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Water 2013, 5(3), 1380-1392; doi:10.3390/w5031380

Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft

* ,
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
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An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses.
Keywords: drop shaft; friction losses; intake losses; pipe Froude number; full flow; weir flow; transitional flow; cavitation drop shaft; friction losses; intake losses; pipe Froude number; full flow; weir flow; transitional flow; cavitation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Padulano, R.; Del Giudice, G.; Carravetta, A. Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft. Water 2013, 5, 1380-1392.

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