Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Water 2013, 5(3), 1211-1225; doi:10.3390/w5031211
Article

Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

1
, 1
, 1,*  and 2
Received: 31 May 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Download PDF [1721 KB, uploaded 12 August 2013]
Abstract: Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API) manufacturing standards of pumps.
Keywords: pump as turbine (PAT); water distribution networks; Variable Operating Strategy (VOS); PAT hydraulic regulation; PAT electrical regulation; effectiveness pump as turbine (PAT); water distribution networks; Variable Operating Strategy (VOS); PAT hydraulic regulation; PAT electrical regulation; effectiveness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Carravetta, A.; Del Giudice, G.; Fecarotta, O.; Ramos, H.M. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water 2013, 5, 1211-1225.

AMA Style

Carravetta A, Del Giudice G, Fecarotta O, Ramos HM. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water. 2013; 5(3):1211-1225.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carravetta, Armando; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Fecarotta, Oreste; Ramos, Helena M. 2013. "Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness." Water 5, no. 3: 1211-1225.


Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert