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Water 2013, 5(3), 1380-1392; doi:10.3390/w5031380
Article

Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft

* ,
 and
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
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Abstract

An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses.
Keywords: drop shaft; friction losses; intake losses; pipe Froude number; full flow; weir flow; transitional flow; cavitation drop shaft; friction losses; intake losses; pipe Froude number; full flow; weir flow; transitional flow; cavitation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Padulano, R.; Del Giudice, G.; Carravetta, A. Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft. Water 2013, 5, 1380-1392.

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