Special Issue "Selected Papers from the International Committee for Study of Bauxite, Alumina&Aluminium 2015"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Houshang Alamdari

Aluminium Research Centre - REGAL, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Solid Mechanics ; Numerical Methods; Finite Element Method and XFEM; Thermo-electro-mechanical Contact; Multi-physic Modelling ; Thermodynamic of irreversible processes applied to porous medium; thermo-mechanical behaviour of refractory materials; Hall-Héroult process

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aluminum, with 50 Mt in annual production, is as an essential material in modern engineering designs. Due to its remarkable properties, e.g., lightness, ease of forming, and recyclability, it is considered as the flag-bearer for green designs in transportation, architectural, and structural applications. The production process of this metal is, however, not free of environmental and technological challenges. Alumina is refined by the Bayer process, followed by aluminum electrolysis using the Hall-Héroult process, making this chain process as one of the most energy-intensive ones, with considerable residues and GHG footprint. The industry is, thus, continuously looking for a way to increase process efficiency and decrease its environmental impact. Having this objective in mind, major producers, as well as scientists, gather once a year during the ICSOBA event (http://www.icsoba.org/) in order to share their preoccupations, challenges, and possible solutions. This Special Issue is set to publish selected works presented at this event, in order to share recent progress and new achievements in this emerging field with broader scientific and industrial communities.

Dr. Houshang Alamdari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bauxite
  • alumina
  • aluminium smelting
  • red-mud
  • energy efficiency
  • carbon anode
  • electrolysis
  • cryolite
  • petroleum coke
  • coal-tar pitch

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Aluminium Production Process: Challenges and Opportunities
Metals 2017, 7(4), 133; doi:10.3390/met7040133
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminium, with more than 50 Mt annual production in 2016, is an essential material in modern engineering designs of lightweight structures.[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Crack Detection Method Applied to 3D Computed Tomography Images of Baked Carbon Anodes
Metals 2016, 6(11), 272; doi:10.3390/met6110272
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon anodes used in the aluminium industry were imaged through destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. For the latter case, computed tomography (CT), which has previously been used to map the 3D apparent density distribution, was extended to crack detection. Previous work has
[...] Read more.
Carbon anodes used in the aluminium industry were imaged through destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. For the latter case, computed tomography (CT), which has previously been used to map the 3D apparent density distribution, was extended to crack detection. Previous work has shown how to overcome technical hurdles related to crack detection by using percolation-based algorithms operating on low-resolution images of full-scale baked carbon anodes. The previous application to 2D images was extended here to the 3D case. The crack detection algorithm has been performed on anode slices containing several independent macro cracks with different morphologies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Potential of Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Baked Carbon Anodes
Metals 2016, 6(7), 151; doi:10.3390/met6070151
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High quality baked carbon anodes contribute to the optimal performance of aluminum reduction cells. However, the currently decreasing quality and increasing variability of anode raw materials (coke and pitch) make it challenging to manufacture the anodes with consistent overall quality. Intercepting faulty anodes
[...] Read more.
High quality baked carbon anodes contribute to the optimal performance of aluminum reduction cells. However, the currently decreasing quality and increasing variability of anode raw materials (coke and pitch) make it challenging to manufacture the anodes with consistent overall quality. Intercepting faulty anodes (e.g., presence of cracks and pores) before they are set in reduction cells and deteriorate their performance is therefore important. This is a difficult task, even in modern and well-instrumented anode plants, because lab testing using core samples can only characterize a small proportion of the anode production due to the costly, time-consuming, and destructive nature of the analytical methods. In addition, these results are not necessarily representative of the whole anode block. The objective of this work is to develop a rapid and non-destructive method for quality control of baked anodes using acousto-ultrasonic (AU) techniques. The acoustic responses of anode samples (sliced sections) were analyzed using a combination of temporal features computed from AU signals and principal component analysis (PCA). The AU signals were found sensitive to pores and cracks and were able to discriminate the two types of defects. The results were validated qualitatively by submitting the samples to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan). Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption
Metals 2016, 6(6), 128; doi:10.3390/met6060128
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing
[...] Read more.
Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA) Al Taweelah) was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption. Full article
Open AccessArticle Performances of Green and Eco-Friendly Ramming Pastes in EGA Pots
Metals 2016, 6(5), 112; doi:10.3390/met6050112
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consistent and high quality ramming paste products, installed according to optimized procedures, are required for improved operation and longer pot life. However, ramming paste used to be a hazardous product and needs special precautions for handling and application. A 100% eco-friendly cold ramming
[...] Read more.
Consistent and high quality ramming paste products, installed according to optimized procedures, are required for improved operation and longer pot life. However, ramming paste used to be a hazardous product and needs special precautions for handling and application. A 100% eco-friendly cold ramming paste has been developed by Carbone Savoie and tested at Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA) sites. A test has also been developed by Carbone Savoie to follow-up, identify and quantify emissions during the baking of paste up to 1000 °C. Physico-chemical characteristics of various pastes are presented, together with their composition in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), determined by an accredited laboratory and the results of emissions during paste baking. The results of pot operation at the EGA sites show no harmful impact on pot preheat, early operation, or regular operation performance. Pot performance data are given for comparison. The new paste offers a green and clean alternative to harsh chemicals typically associated with the industry. Full article
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