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Water 2013, 5(3), 1006-1035; doi:10.3390/w5031006
Article

Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

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Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
Download PDF [457 KB, uploaded 8 July 2013]
Abstract: Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.
Keywords: centralized sanitation; source-separation-based sanitation; energy balance; water balance; nutrient recovery; chemical use; effluent quality; land area requirement centralized sanitation; source-separation-based sanitation; energy balance; water balance; nutrient recovery; chemical use; effluent quality; land area requirement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tervahauta, T.; Hoang, T.; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study. Water 2013, 5, 1006-1035.

AMA Style

Tervahauta T, Hoang T, Hernández L, Zeeman G, Buisman C. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study. Water. 2013; 5(3):1006-1035.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tervahauta, Taina; Hoang, Trang; Hernández, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees. 2013. "Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study." Water 5, no. 3: 1006-1035.


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