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Metals, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Digestion of Alumina from Non-Magnetic Material Obtained from Magnetic Separation of Reduced Iron-Rich Diasporic Bauxite with Sodium Salts
Metals 2016, 6(11), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110294
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
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Abstract
Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by
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Recovery of iron from iron-rich diasporic bauxite ore via reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation has been explored recently. However, the efficiency of alumina extraction in the non-magnetic materials is absent. In this paper, a further study on the digestion of alumina by the Bayer process from non-magnetic material obtained after magnetic separation of reduced iron-rich diasporic bauxite with sodium salts was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of sodium salts can destroy the original occurrences of iron-, aluminum- and silicon-containing minerals of bauxite ore during reductive roasting. Meanwhile, the reactions of sodium salts with complex aluminum- and silicon-bearing phases generate diaoyudaoite and sodium aluminosilicate. The separation of iron via reductive roasting of bauxite ore with sodium salts followed by magnetic separation improves alumina digestion in the Bayer process. When the alumina-bearing material in bauxite ore is converted into non-magnetic material, the digestion temperature decreases significantly from 280 °C to 240 °C with a nearly 99% relative digestion ratio of alumina. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) wt. %Cr Alloys at 700–800 °C in (N2, H2O, H2S)-Mixed Gas
Metals 2016, 6(11), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110291
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
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Abstract
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H
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Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas. In this gas composition order, the corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy rapidly increased. Fe-9Cr alloy was always non-protective. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt. %Cr alloys were protective in N2 and N2/3.2%H2O mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr2O3 layer. They, however, became nonprotective in N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S mixed gas because sulfidation dominated to form the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr2S3 layer containing some FeCr2S4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alloy Steels) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface Texturing on Stresses during Rapid Changes in Temperature
Metals 2016, 6(11), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110290
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
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Abstract
Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure.
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Recently, there has been great interest in the application of the surface texturing method to enhance material surface performance. Material surfaces sometimes experience rapid temperature changes, and the local surface will obviously generate thermal stresses, which may be detrimental to the material structure. In order to understand the relationship between surface texturing and stresses, a numerical approach is used to investigate the effects of surface texturing on stresses. The results show that surface texturing can generate compressive stresses along the normal direction of the surface, and that strong tensional stresses can be formed in the center of a surface at the same time that are beneficial to material surface performance. However, a smooth surface cannot generate these beneficial stresses. In addition, there is an optimum design size with respect to textures, and the most desirable state of stress in a surface layer can be achieved at this size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Pre-Fatigue on the Monotonic Deformation Behavior of a Coplanar Double-Slip-Oriented Cu Single Crystal
Metals 2016, 6(11), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110293
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
The [2¯33] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2
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The [ 2 ¯ 33 ] coplanar double-slip-oriented Cu single crystals were pre-fatigued up to a saturation stage and then uniaxially tensioned or compressed to fracture. The results show that for the specimen pre-fatigued at a plastic strain amplitude γpl of 9.2 × 104, which is located within the quasi-plateau of the cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve, its tensile strength and elongation are coincidently improved, showing an obvious strengthening effect by low-cycle fatigue (LCF) training. However, for the crystal specimens pre-fatigued at a γpl lower or higher than the quasi-plateau region, due to a low pre-cyclic hardening or the pre-induction of fatigue damage, no marked strengthening effect by LCF training occurs, and even a weakening effect by LCF damage takes place instead. In contrast, the effect of pre-fatigue deformation on the uniaxial compressive behavior is not so significant, since the compressive deformation is in a stress state more beneficial to the ongoing plastic deformation and it is insensitive to the damage induced by pre-cycling. Based on the observations and comparisons of deformation features and dislocation structures in the uniaxially deformed [ 2 ¯ 33 ] crystal specimens which have been pre-fatigued at different γpl, the micro-mechanisms for the effect of pre-fatigue on the static mechanical behavior are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue Damage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Residual Stress Distribution and Microstructure Evolution of AA 6061-T6 Treated by Warm Laser Peening
Metals 2016, 6(11), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110292
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and
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The aim of this paper is to study the effects of laser peening (LP) on the residual stress distribution and microstructure evolution of AA 6061-T6 under different temperatures. A laser peening experiment was conducted on the square-shape samples by using single spot and 50% overlap shock. Three-dimensional surface morphologies of treated samples were observed. The influence of peening temperature on the distribution of compressive residual stress was analyzed. An optical microscope (OM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to observe the microstructure evolution of the samples before and after LP. The results indicate that, as the peening temperature increases, the micro-hardness increases first and then decreases. The LP process induces high-amplitude compressive residual stress on the surface at different temperatures even if the compressive residual stress slightly reduces with increases in temperature. The maximum compressive residual stress affected layer depth is about 0.67 mm, appearing at a temperature of 160 °C. The OM test revealed that the grain size was significantly decreased after warm laser peening (WLP) and that the average value of grain size was reduced by 50%. The TEM test shows that more dislocation tangles were produced in AA 6061-T6 after WLP; compared to the LP process, the precipitate-dislocation interaction can benefit both strength and ductility for AA 6061-T6, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Shock Processing on Metal)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Containing Carbon Nanotubes
Metals 2016, 6(11), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110289
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT
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The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT) particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT particles. Changes in glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tx) suggest that deviations in the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix occurred because of a partial dissolution of the CNT species into the amorphous phase. Although the hardness of CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composites is increased with the addition of CNT particles, the wear resistance of such composites is not directly proportional to their hardness, and does not follow the standard wear law. A worn surface under a high applied load shows that the 12 vol. % CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composite suffers severe wear compared with monolithic Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Alloying)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Ultrafast Heating in Cold-Rolled Low Carbon Steel: Recrystallization and Texture Evolution
Metals 2016, 6(11), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110288
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
The microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled low carbon steel after ultrafast heating and quenching is investigated. Experiments were carried out at heating rates of 150 °C/s and 1500 °C/s. The recrystallization of ferrite is studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered
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The microstructure and texture evolution of cold-rolled low carbon steel after ultrafast heating and quenching is investigated. Experiments were carried out at heating rates of 150 °C/s and 1500 °C/s. The recrystallization of ferrite is studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques. The texture evolution of cold rolled steel during ultrafast heating was studied, making it possible to estimate the precise effect of heating rate on the orientations of newly formed grains. The experimental results showed that the recrystallization of ferrite was not completed before the full transformation of austenite. The noticeable increase in the fraction of recrystallized grains of diameter less than 1 µm, when the heating rate is increased from 150 °C/s to 1500 °C/s suggests that the increase of the heating rate enhances the nucleation of ferrite. The crystallographic orientations in recrystallized ferrite are strongly influenced by the heating rates. The effect of heating rate in the releasing of stored energy, carbon diffusion and spheroidization of cementite might explain some differences in textures observed in recrystallized ferrite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Tantalum Recycling by Electron Beam Melting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110287
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms
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Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM) is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms for electron beam (EB) refining of Ta are discussed. For the performed experiments the best purification of Ta (99.96) is obtained at 21.6 kW beam power for a melting time of 3 min. A statistical approach is applied for estimation of the material losses and the liquid pool characteristics based on experimentally-obtained data. The aim is to improve the EBM and choosing optimal process conditions, depending on the concrete characteristic requirements. Model-based quality optimization of electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) processes of Ta is considered related to the optimization of the molten pool parameters, connected to the occurring refining processes, and to minimal material losses. Optimization of the process of EBM of Ta is based on overall criteria, giving compromised solutions, depending on the requirements concerning the quality of the performed products. The accumulated data, the obtained results, and the optimization statistical approach allow us to formulate requirements on the process parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Selective Laser Melting on the Formation of In situ Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Aluminum-Based Composites
Metals 2016, 6(11), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110286
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase
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This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the phase and microstructure, the thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool, and the growth mechanism of in situ oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) aluminum-based composites processed by a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing/3D printing process. The phase and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with EDX, respectively. The thermodynamic behavior within the molten pool was investigated for a comprehensive understanding on the growth mechanism of the SLM-processed composite using a finite volume method (FVM). The results revealed that the in situ Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites were successfully fabricated by SLM. Combined with the XRD spectrum and EDX analysis, the new silica-rich Al2Si4O10 reinforcing phase was identified, which was dispersed around the grain boundaries of the aluminum matrix under a reasonable laser power of 200 W. Combined with the activity of Marangoni convection and repulsion forces, the characteristic microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites tended to transfer from the irregular network structure to the nearly sphere-like network structure in regular form by increasing the laser power. The formation mechanism of the microstructure of SLM-processed Al2Si4O10 ODS Al-based composites is thoroughly discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of a Weldment of 7% Nickel Alloy Steels
Metals 2016, 6(11), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110285
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
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Abstract
During the last decade, the demand for natural gas has steadily increased for the prevention of environmental pollution. For this reason, many liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been manufactured. Since one of the most important issues in the design of LNG carriers
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During the last decade, the demand for natural gas has steadily increased for the prevention of environmental pollution. For this reason, many liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been manufactured. Since one of the most important issues in the design of LNG carriers is to guarantee structural safety, the use of low-temperature materials is increasing. Among commonly employed low-temperature materials, nickel steel has many benefits such as good strength and outstanding corrosion resistance. Accordingly, nickel steels are one of the most commonly used low-temperature steels for LNG storage tanks. However, the study of fracture toughness with various welding consumables of 7% nickel alloy steel is insufficient for ensuring the structural safety of LNG storage tanks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness of several different weldments for 7% nickel alloy steels. The weldment of 7% nickel alloy steel was fabricated by tungsten inert gas (TIG), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). In order to assess the material performance of the weldments at low temperature, fracture toughness such as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and the absorbed impact energy of weldments were compared with those of 9% nickel steel weldments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Microstructure and Wear Properties of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V Parts: A Comparison Study against As-Cast Form
Metals 2016, 6(11), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110284
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM) by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using
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Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts of varying thicknesses were additively manufactured (AM) by the powder-bed-based electron beam melting (EBM) technique. Microstructure and wear properties of these EBM-built Ti-6Al-4V parts have been investigated in comparison with conventionally cast Ti64 samples. Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc micro-tribometer under ambient conditions. Experimental results reveal that EBM-built Ti64 samples exhibited higher microhardness and an overall larger coefficient of friction as compared to the as-cast counterpart. Of interest is that the corresponding specific wear volumes were lower for EBM-built Ti64 samples, while the as-cast Ti64 showed the poorest wear resistance despite its lower coefficient of friction. Wear mechanisms were provided in terms of quantitative microstructural characterization and detailed analysis on coefficient of friction (COF) curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Weldability of Ductile Cast Iron Using Inconel 625 for the Root Weld and Electrodes Coated in 97.6% Nickel for the Filler Welds
Metals 2016, 6(11), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110283
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
This article examines the weldability of ductile cast iron when the root weld is applied with a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process employing an Inconel 625 source rod, and when the filler welds are applied with electrodes coated with 97.6% Ni. The
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This article examines the weldability of ductile cast iron when the root weld is applied with a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process employing an Inconel 625 source rod, and when the filler welds are applied with electrodes coated with 97.6% Ni. The welds were performed on ductile cast iron specimen test plates sized 300 mm × 90 mm × 10 mm with edges tapered at angles of 60°. The plates were subjected to two heat treatments. This article analyzes the influence on weldability of the various types of electrodes and the effect of preheat treatments. Finally, a microstructure analysis is made of the material next to the weld in the metal-weld interface and in the weld itself. The microstructure produced is correlated with the strength of the welds. We treat an alloy with 97.6% Ni, which prevents the formation of carbides. With a heat treatment at 900 °C and 97.6% Ni, there is a dissolution of all carbides, forming nodules in ferritic matrix graphite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Separation of Rhenium from Lead-Rich Molybdenite Concentrate via Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Followed by Oxidative Roasting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110282
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
Lead-rich molybdenite is a typical rhenium-bearing molybdenum resource in China, which has not been efficiently utilized due to its high contents of lead and gangue minerals. In this study, hydrochloric acid was used for preliminarily removing lead and calcite from a lead-rich molybdenite
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Lead-rich molybdenite is a typical rhenium-bearing molybdenum resource in China, which has not been efficiently utilized due to its high contents of lead and gangue minerals. In this study, hydrochloric acid was used for preliminarily removing lead and calcite from a lead-rich molybdenite concentrate. Oxidative roasting-ammonia leaching was then carried out for separation of rhenium and extraction of molybdenum. The hydrochloric acid leaching experiments revealed that 93.6% Pb and 97.4% Ca were removed when the leaching was performed at 95 °C for 10 min with HCl concentration of 8 wt. % and liquid-solid ratio of 5 (mL/g). The results of direct oxidative roasting indicated that 89.3% rhenium was volatilized from the raw concentrate after roasting at 600 °C for 120 min in air. In contrast, the rhenium volatilization was enhanced distinctly to 98.0% after the acid-leached concentrate (leaching residue) was roasted at 550 °C for 100 min. By the subsequent ammonia leaching, 91.5% molybdenum was leached out from the calcine produced from oxidative roasting of the acid-leached concentrate, while only 79.3% Mo was leached from the calcine produced by roasting molybdenite concentrate without pretreatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Current Values on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Steels Joined by the Submerged Arc Welding Method
Metals 2016, 6(11), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110281
Received: 23 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
In this study, microalloyed steels were joined by using the submerged arc welding method at different welding currents of 350 A, 400 A and 450 A. The effects of selected welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded materials were investigated.
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In this study, microalloyed steels were joined by using the submerged arc welding method at different welding currents of 350 A, 400 A and 450 A. The effects of selected welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded materials were investigated. Tensile tests and microhardness measurements were performed. Microstructural changes have been identified in the welding zone. The results showed an increase in hardness and tensile strength depending on the current intensity. The heat affected zone was observed much wider with the increase in welding current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICWET16)
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Open AccessArticle A Lightweight Structure Redesign Method Based on Selective Laser Melting
Metals 2016, 6(11), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/met6110280
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts
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The purpose of this paper is to present a new design method of lightweight parts fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) based on the “Skin-Frame” and to explore the influence of fabrication defects on SLM parts with different sizes. Some standard lattice parts were designed according to the Chinese GB/T 1452-2005 standard and manufactured by SLM. Then these samples were tested in an MTS Insight 30 compression testing machine to study the trends of the yield process with different structure sizes. A set of standard cylinder samples were also designed according to the Chinese GB/T 228-2010 standard. These samples, which were made of iron-nickel alloy (IN718), were also processed by SLM, and then tested in the universal material testing machine INSTRON 1346 to obtain their tensile strength. Furthermore, a lightweight redesigned method was researched. Then some common parts such as a stopper and connecting plate were redesigned using this method. These redesigned parts were fabricated and some application tests have already been performed. The compression testing results show that when the minimum structure size is larger than 1.5 mm, the mechanical characteristics will hardly be affected by process defects. The cylinder parts were fractured by the universal material testing machine at about 1069.6 MPa. These redesigned parts worked well in application tests, with both the weight and fabrication time of these parts reduced more than 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metals) Printed Edition available
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