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Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness†
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Universit'a di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio, 21, Napoli 80125, Italy
Department of Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, Lisboa 1049-01, Portugal
† The work was supported by the funds of the research project MIUR PRIN 2010-2011 Energia idroelettrica da osmosi in ambiente costiero – Hydrocar (CUP E61J12000210001)
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Abstract: Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API) manufacturing standards of pumps.
Keywords: pump as turbine (PAT); water distribution networks; Variable Operating Strategy (VOS); PAT hydraulic regulation; PAT electrical regulation; effectiveness
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MDPI and ACS Style
Carravetta, A.; Del Giudice, G.; Fecarotta, O.; Ramos, H.M. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water 2013, 5, 1211-1225.
Carravetta A, Del Giudice G, Fecarotta O, Ramos HM. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness. Water. 2013; 5(3):1211-1225.
Carravetta, Armando; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Fecarotta, Oreste; Ramos, Helena M. 2013. "Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness." Water 5, no. 3: 1211-1225.