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Biosensors, Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA) are commonly used as an indicator of food safety and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Design and Parameter Study of Integrated Microfluidic Platform for CTC Isolation and Enquiry; A Numerical Approach
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020056
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Being the second cause of mortality across the globe, there is now a persistent effort to establish new cancer medication and therapies. Any accomplishment in treating cancers entails the existence of accurate identification systems empowering the early diagnosis. Recent studies indicate CTCs’ potential
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Being the second cause of mortality across the globe, there is now a persistent effort to establish new cancer medication and therapies. Any accomplishment in treating cancers entails the existence of accurate identification systems empowering the early diagnosis. Recent studies indicate CTCs’ potential in cancer prognosis as well as therapy monitoring. The chief shortcoming with CTCs is that they are exceedingly rare cells in their clinically relevant concentration. Here, we simulated a microfluidic construct devised for immunomagnetic separation of the particles of interest from the background cells. This separation unit is integrated with a mixer subunit. The mixer is envisioned for mixing the CTC enriched stream with lysis buffer to extract the biological material of the cell. Some modification was proposed on mixing geometry improving the efficacy of the functional unit. A valuation of engaged forces was made and some forces were neglected due to their order of magnitude. The position of the magnet was also optimized by doing parametric study. For the mixer unit, the effect of applied voltage and frequency on mixing index was studied to find the optimal voltage and frequency which provides better mixing. Above-mentioned studies were done on isolated units and the effect of each functional unit on the other is not studied. As the final step, an integrated microfluidic platform composed of both functional subunits was simulated simultaneously. To ensure the independence of results from the grid, grid studies were also performed. The studies carried out on the construct reveal its potential for diagnostic application. Full article
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Open AccessReview Biosensors for Non-Invasive Detection of Celiac Disease Biomarkers in Body Fluids
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020055
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to
[...] Read more.
Celiac disease is a chronic gluten-initiated autoimmune disorder that predominantly damages the mucosa of the small intestine in genetically-susceptible individuals. It affects a large and increasing number of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease and monitoring the response of patients to the therapy, which is currently a life-long gluten-free diet, require the application of reliable, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and cost-effective analytical tools. Celiac disease biomarker detection in full blood, serum, or plasma offers a non-invasive way to do this and is well-suited to being the first step of diagnosis. Biosensors provide a novel and alternative way to perform conventional techniques in biomarker sensing, in which electrode material and architecture play important roles in achieving sensitive, selective, and stable detection. There are many opportunities to build and modify biosensor platforms using various materials and detection methods, and the aim of the present review is to summarize developments in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessReview Aptamer-Based Biosensors for Antibiotic Detection: A Review
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020054
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
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Abstract
Antibiotic resistance and, accordingly, their pollution because of uncontrolled usage has emerged as a serious problem in recent years. Hence, there is an increased demand to develop robust, easy, and sensitive methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotics and their residues. Among different analytical
[...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance and, accordingly, their pollution because of uncontrolled usage has emerged as a serious problem in recent years. Hence, there is an increased demand to develop robust, easy, and sensitive methods for rapid evaluation of antibiotics and their residues. Among different analytical methods, the aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) have attracted considerable attention because of good selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity. This review gives an overview about recently-developed aptasensors for antibiotic detection. The use of various aptamer assays to determine different groups of antibiotics, like β-lactams, aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, (fluoro)quinolones, lincosamide, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides are presented in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Electrochemical Area of Screen-Printed Electrochemical Sensing Platforms
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020053
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which
[...] Read more.
Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which allows for the benchmarking of these SPEs and is an important parameter in quality control. In this paper, we consider the use of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry to allow for the determination of the real electrochemical area of screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, highlighting to experimentalists the various parameters that need to be diligently considered and controlled in order to obtain useful measurements of the real electroactive area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Label-Free Bioanalyte Detection from Nanometer to Micrometer Dimensions—Molecular Imprinting and QCMs
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020052
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Modern diagnostic tools and immunoassay protocols urges direct analyte recognition based on its intrinsic behavior without using any labeling indicator. This not only improves the detection reliability, but also reduces sample preparation time and complexity involved during labeling step. Label-free biosensor devices are
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Modern diagnostic tools and immunoassay protocols urges direct analyte recognition based on its intrinsic behavior without using any labeling indicator. This not only improves the detection reliability, but also reduces sample preparation time and complexity involved during labeling step. Label-free biosensor devices are capable of monitoring analyte physiochemical properties such as binding sensitivity and selectivity, affinity constants and other dynamics of molecular recognition. The interface of a typical biosensor could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptors for example molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs). The foremost advantages of using MIPs are their high binding selectivity comparable to natural antibodies, straightforward synthesis in short time, high thermal/chemical stability and compatibility with different transducers. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonators are leading acoustic devices that are extensively used for mass-sensitive measurements. Highlight features of QCM devices include low cost fabrication, room temperature operation, and most importantly ability to monitor extremely low mass shifts, thus potentially a universal transducer. The combination of MIPs with quartz QCM has turned out as a prominent sensing system for label-free recognition of diverse bioanalytes. In this article, we shall encompass the potential applications of MIP-QCM sensors exclusively label-free recognition of bacteria and virus species as representative micro and nanosized bioanalytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle New Carrier Made from Glass Nanofibres for the Colorimetric Biosensor of Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020051
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used as pesticides in agriculture, but also form a group of organophosphates known as nerve chemical warfare agents. This calls for close attention regarding their detection, including the use of various biosensors. One such biosensor made in the Czech
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Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used as pesticides in agriculture, but also form a group of organophosphates known as nerve chemical warfare agents. This calls for close attention regarding their detection, including the use of various biosensors. One such biosensor made in the Czech Republic is the Detehit, which is based on a cholinesterase reaction that is assessed using a colour indicator—the Ellman’s reagent—which is anchored on cellulose filter paper together with the substrate. With the use of this biosensor, detection is simple, quick, and sensitive. However, its disadvantage is that a less pronounced yellow discoloration occurs, especially under difficult light conditions. As a possible solution, a new indicator/substrate carrier has been designed. It is made of glass nanofibres, so the physical characteristics of the carrier positively influence reaction conditions, and as a result improve the colour response of the biosensor. The authors present and discuss some of the results of the study of this carrier under various experimental conditions. These findings have been used for the development of a modified Detehit biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Limits to the Evaluation of the Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems by Clinical Trials
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020050
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are evolving quickly, and the data obtained are expected to become the basis for clinical decisions for many patients with diabetes in the near future. However, this requires that their analytical accuracy is sufficient. This accuracy is
[...] Read more.
Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are evolving quickly, and the data obtained are expected to become the basis for clinical decisions for many patients with diabetes in the near future. However, this requires that their analytical accuracy is sufficient. This accuracy is usually determined with clinical studies by comparing the data obtained by the given CGM system with blood glucose (BG) point measurements made with a so-called reference method. The latter is assumed to indicate the correct value of the target quantity. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the clinical trials and the approach used, such a comparison is subject to several effects which may lead to misleading results. While some reasons for the differences between the values obtained with CGM and BG point measurements are relatively well-known (e.g., measurement in different body compartments), others related to the clinical study protocols are less visible, but also quite important. In this review, we present a general picture of the topic as well as tools which allow to correct or at least to estimate the uncertainty of measures of CGM system performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Glucose Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Consistency of Continuous Ambulatory Interstitial Glucose Monitoring Sensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020049
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
Aims: The abdominal region is the most common location for continuous glucose monitor (CGM) sensor insertion. However, a paucity of post-marketing data is available to demonstrate intra-individual consistency of CGM readings at different abdominal insertion sites. Methods: Healthy adults (fasting glucose (FG) <
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Aims: The abdominal region is the most common location for continuous glucose monitor (CGM) sensor insertion. However, a paucity of post-marketing data is available to demonstrate intra-individual consistency of CGM readings at different abdominal insertion sites. Methods: Healthy adults (fasting glucose (FG) < 5.5 mmol/L; BMI < 30 kg/m2) were recruited and a CGM sensor was placed on each side of the abdomen. Postprandial and continuous 48-h interstitial glucose levels were analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in the 3-h postprandial glucose (PPG) level derived from the left versus right CGM, which remained non-significant after adjusting for waist circumference or FG. Among the glucose levels recorded over 48-h, values on the left site were greater in 3.6% of the data points (p < 0.05). After adjusting for waist circumference, only 0.5% of the glucose values remained significantly greater on the left (p < 0.05). When adjusted for FG, similar results were observed. For both PPG and 48-h readings, the mean absolute relative difference was not significant between the two abdominal sites. Conclusions: CGM-derived glucose measures were highly consistent between the left and right abdomen during both the postprandial and post-absorptive periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Glucose Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Breathing Pattern Interpretation as an Alternative and Effective Voice Communication Solution
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020048
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems tend to rely on the interpretation of purposeful gestures for interaction. Existing AAC methods could be cumbersome and limit the solutions in terms of versatility. The study aims to interpret breathing patterns (BPs) to converse with the
[...] Read more.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems tend to rely on the interpretation of purposeful gestures for interaction. Existing AAC methods could be cumbersome and limit the solutions in terms of versatility. The study aims to interpret breathing patterns (BPs) to converse with the outside world by means of a unidirectional microphone and researches breathing-pattern interpretation (BPI) to encode messages in an interactive manner with minimal training. We present BP processing work with (1) output synthesized machine-spoken words (SMSW) along with single-channel Weiner filtering (WF) for signal de-noising, and (2) k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification of BPs associated with embedded dynamic time warping (DTW). An approved protocol to collect analogue modulated BP sets belonging to 4 distinct classes with 10 training BPs per class and 5 live BPs per class was implemented with 23 healthy subjects. An 86% accuracy of k-NN classification was obtained with decreasing error rates of 17%, 14%, and 11% for the live classifications of classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The results express a systematic reliability of 89% with increased familiarity. The outcomes from the current AAC setup recommend a durable engineering solution directly beneficial to the sufferers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Polyphenol Oxidase Biosensor from Jenipapo Fruit Extract (Genipa americana L.) and Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Textile Industrial Effluents
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020047
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L.) fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according
[...] Read more.
In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L.) fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according to: the proportion of crude vegetal extract, pH and overall voltammetric parameters for differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration curve presented a linear interval from 10 to 310 µM (r2 = 0.9982) and a limit of detection of 7 µM. Biosensor stability was evaluated throughout 15 days, and it exhibited 88.22% of the initial response. The amount of catechol standard recovered post analysis varied between 87.50% and 96.00%. Moreover, the biosensor was able to detect phenolic compounds in a real sample, and the results were in accordance with standard spectrophotometric assays. Therefore, the innovatively-designed biosensor hereby proposed is a promising tool for phenolic compound detection and quantification when environmental contaminants are concerned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessReview In Vitro and In Vivo SERS Biosensing for Disease Diagnosis
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020046
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
For many disease states, positive outcomes are directly linked to early diagnosis, where therapeutic intervention would be most effective. Recently, trends in disease diagnosis have focused on the development of label-free sensing techniques that are sensitive to low analyte concentrations found in the
[...] Read more.
For many disease states, positive outcomes are directly linked to early diagnosis, where therapeutic intervention would be most effective. Recently, trends in disease diagnosis have focused on the development of label-free sensing techniques that are sensitive to low analyte concentrations found in the physiological environment. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy that allows for label-free, highly sensitive, and selective detection of analytes through the amplification of localized electric fields on the surface of a plasmonic material when excited with monochromatic light. This results in enhancement of the Raman scattering signal, which allows for the detection of low concentration analytes, giving rise to the use of SERS as a diagnostic tool for disease. Here, we present a review of recent developments in the field of in vivo and in vitro SERS biosensing for a range of disease states including neurological disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and viral disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SERS-Based Sensors: Design and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Droplet Velocity Measurement Based on Dielectric Layer Thickness Variation Using Digital Microfluidic Devices
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020045
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the number of interdisciplinary research works related to the development of miniaturized systems with integrated chemical and biological analyses is increasing. Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) are one kind of miniaturized systems designed for conducting inexpensive, fast, convenient and reliable biochemical
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the number of interdisciplinary research works related to the development of miniaturized systems with integrated chemical and biological analyses is increasing. Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) are one kind of miniaturized systems designed for conducting inexpensive, fast, convenient and reliable biochemical assay procedures focusing on basic scientific research and medical diagnostics. The role of a dielectric layer in the digital microfluidic biochips is prominent as it helps in actuating microliter droplets based on the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technique. The advantages of using three different material layers of dielectric such as parafilm, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) were reported in the current work. A simple fabrication process of a digital microfluidic device was performed and good results were obtained. The threshold of the actuation voltage was determined for all dielectric materials of varying thicknesses. Additionally, the OpenDrop device was tested by utilizing a single-plate system to transport microliter droplets for a bioassay operation. With the newly proposed fabrication methods, these dielectric materials showed changes in contact angle and droplet velocity when the actuation voltage was applied. The threshold actuation voltage for the dielectric layers of 10–13 μm was 190 V for the open plate DMFBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Sensor Access to the Cellular Microenvironment Using the Sensing Cell Culture Flask
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020044
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
The Sensing Cell Culture Flask (SCCF) is a cell culture monitoring system accessing the cellular microenvironment in 2D cell culture using electrochemical microsensors. The system is based on microfabricated sensor chips embedded in standard cell culture flasks. Ideally, the sensor chips could be
[...] Read more.
The Sensing Cell Culture Flask (SCCF) is a cell culture monitoring system accessing the cellular microenvironment in 2D cell culture using electrochemical microsensors. The system is based on microfabricated sensor chips embedded in standard cell culture flasks. Ideally, the sensor chips could be equipped with any electrochemical sensor. Its transparency allows optical inspection of the cells during measurement. The surface of the sensor chip is in-plane with the flask surface allowing undisturbed cell growth on the sensor chip. A custom developed rack system allows easy usage of multiple flasks in parallel within an incubator. The presented data demonstrates the application of the SCCF with brain tumor (T98G) and breast cancer (T-47D) cells. Amperometric oxygen sensors were used to monitor cellular respiration with different incubation conditions. Cellular acidification was accessed with potentiometric pH sensors using electrodeposited iridium oxide films. The system itself provides the foundation for electrochemical monitoring systems in 3D cell culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommentary Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Resource-Constrained Settings for Hypoglycaemia Detection: Looking at the Problem from the Other Side of the Coin
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020043
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
The appearance, over a decade ago, of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices has triggered a patient-centred revolution in the control and management of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic conditions, improving the patient’s glycaemic control and quality of life. Such devices, the use of
[...] Read more.
The appearance, over a decade ago, of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices has triggered a patient-centred revolution in the control and management of diabetes mellitus and other metabolic conditions, improving the patient’s glycaemic control and quality of life. Such devices, the use of which remains typically restricted to high-income countries on account of their elevated costs, at present show very limited implantation in resource-constrained settings, where many other urgent health priorities beyond diabetes prevention and management still need to be resolved. In this commentary, we argue that such devices could have an additional utility in low-income settings, whereby they could be selectively used among severely ill children admitted to hospital for closer monitoring of paediatric hypoglycaemia, a life-threatening condition often complicating severe cases of malaria, malnutrition, and other common paediatric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Glucose Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Biogenic Amines in Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020042
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA) are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the
[...] Read more.
In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA) are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity of 23.3 µA/mM, a lower detection limit of 11.6 µM, and a response time of 7.3 s, showing similar performance to biosensors constructed from analytical grade materials. We demonstrated the application of the biosensor by testing total BA concentration in fish paste samples subjected to fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Biogenic amines concentrations prior to lactic acid fermentation were below the detection limit of the biosensor, while concentration after fermentation was 19.24 ± 8.21 mg histamine/kg, confirming that the sensor was selective in a complex food matrix. The low-cost, rapid, and accurate device is a promising tool for biogenic amine estimation in food samples, particularly in situations where standard laboratory techniques are unavailable, or are cost prohibitive. This biosensor can be used for screening food samples, potentially limiting food waste, while reducing chances of foodborne outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Quality Monitoring)
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