Special Issue "Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Kevin C. Honeychurch

Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)117 32 87357
Interests: screen-printed electrodes; electrochemical sensors; biosensors; biomedicine; agri-food; environmental analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Martina Piano

Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology (IBST), University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)117 32 84597
Interests: biosensors; environmental analysis; microfluidics; antibodies; magnetic beads; enzyme stabilisation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The complexity of the environment offers a number of analytical challenges; challenges that need to be met if we are to be able to provide clean drinking water and food, as well as to safeguard environmental quality for ourselves and future generations. Presently, many monitoring regimes are focused on the collection of samples and their subsequent analyses at a centralised laboratory; systems, which, by their nature, have an inherent lag-time, utilise expensive instrumentation, and require highly-trained staff for their implementation. The application of electrochemical sensors and biosensors has shown the possibility of economic, rapid, and decentralised testing of complex samples, carried out by relatively untrained individuals at the point-of-need. Analyses of food and the environment offer large potential markets and opportunities for these devices; however, there are a number of both technical and commercial issues that need to be addressed before these devices can have a significant role.

The aim of this Special Issue of Biosensors, “Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses” is to report recent developments and advances in sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. Its objective is to collect a series of articles which show the developments and applications of both electrochemical sensors and biosensors in this area. It is envisaged that this will cover a wide range of areas; including electrochemical sensors employing both classical and advanced electrochemical techniques, electrochemical biosensors based on enzymes, antibodies, DNA, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers and the application of nanotechnology in the forms of reviews, communications, and academic articles.

Dr. Kevin C. Honeychurch
Dr. Martina Piano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Electrochemical Area of Screen-Printed Electrochemical Sensing Platforms
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020053
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract
Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which
[...] Read more.
Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which allows for the benchmarking of these SPEs and is an important parameter in quality control. In this paper, we consider the use of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry to allow for the determination of the real electrochemical area of screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, highlighting to experimentalists the various parameters that need to be diligently considered and controlled in order to obtain useful measurements of the real electroactive area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessArticle A Nanostructured Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Nafion for Determination of Uric Acid
Biosensors 2018, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8010021
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper discusses the mechanism of uric acid (UA) electrooxidation occurring on the surface of gold nanoparticles. It has been shown that the electrode process is purely electrochemical, uncomplicated with catalytic stages. The nanoeffects observed as the reduction of overvoltage and increased current
[...] Read more.
The paper discusses the mechanism of uric acid (UA) electrooxidation occurring on the surface of gold nanoparticles. It has been shown that the electrode process is purely electrochemical, uncomplicated with catalytic stages. The nanoeffects observed as the reduction of overvoltage and increased current of UA oxidation have been described. These nanoeffects are determined by the size of particles and do not depend on the method of particle preparation (citrate and “green” synthesis). The findings of these studies have been used to select a modifier for carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE). It has been stated that CSPE modified with gold nanoparticles (5 nm) and 2.5% Nafion (Nf) may serve as non-enzymatic sensor for UA determination. The combination of the properties of nanoparticles and Nafion as a molecular sieve at the selected pH 5 phosphate buffer solution has significantly improved the resolution of the sensor compared to unmodified CSPE. A nanostructured sensor has demonstrated good selectivity in determining UA in the presence of ascorbic acid. The detection limit of UA is 0.25 μM. A linear calibration curve has been obtained over a range of 0.5–600 μM. The 2.5%Nf/Au(5nm)/CSPE has been successfully applied to determining UA in blood serum and milk samples. The accuracy and reliability of the obtained results have been confirmed by a good correlation with the enzymatic spectrophotometric analysis (R2 = 0.9938) and the “added−found” technique (recovery close to 100%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessArticle An Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensor for 3-Hydroxybutyrate Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified by Reduced Graphene Oxide and Thionine
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040050
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO) and thionine (THI) is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD+ cofactor,
[...] Read more.
A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO) and thionine (THI) is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD+ cofactor, the generated NADH could be detected amperometrically at 0.0 V vs. Ag pseudo reference electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a calibration plot for 3-HB was constructed showing a wide linear range between 0.010 and 0.400 mM 3-HB which covers the clinically relevant levels for diluted serum samples. In addition, a limit of detection of 1.0 µM, much lower than that reported using other biosensors, was achieved. The analytical usefulness of the developed biosensor was demonstrated via application to spiked serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sensors Based on Bio and Biomimetic Receptors in Medical Diagnostic, Environment, and Food Analysis
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020035
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Analytical chemistry is now developing mainly in two areas: automation and the creation of complexes that allow, on the one hand, for simultaneously analyzing a large number of samples without the participation of an operator, and on the other, the development of portable
[...] Read more.
Analytical chemistry is now developing mainly in two areas: automation and the creation of complexes that allow, on the one hand, for simultaneously analyzing a large number of samples without the participation of an operator, and on the other, the development of portable miniature devices for personalized medicine and the monitoring of a human habitat. The sensor devices, the great majority of which are biosensors and chemical sensors, perform the role of the latter. That last line is considered in the proposed review. Attention is paid to transducers, receptors, techniques of immobilization of the receptor layer on the transducer surface, processes of signal generation and detection, and methods for increasing sensitivity and accuracy. The features of sensors based on synthetic receptors and additional components (aptamers, molecular imprinted polymers, biomimetics) are discussed. Examples of bio- and chemical sensors’ application are given. Miniaturization paths, new power supply means, and wearable and printed sensors are described. Progress in this area opens a revolutionary era in the development of methods of on-site and in-situ monitoring, that is, paving the way from the “test-tube to the smartphone”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessReview Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020029
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision
[...] Read more.
The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio)-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessReview Electrochemical Aptasensors for Food and Environmental Safeguarding: A Review
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020028
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Food and environmental monitoring is one of the most important aspects of dealing with recent threats to human well-being and ecosystems. In this framework, electrochemical aptamer-based sensors are resilient due to their ability to resolve food and environmental contamination. An aptamer-based sensor is
[...] Read more.
Food and environmental monitoring is one of the most important aspects of dealing with recent threats to human well-being and ecosystems. In this framework, electrochemical aptamer-based sensors are resilient due to their ability to resolve food and environmental contamination. An aptamer-based sensor is a compact analytical device combining an aptamer as the bio-sensing element integrated on the transducer surface. Aptamers display many advantages as biorecognition elements in sensor development when compared to affinity-based (antibodies) sensors. Aptasensors are small, chemically unchanging, and inexpensive. Moreover, they offer extraordinary elasticity and expediency in the design of their assemblies, which has led to innovative sensors that show tremendous sensitivity and selectivity. This review will emphasize recent food and environmental safeguarding using aptasensors; there are good prospects for their performance as a supplement to classical techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessReview Advances in Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Pesticide Detection
Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020027
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
PDF Full-text (14807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intensive use of toxic and remanent pesticides in agriculture has prompted research into novel performant, yet cost-effective and fast analytical tools to control the pesticide residue levels in the environment and food. In this context, biosensors based on enzyme inhibition have been
[...] Read more.
The intensive use of toxic and remanent pesticides in agriculture has prompted research into novel performant, yet cost-effective and fast analytical tools to control the pesticide residue levels in the environment and food. In this context, biosensors based on enzyme inhibition have been proposed as adequate analytical devices with the added advantage of using the toxicity of pesticides for detection purposes, being more “biologically relevant” than standard chromatographic methods. This review proposes an overview of recent advances in the development of biosensors exploiting the inhibition of cholinesterases, photosynthetic system II, alkaline phosphatase, cytochrome P450A1, peroxidase, tyrosinase, laccase, urease, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. While various strategies have been employed to detect pesticides from different classes (organophosphates, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, triazines, phenylureas, diazines, or phenols), the number of practical applications and the variety of environmental and food samples tested remains limited. Recent advances focus on enhancing the sensitivity and selectivity by using nanomaterials in the sensor assembly and novel mutant enzymes in array-type sensor formats in combination with chemometric methods for data analysis. The progress in the development of solar cells enriched the possibilities for efficient wiring of photosynthetic enzymes on different surfaces, opening new avenues for development of biosensors for photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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