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Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020048

Breathing Pattern Interpretation as an Alternative and Effective Voice Communication Solution

1
Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical, and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
2
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, LE3 9QP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Abstract

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems tend to rely on the interpretation of purposeful gestures for interaction. Existing AAC methods could be cumbersome and limit the solutions in terms of versatility. The study aims to interpret breathing patterns (BPs) to converse with the outside world by means of a unidirectional microphone and researches breathing-pattern interpretation (BPI) to encode messages in an interactive manner with minimal training. We present BP processing work with (1) output synthesized machine-spoken words (SMSW) along with single-channel Weiner filtering (WF) for signal de-noising, and (2) k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification of BPs associated with embedded dynamic time warping (DTW). An approved protocol to collect analogue modulated BP sets belonging to 4 distinct classes with 10 training BPs per class and 5 live BPs per class was implemented with 23 healthy subjects. An 86% accuracy of k-NN classification was obtained with decreasing error rates of 17%, 14%, and 11% for the live classifications of classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The results express a systematic reliability of 89% with increased familiarity. The outcomes from the current AAC setup recommend a durable engineering solution directly beneficial to the sufferers. View Full-Text
Keywords: breathing interpretation; alternative and augmentative communication; acoustic sensors; pattern classification; voice communication breathing interpretation; alternative and augmentative communication; acoustic sensors; pattern classification; voice communication
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Elsahar, Y.; Bouazza-Marouf, K.; Kerr, D.; Gaur, A.; Kaushik, V.; Hu, S. Breathing Pattern Interpretation as an Alternative and Effective Voice Communication Solution. Biosensors 2018, 8, 48.

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