctors’ offices. The chip is based on the principle of a sandwich immunoassay and was optimized prior to multiplexing using IL8 as a model marker. Six different colorimetric assay formats were evaluated using a detection antibody (dAB) labeled with (I) gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs), (II) carbon NPs, (III) oxidized carbon NPs, and a biotinylated dAB in combination with (IV) neutravidin–carbon, (V) streptavidin (strp)–gold, and (VI) strp–horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Assay Format (III) worked best for NP-based detection and showed a low background while the enzymatic approach, using 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate, led to the most intense signals with good reproducibility. Both assay formats showed consistent spot morphology as well as detection limits lower than 15 ng/L IL8 and were thus applied for the multiplexed detection of IL8, DCN, and VEGF in synthetic urine. Colorimetric detection in urine (1:3) yields reaction signals and measurement ranges well comparable with detection in the assay buffer, as well as excellent data reproducibility as indicated by the coefficient of variation (CV 5–9%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Autoantibodies as Potential Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030067
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to
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Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to replace or be complementary to existing technologies for early discovery of breast cancer. Cancer neoantigens could reflect tumorigenesis, but they are hardly detectable at the early stage. Autoantibodies, however, are biologically amplified and hence may be measurable early on, making them promising biomarkers to discriminate breast cancer from healthy tissue accurately. In this review, we summarized the recent findings of breast cancer specific antigens and autoantibodies, which may be useful in early detection, disease stratification, and monitoring of treatment responses of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessReview Biosensors for Non-Invasive Detection of Celiac Disease Biomarkers in Body Fluids
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020055
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to
[...] Read more.
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to the therapy, which is currently a life-long gluten-free diet, require the application of reliable, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and cost-effective analytical tools. Celiac disease biomarker detection in full blood, serum, or plasma offers a non-invasive way to do this and is well-suited to being the first step of diagnosis. Biosensors provide a novel and alternative way to perform conventional techniques in biomarker sensing, in which electrode material and architecture play important roles in achieving sensitive, selective, and stable detection. There are many opportunities to build and modify biosensor platforms using various materials and detection methods, and the aim of the present review is to summarize developments in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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