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Special Issue "Analytical Chemistry of Water"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maria Filomena Camões

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa Universidade de Lisboa C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +352 21 7500008
Interests: electroanalytical and environmental chemistry: ionic solutions, pH and acidity; potentiometric analysis; ion chromatography; seawater, coastal waters and low ionic strength aqueous solutions; air-water interfaces and exchanges; metrology in analytical chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water, H2O, the most abundant substance on the Earth’s surface and the only one to be naturally present in all three physical states, solid, liquid and gas, moves continuously through the hydrological cycle and covers more than 70 % of its surface, the reason why the planet is known as the Blue Planet. Water is decisive in terms of climate regulator. Water is the main component of the human body and it is essential for all forms of life. Water is used in almost every industrial process. More than 97% is salty and forms the oceans. The remaining less than 3% is fresh water, but most of it is frozen or, although liquid, it is trapped as ground water. Only 0.014% is readily accessible in lakes, streams and rivers.  Water dissolves, to smaller or bigger extent, most substances it contacts with, being often mentioned as a universal solvent. What is usually called “water” is in fact some aqueous mixture, solution or suspension. This makes it difficult to find water with a degree of purity adequate to most uses that Man needs it for. Although drinking water is not necessarily the most demanding use in terms of purity, this is the one people seem to be more sensitive to.  The variety and concentration of chemical species in the aquatic systems can be quite diversified, presenting a challenge in terms of both purification strategies and quality control. Water plays an important role in the world economy, its quality being regulated by national and international legislation.

This special issue will compile review articles and recent research focusing on a selection of representative topics pertaining to analytical chemistry of aqueous solutions, some of which are quite emerging issues.

Dr. Maria Filomena Camões
Guest Editor


Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Polydimethylsiloxane Rods for the Passive Sampling of Pesticides in Surface Waters
Water 2013, 5(3), 1366-1379; doi:10.3390/w5031366
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the low cost synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods is described, and the performances of this new passive sampling device (in laboratory and in situ) are compared to the passive stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) for the monitoring of pesticides
[...] Read more.
In this work, the low cost synthesis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rods is described, and the performances of this new passive sampling device (in laboratory and in situ) are compared to the passive stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) for the monitoring of pesticides from different classes (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) in surface waters. The influence of synthesis parameters of PDMS rods (i.e., heating temperature, heating time and relative amount of curing agent) were assessed regarding their efficiency for the extraction of the target pesticides through a Hadamard’s experimental design. This allowed the determination of the effect of the three parameters on the sorption of pesticides within four experiments. Thus, specific conditions were selected for the synthesis of the PDMS rods (heating at 80 °C for 2 h with 10% of curing agent). Laboratory experiments led to similar to lower extraction recovery in the PDMS rods in comparison with passive SBSE, depending on the pesticide. The in situ application demonstrated the efficiency of the PDMS rods for the passive sampling of the target pesticides in river water, although lower amounts of pesticides were recovered in comparison with passive SBSE. So, these very low cost PDMS rods could be used as an alternative to passive SBSE for large-scale monitoring campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Open AccessArticle Setting Target Measurement Uncertainty in Water Analysis
Water 2013, 5(3), 1279-1302; doi:10.3390/w5031279
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water is the most frequently and thoroughly characterised product due to the impact of the chemical composition of water of different sources or destinations on public health and on economy. The adequacy of water characterisation relies on measurement quality, which is a function
[...] Read more.
Water is the most frequently and thoroughly characterised product due to the impact of the chemical composition of water of different sources or destinations on public health and on economy. The adequacy of water characterisation relies on measurement quality, which is a function of measurement traceability and uncertainty. In some analytical fields, target values of measurement performance parameters are set to ensure that the measurements quality is fit for the intended use. Nevertheless, frequently, these performance parameters do not allow the control of the magnitude of relevant components of measurement uncertainty. This work discusses the need for assessing fitness of the measurement for its intended use through the magnitude of uncertainty associated to the measurement value. The way this evaluation should be performed, when no guidelines are available, is also suggested. Target values of relevant performance parameters, results of interlaboratory tests, or the magnitude of trends of the measured quantity, are some types of information useful to define the maximum admissible uncertainty, i.e., target uncertainty. The information and algorithms used to define the target uncertainty are presented from the most suitable to the less likely to produce consensual values. Calculations are illustrated with application examples of different analytical fields. In this work, the way in which variability of uncertainty evaluation is taken into account when comparing estimated with target uncertainty is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Determination of Perchlorate in Bottled Water from Italy
Water 2013, 5(2), 767-779; doi:10.3390/w5020767
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 31 May 2013 / Published: 13 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence
[...] Read more.
Perchlorate is regarded as an emerging persistent inorganic contaminant. It is widely known that perchlorate is an endocrine disruptor as it competitively inhibits iodide transport in the thyroid gland. As drinking water is the major source of human exposure to perchlorate, its occurrence in commercially available bottled waters purchased in different regions of Italy was investigated. Perchlorate was measured using the rapid, sensitive, and selective LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry) method by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transition 98.8→82.8, which corresponds to the loss of one oxygen atom in the perchlorate ion (ClO4→ClO3). The chlorine isotope ratio (35Cl/37Cl) was used as a confirmation tool. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for this method was 5 ng/L, and the recovery ranged from 94% to 108%. Perchlorate was detected in 44 of the 62 drinking waters tested, with concentrations ranging from <5 to 75 ng/L. These values are similar in magnitude to those reported in drinking water from the USA and do not pose an immediate health concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Open AccessArticle Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Interlaboratory Comparison: What Can We Learn?
Water 2013, 5(2), 420-442; doi:10.3390/w5020420
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dissolved oxygen concentration is a key parameter for characterizing natural and wastewaters and for assessing the global state of the environment in general. The decrease of dissolved oxygen levels in the world’s oceans, which is becoming increasingly obvious, is expected to have an
[...] Read more.
Dissolved oxygen concentration is a key parameter for characterizing natural and wastewaters and for assessing the global state of the environment in general. The decrease of dissolved oxygen levels in the world’s oceans, which is becoming increasingly obvious, is expected to have an impact on the whole ecosystem of the Earth, including the carbon cycle, the climate, etc. Dissolved oxygen measurements by sensors are often deemed easy measurements by routine laboratories. In reality, the physical and chemical processes underlying the measurements are complex and these measurements are not at all as robust as often considered. Recently an international in situ interlaboratory comparison measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration took place at the University of Tartu. The results revealed that the routine laboratories as a rule still do not fully master the art of dissolved oxygen concentration measurement: Out of altogether 63 measurement results obtained by the participants 52% were unacceptable according to the En numbers. Based on the analysis of the results of the intercomparison a set of tools and recommendations are given to the participants of how to improve the quality of their results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters
Water 2013, 5(3), 1152-1171; doi:10.3390/w5031152
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 14 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 30 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical
[...] Read more.
The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i) robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn); (ii) more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic); and (iii) methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb), nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)
Open AccessReview Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples
Water 2013, 5(2), 659-676; doi:10.3390/w5020659
Received: 10 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles
[...] Read more.
This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Chemistry of Water)

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