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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Methyl Donor Supplementation during Gestation Counteracts the Bisphenol A-Induced Impairment of Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Nutrient Transporters Gene Expression in Newborn and Weaning Pigs
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 423; doi:10.3390/nu9050423
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET). Intestine samples were collected from pigs’ offspring at birth and weaning. Maternal BPA exposure during pregnancy significantly reduced the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth, decreased the jejunum sucrase activity, down-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (Pept1) and DNA methyl transferase 3a (DNMT3a), and decreased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). Maternal MET supplementation significantly raised the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, improved the jejunum lactase activity, up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1, lactase (LCT), DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and increased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05). However, the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth was higher in BPA + MET treatment compared with CON and BPA treatment (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was no difference in the jejunum sucrase activity, the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1 and DNMT3a, and the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 between CON and BPA + MET treatment. These results indicated that maternal exposure to BPA during gestation might suppress offspring’s intestinal digestion and absorption function, whereas supplementation of MET could counteract these damages, which might be associated with DNA methylation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of the Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Gene Expression Profiles of Stimulated Thp-1 Macrophages
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 424; doi:10.3390/nu9050424
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim
[...] Read more.
Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h. Total mRNA was extracted and gene expression examined by microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 expression beadchips (Illumina). Results: Pathway analysis revealed that EPA and DHA regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation, oxidative stress and cancer pathways in a differential and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: EPA and DHA appear to exert differential effects on gene expression in THP-1 macrophages. Specific effects of n-3 FAs on gene expression levels are also dose-dependent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall Tool (Foodbook24) to an Interviewer-Led 24-h Dietary Recall
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 425; doi:10.3390/nu9050425
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Web-based tools have the potential to reduce the cost of dietary assessment; however, it is necessary to establish their performance compared to traditional dietary assessment methods. This study aims to compare nutrient and food intakes derived from Foodbook24 to those obtained from an
[...] Read more.
Web-based tools have the potential to reduce the cost of dietary assessment; however, it is necessary to establish their performance compared to traditional dietary assessment methods. This study aims to compare nutrient and food intakes derived from Foodbook24 to those obtained from an interview-led 24-h dietary recall (24HDR). Seventy-nine adult participants completed one self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and one interviewer-led 24HDR on the same day. Following a 10 days wash-out period the same process was completed again in opposite order to the previous study visit. Statistical analysis including Spearman’s rank order correlation, Mann-Whitney U tests, cross-classification analysis, and “Match”, “Omission”, and “Intrusion” rates were used to investigate the relationship between both methods. Strong, positive correlations of nutrient intake estimated using both methods was observed (rs = 0.6–1.0; p < 0.001). The percentage of participants classified into the same tertile of nutrient intake distribution using both methods ranged from 58% (energy) to 82% (vitamin D). The overall match rate for food intake between both methods was 85%, while rates for omissions and intrusions were 11.5% and 3.5%, respectively. These results, alongside the reduced cost and participant burden associated with Foodbook24, highlight the tool’s potential as a viable alternative to the interviewer-led 24HDR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D and Calcium Are Required during Denosumab Treatment in Osteoporosis with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 428; doi:10.3390/nu9050428
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this 12-month retrospective study was to evaluate differences in the outcomes of denosumab alone or denosumab combined with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in patients having osteoporosis (OP) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were divided into the denosumab monotherapy group
[...] Read more.
The aim of this 12-month retrospective study was to evaluate differences in the outcomes of denosumab alone or denosumab combined with vitamin D and calcium supplementation in patients having osteoporosis (OP) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were divided into the denosumab monotherapy group (denosumab group, 22 cases) or denosumab plus vitamin D supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases). We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b, and urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 week, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months. We also assessed bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar 1-4 vertebrae (L-BMD) and bilateral total hips (H-BMD) at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 months. Matrix metalloprotanase-3 (MMP-3), Disease Activity Score-28 C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) were assessed before treatment and at 12 months to evaluate RA conditions. The study results showed that BAP, TRACP-5b, and NTX were significantly decreased, but tended to return to pre-treatment levels around 6 and 12 months in both groups. While L-BMD and H-BMD substantially increased in both groups, H-BMD had become significantly higher in the combination group at 12 months (p < 0.01) as compared with the denosumab group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding MMP-3, DAS28-CRP, SDAI, or HAQ-DI. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab with vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD in patients having OP with RA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 430; doi:10.3390/nu9050430
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder,
[...] Read more.
Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88) were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770) were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc (pZn), retinol binding protein (RBP), folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L) and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L), respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL), 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L), 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L) and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L). Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 431; doi:10.3390/nu9050431
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total
[...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total of 64 obese subjects accessing a center for care of their obesity were assessed through anthropometric and psychometric measurements. All anthropometric measures in men were higher than in women, while in turn, women showed higher psychopathological symptoms. Furthermore, the symptoms of somatization and psychoticism were predictors for a higher BMI in men, but there was no effect of psychopathological symptoms on the perceived quality of life (QoL) of male subjects. Moreover, in women, somatization and attentional impulsivity were predictors for a higher BMI, whereas no correlation was found between their psychopathological risk and perceived QoL. The results of regression analysis underlined that somatization is a “core” psychopathological symptom in obese subjects regardless of their sex, which is a potential predictor for a higher BMI. The psychological difficulties of the subjects had no effect on their perceived QoL, suggesting that they find it difficult to reflect on the impact that obesity has on their life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, Diet-Related Diseases, and Metabolic Health)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Turnover Markers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 432; doi:10.3390/nu9050432
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are used to evaluate bone health together with bone mineral density and fracture assessment. Vitamin D supplementation is widely used to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases but existing data on vitamin D effects on markers of bone resorption and
[...] Read more.
Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are used to evaluate bone health together with bone mineral density and fracture assessment. Vitamin D supplementation is widely used to prevent and treat musculoskeletal diseases but existing data on vitamin D effects on markers of bone resorption and formation are inconsistent. We therefore examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial, a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) performed at the Medical University of Graz, Austria (2011–2014). Two hundred individuals with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels <75 nmol/L were randomized to 2800 IU of vitamin D daily or placebo for eight weeks. One hundred ninety-seven participants (60.2 ± 11.1 years; 47% women) were included in this analysis. Vitamin D had no significant effect on bALP (mean treatment effect (MTE) 0.013, 95% CI −0.029 to 0.056 µg/L; p = 0.533), CTX (MTE 0.024, 95% CI −0.163 to 0.210 ng/mL, p = 0.802), OC (MTE 0.020, 95% CI −0.062 to 0.103 ng/mL, p = 0.626), or P1NP (MTE −0.021, 95% CI −0.099 to 0.057 ng/mL, p = 0.597). Analyzing patients with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L separately (n = 74) left results largely unchanged. In hypertensive patients with low 25(OH)D levels, we observed no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation for eight weeks on BTMs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 433; doi:10.3390/nu9050433
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high
[...] Read more.
Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Decreased Lean Tissue Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 434; doi:10.3390/nu9050434
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Muscle wasting is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, factors associated with decreased muscle mass in CKD patients are seldom reported. We performed a cross-sectional study of 326 patients (age 65.8 ±
[...] Read more.
Muscle wasting is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, factors associated with decreased muscle mass in CKD patients are seldom reported. We performed a cross-sectional study of 326 patients (age 65.8 ± 13.3 years) with stage 3–5 CKD who were not yet on dialysis. Muscle mass was determined using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and was expressed as the lean tissue index (LTI, lean tissue mass/height2). An LTI of less than 10% of the normal value (low LTI) indicates muscle wasting. Patients with low LTI (n = 40) tended to be diabetic, had significantly higher fat tissue index, urine protein creatinine ratio, and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, but had significantly lower serum albumin and hemoglobin levels compared with those with normal LTI. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age, sex, cardiovascular disease, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with LTI. Additionally, diabetes mellitus remained an independent predictor of muscle wasting according to low LTI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We conclude that LTI has important clinical correlations. Determination of LTI may aid in clinical assessment by helping to identify muscle wasting among patients with stage 3–5 CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involved in Pomegranate-Mediated Prevention of Breast Cancer: the Role of NF-κB and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 436; doi:10.3390/nu9050436
Received: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a nutrient-rich unique fruit, has been used for centuries for the prevention and treatment of various inflammation-driven diseases. Based on our previous study, a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE) exhibited a striking inhibition of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary tumorigenesis
[...] Read more.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), a nutrient-rich unique fruit, has been used for centuries for the prevention and treatment of various inflammation-driven diseases. Based on our previous study, a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE) exhibited a striking inhibition of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary tumorigenesis via antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. The objective of the present work is to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of PE during DMBA rat mammary carcinogenesis by evaluating the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumor samples were harvested from our previous chemopreventive study in which PE (0.2–5.0 g/kg) was found to reduce mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The expressions of COX-2, HSP90, NF-κB, inhibitory κBα (IκBα) and Nrf2 were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. PE decreased the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, prevented the degradation of IκBα, hindered the translocation of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus and increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis. These findings, together with our previous results, indicate that PE-mediated prevention of DMBA-evoked mammary carcinogenesis may involve anti-inflammatory mechanisms through concurrent but differential regulation of two interrelated molecular pathways, namely NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 438; doi:10.3390/nu9050438
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids
[...] Read more.
Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005–2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0–18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Validation of a General and Sport Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire in Adolescents and Young Adults: GeSNK
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 439; doi:10.3390/nu9050439
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK)
[...] Read more.
Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Palmitoleic Acid Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signalling Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 441; doi:10.3390/nu9050441
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for the breakdown or resorption of bone during bone remodelling. Studies have shown that certain fatty acids (FAs) can increase bone formation, reduce bone loss, and influence total bone mass. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) is a
[...] Read more.
Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are responsible for the breakdown or resorption of bone during bone remodelling. Studies have shown that certain fatty acids (FAs) can increase bone formation, reduce bone loss, and influence total bone mass. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) is a 16-carbon, monounsaturated FA that has shown anti-inflammatory properties similar to other FAs. The effects of PLA in bone remain unexplored. Here we investigated the effects of PLA on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. PLA decreased the number of large, multinucleated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts and furthermore, suppressed the osteolytic capability of these osteoclasts. This was accompanied by a decrease in expression of resorption markers (Trap, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9), cathepsin K (Ctsk)). PLA further decreased the expression of genes involved in the formation and function of osteoclasts. Additionally, PLA inhibited NF-κB activity and the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK). Moreover, PLA induced apoptosis in mature osteoclasts. This study reveals that PLA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 murine macrophages through suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways. This may indicate that PLA has potential as a therapeutic for bone diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparing the Nutritional Impact of Dietary Strategies to Reduce Discretionary Choice Intake in the Australian Adult Population: A Simulation Modelling Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 442; doi:10.3390/nu9050442
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary strategies to reduce discretionary choice intake are commonly utilized in practice, but evidence on their relative efficacy is lacking. The aim was to compare the potential impact on nutritional intake of three strategies to reducing discretionary choices intake in the Australian adult
[...] Read more.
Dietary strategies to reduce discretionary choice intake are commonly utilized in practice, but evidence on their relative efficacy is lacking. The aim was to compare the potential impact on nutritional intake of three strategies to reducing discretionary choices intake in the Australian adult (19–90 years) population. Dietary simulation modelling using data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–2012 was conducted (n = 9341; one 24 h dietary recall). Strategies modelled were: moderation (reduce discretionary choices by 50%, with 0%, 25% or 75% energy compensation); substitution (replace 50% of discretionary choices with core choices); reformulation (replace 50% SFA with unsaturated fats, reduce added sugars by 25%, and reduce sodium by 20%). Compared to the base case (observed) intake, modelled intakes in the moderation scenario showed: −17.3% lower energy (sensitivity analyses, 25% energy compensation −14.2%; 75% energy compensation −8.0%), −20.9% lower SFA (−17.4%; −10.5%), −43.3% lower added sugars (−41.1%; −36.7%) and 17.7% lower sodium (−14.3%; −7.5%). Substitution with a range of core items, or with fruits, vegetables and core beverages only, resulted in similar changes in energy intake (−13.5% and −15.4%), SFA (−17.7% and −20.1%), added sugars (−42.6% and −43%) and sodium (−13.7% and −16.5%), respectively. Reformulating discretionary choices had minimal impact on reducing energy intake but reduced SFA (−10.3% to −30.9%), added sugars (−9.3% to −52.9%), and alcohol (−25.0% to −49.9%) and sodium (−3.3% to −13.2%). The substitution and reformulation scenarios minimized negative changes in fiber, protein and micronutrient intakes. While each strategy has strengths and limitations, substitution of discretionary choices with core foods and beverages may optimize the nutritional impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Distribution of Constituents and Metabolites of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) into Serum, Blood Cells, and Synovial Fluid of Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 443; doi:10.3390/nu9050443
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present randomized controlled study aimed to investigate the in vivo distribution of constituents or metabolites of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol®. Thirty-three patients with severe osteoarthritis scheduled for a knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either 200 mg
[...] Read more.
The present randomized controlled study aimed to investigate the in vivo distribution of constituents or metabolites of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol®. Thirty-three patients with severe osteoarthritis scheduled for a knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either 200 mg per day Pycnogenol® (P+) or no treatment (Co) over three weeks before surgery. Serum, blood cells, and synovial fluid samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Considerable interindividual differences were observed indicating pronounced variability of the polyphenol pharmacokinetics. Notably, the highest polyphenol concentrations were not detected in serum. Catechin and taxifolin primarily resided within the blood cells while the microbial catechin metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone, ferulic, and caffeic acid were mainly present in synovial fluid samples. Taxifolin was detected in serum and synovial fluid exclusively in the P+ group. Likewise, no ferulic acid was found in serum samples of the Co group. Calculating ratios of analyte distribution in individual patients revealed a simultaneous presence of some polyphenols in serum, blood cells, and/or synovial fluid only in the P+ group. This is the first evidence that polyphenols distribute into the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis which supports rationalizing the results of clinical efficacy studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 444; doi:10.3390/nu9050444
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the
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Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Antioxidant Defences and Mood Status by Oral GABA Tea Administration in a Mouse Model of Post-Stroke Depression
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 446; doi:10.3390/nu9050446
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Green GABA (GGABA) and Oolong GABA (OGABA) teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD) is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing
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Green GABA (GGABA) and Oolong GABA (OGABA) teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD) is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing mortality and morbidity rates, and a lower response to common therapies and rehabilitation. Methods: Two chemically characterized commercial samples of GGABA and OGABA were investigated for effects on mood following oral administration using a mouse model of PSD, through common validated tests including the Despair Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of GGABA and OGABA was evaluated by determining the levels of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the mouse brain in vivo. Results: GGABA and OGABA attenuated depressed mood by influencing behavioral parameters linked to depression. GGABA was more active than OGABA in this study, and this effect may be likely due to a higher content of polyphenolic substances and amino acids in GGABA compared to OGABA. GGABA also exerted a greater antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that GABA tea is a promising candidate that can be used as an adjuvant in the management of PSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 0448; doi:10.3390/nu9050448
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p < 0.0001). The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Pancreatic Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 449; doi:10.3390/nu9050449
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic
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Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12–97 years), were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Results: Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day). BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Conclusions: Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 450; doi:10.3390/nu9050450
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union
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Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05) compared with the NIDA group (n = 38) and control group (n = 46). Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia was 27.2 pg, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. The cut-off values for mean cellular volume, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were 76.6, 12.9, and 4.89 mg/L, respectively. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content had the largest area under the curve of 0.929, while those for mean cellular volume, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor were 0.922, 0.887, and 0.900, respectively. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, and its comprehensive diagnostic efficacy is better than other traditional indicators—such as serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Neuroprotective Role of Atractylenolide-I in an In Vitro and In Vivo Model of Parkinson’s Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 451; doi:10.3390/nu9050451
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurological disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons within the midbrain. Neuroinflammation has been nominated as one of the key pathogenic features of PD. Recently, the inadequate pharmacotherapy and adverse effects of conventional drugs have spurred
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurological disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons within the midbrain. Neuroinflammation has been nominated as one of the key pathogenic features of PD. Recently, the inadequate pharmacotherapy and adverse effects of conventional drugs have spurred the development of unconventional medications in the treatment of PD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of Atractylenolide-I (ATR-I) in in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Nitrite assay was measured via Griess reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated BV-2 cells. mRNA and protein levels were determined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Further, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry were employed in BV-2 cells and MPTP-intoxicated C57BL6/J mice. Pre-treatment with ATR-I attenuated the inflammatory response in BV-2 cells by abating the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The intraperitoneal administration of ATR-I reversed MPTP-induced behavioral deficits, decreased microglial activation, and conferred protection to dopaminergic neurons in the mouse model of PD. Our experimental reports establish the involvement of multiple benevolent molecular events by ATR-I in MPTP-induced toxicity, which may aid in the development of ATR-I as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Polyphenol Levels Are Inversely Correlated with Body Weight and Obesity in an Elderly Population after 5 Years of Follow Up (The Randomised PREDIMED Study)
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 452; doi:10.3390/nu9050452
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Overweight and obesity have been steadily increasing in recent years and currently represent a serious threat to public health. Few human studies have investigated the relationship between polyphenol intake and body weight. Our aim was to assess the relationship between urinary polyphenol levels
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Overweight and obesity have been steadily increasing in recent years and currently represent a serious threat to public health. Few human studies have investigated the relationship between polyphenol intake and body weight. Our aim was to assess the relationship between urinary polyphenol levels and body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with 573 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial (ISRCTN35739639). Total polyphenol levels were measured by a reliable biomarker, total urinary polyphenol excretion (TPE), determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method in urine samples. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their TPE at the fifth year. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between TPE and obesity parameters; body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). After a five years follow up, significant inverse correlations were observed between TPE at the 5th year and BW (β = −1.004; 95% CI: −1.634 to −0.375, p = 0.002), BMI (β = −0.320; 95% CI: −0.541 to −0.098, p = 0.005), WC (β = −0.742; 95% CI: −1.326 to −0.158, p = 0.013), and WHtR (β = −0.408; 95% CI: −0.788 to −0.028, p = 0.036) after adjustments for potential confounders. To conclude, a greater polyphenol intake may thus contribute to reducing body weight in elderly people at high cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 453; doi:10.3390/nu9050453
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to
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Background: Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. Methods: We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55–80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. Results: During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86–1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group versus the MedDiet + Nuts group. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first large randomized trial assessing the role of a MedDiet on the incidence of cataract surgery. Our results showed that the incidence of cataract surgery was similar in the MedDiet with EVOO, MedDiet with nuts, and low-fat diet groups. Further studies are necessary to investigate whether a MedDiet could have a preventive role in cataract surgery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Healthy Dietary Habits Index for New Zealand Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 454; doi:10.3390/nu9050454
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Healthful dietary habits are individually associated with better nutrient intake and positive health outcomes; however, this information is rarely examined together to validate an indicator of diet quality. This study developed a 15-item Healthy Dietary Habits Index (HDHI) based on self-reported dietary habits
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Healthful dietary habits are individually associated with better nutrient intake and positive health outcomes; however, this information is rarely examined together to validate an indicator of diet quality. This study developed a 15-item Healthy Dietary Habits Index (HDHI) based on self-reported dietary habits information collected in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. The validity of HDHI as a diet quality index was examined in relation to sociodemographic factors, 24-diet recall derived nutrient intakes, and nutritional biomarkers in a representative sample of adults aged 19 years and above. Linear regression models were employed to determine associations between HDHI quintiles and energy-adjusted nutrient data and nutritional biomarkers. Significantly higher HDHI scores were found among women, older age groups, Non-Māori or Pacific ethnic groups, and less socioeconomically-deprived groups (all p < 0.001). Increasing quintiles of HDHI were associated with higher intakes of dietary fibre and seven micronutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamin C, and lower intakes of energy, macronutrients, sodium, zinc, vitamins B6 and B12. Associations in the expected directions were also found for urinary sodium, whole blood folate, serum and red blood cell folate, and plasma selenium (all p < 0.001). The present findings suggest that the HDHI is a valid measure of diet quality as it is capable of discerning quality of diets of subgroups and ranking nutrient intakes among NZ adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Critical Review on Polyphenols and Health Benefits of Black Soybeans
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 455; doi:10.3390/nu9050455
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites containing antioxidant properties, which help to protect chronic diseases from free radical damage. Dietary polyphenols are the subject of enhancing scientific interest due to their possible beneficial effects on human health. In the last two decades, there has
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Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites containing antioxidant properties, which help to protect chronic diseases from free radical damage. Dietary polyphenols are the subject of enhancing scientific interest due to their possible beneficial effects on human health. In the last two decades, there has been more interest in the potential health benefits of dietary polyphenols as antioxidant. Black soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr) are merely a black variety of soybean containing a variety of phytochemicals. These phytochemicals in black soybean (BSB) are potentially effective in human health, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Taking into account exploratory study, the present review aims to provide up-to-date data on health benefit of BSB, which helps to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical settings. All data of in vitro and in vivo studies of BSB and its impact on human health were collected from a library database and electronic search (Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar). The different pharmacological information was gathered and orchestrated in a suitable spot on the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Under 5 Energize: Tracking Progress of a Preschool Nutrition and Physical Activity Programme with Regional Measures of Body Size and Dental Health at Age of Four Years
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 456; doi:10.3390/nu9050456
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
To reduce weight gain and encourage healthy eating including reduced sugar intake, Under 5 Energize (U5E) was introduced to 121 early-childhood-centres in the Waikato region of New Zealand in July 2013. Using anonymized data collected from January 2013 to September 2016 through free
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To reduce weight gain and encourage healthy eating including reduced sugar intake, Under 5 Energize (U5E) was introduced to 121 early-childhood-centres in the Waikato region of New Zealand in July 2013. Using anonymized data collected from January 2013 to September 2016 through free physical assessments of all 4-year-olds provided by the NZ Ministry of Health, the prevalence of obesity and dental decay children measured in the Waikato region was examined. Data were divided into four periods representing pre-implementation and 3 years of gradual implementation. Obesity was defined according to International Obesity Task Force criteria. Of 18,774 Waikato children included in the analysis, 32% were indigenous Māori, and 32% attended an U5E centre. Pre-implementation prevalences of obesity (4%) and visible dental decay (11%) of children attending and not-attending U5E centres were not different. While obesity prevalence did not change significantly over time, prevalence of dental decay decreased among children at U5E (trend p = 0.003) but not non-U5E (trend p = 0.14) centres, such that prevalences were significantly different between children at U5E vs. non-U5E centres at Year 3 (p = 0.02). The U5E intervention is a small but arguably effective part of the wider system approach that is required to improve children’s future health. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Innovative Method for Monitoring Food Quality and the Healthfulness of Consumers’ Grocery Purchases
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 457; doi:10.3390/nu9050457
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
This study presents a method laying the groundwork for systematically monitoring food quality and the healthfulness of consumers’ point-of-sale grocery purchases. The method automates the process of identifying United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED) components of grocery food
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This study presents a method laying the groundwork for systematically monitoring food quality and the healthfulness of consumers’ point-of-sale grocery purchases. The method automates the process of identifying United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED) components of grocery food items. The input to the process is the compact abbreviated descriptions of food items that are similar to those appearing on the point-of-sale sales receipts of most food retailers. The FPED components of grocery food items are identified using Natural Language Processing techniques combined with a collection of food concept maps and relationships that are manually built using the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the What We Eat In America food categories, and the hierarchical organization of food items used by many grocery stores. We have established the construct validity of the method using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, but further evaluation of validity and reliability will require a large-scale reference standard with known grocery food quality measures. Here we evaluate the method’s utility in identifying the FPED components of grocery food items available in a large sample of retail grocery sales data (~190 million transaction records). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology Based Approaches to Dietary Intake Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 458; doi:10.3390/nu9050458
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6–12 years) and to monitor the
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The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6–12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children’s urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children’s eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acute Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Severe Obesity: Evaluation of Multimeric Adiponectin
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 459; doi:10.3390/nu9050459
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Obesity predisposes to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and glucose abnormalities. It is currently debated if vitamin D administration may improve glucose homeostasis by interacting with modulators of insulin sensitivity, such as adiponectin and its oligomers. In a 4-week inpatient study on a metabolic
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Obesity predisposes to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and glucose abnormalities. It is currently debated if vitamin D administration may improve glucose homeostasis by interacting with modulators of insulin sensitivity, such as adiponectin and its oligomers. In a 4-week inpatient study on a metabolic rehabilitation program, consisting of individualized caloric restriction and aerobic physical exercise in obese subjects with VDD, we assessed the acute effects of 600,000 IU cholecalciferol given per os VD group, 12 subjects; body mass index (BMI) 42.7 ± 1.3 kg/m2) or placebo per os (PL group, 12 subjects, BMI 39.8 ± 0.9 kg/m2) on high (HWM-A), medium (MMW-A), and low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-A), as quantified by western immunoblot (WIB) and ELISA. During the 4-week study, dieting promoted a similar magnitude of weight loss in VD and PL groups. Compared to the PL group, cholecalciferol administration increased 25(OH)Vit D levels (p < 0.001) and promoted a significant increase of HMW-A expression analyzed by WIB (p = 0.02). In parallel, a significant decrease of leptin/HMW-A ratio (p < 0.05), a biomarker of metabolic homeostasis, was observed. During the study, changes of MMW-A and LMW-A occurred independently of cholecalciferol administration, and were likely explained by weight loss. At odds with these findings, the ELISA assessment of adiponectin oligomers showed no modifications in the VD group or PL group. Current findings suggest that acute cholecalciferol administration selectively modifies HMW-A and the leptin/HMW-A ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns among Vietnamese and Hispanic Immigrant Elementary School Children Participating in an After School Program
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 460; doi:10.3390/nu9050460
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Immigrants in the U.S. may encounter challenges of acculturation, including dietary habits, as they adapt to new surroundings. We examined Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children’s American food consumption patterns in a convenience sample of 63 Vietnamese and Hispanic children in grades four to
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Immigrants in the U.S. may encounter challenges of acculturation, including dietary habits, as they adapt to new surroundings. We examined Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children’s American food consumption patterns in a convenience sample of 63 Vietnamese and Hispanic children in grades four to six who were attending an after school program. Children indicated the number of times they consumed each of 54 different American foods in the past week using a food frequency questionnaire. We ranked each food according to frequency of consumption, compared the intake of foods to the USDA Healthy Eating Pattern, and performed dietary pattern analysis. Since the data were not normally distributed we used two nonparametric tests to evaluate statistical significance: the Kruskal–Wallis tested for significant gender and ethnicity differences and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test evaluated the food consumption of children compared with the USDA recommended amounts. We found that among USDA categories, discretionary food was most commonly consumed, followed by fruit. The sample as a whole ate significantly less than the recommended amount of grains, protein foods, and dairy, but met the recommended amount of fruit. Boys ate significantly more grains, proteins, and fruits than did girls. Dietary pattern analysis showed a very high sweet snack consumption among all children, while boys ate more fast food and fruit than girls. Foods most commonly consumed were cereal, apples, oranges, and yogurt. Ethnicity differences in food selection were not significant. The high intake of discretionary/snack foods and fruit, with low intake of grains, vegetables, protein, and dairy in our sample suggests Vietnamese and Hispanic immigrant children may benefit from programs to improve diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Interrelations of One-Carbon Metabolites in Tissues, Erythrocytes, and Plasma in Mice with Dietary Induced Folate Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 462; doi:10.3390/nu9050462
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Studies on one-carbon metabolism for the assessment of folate deficiency have focused on either metabolites of folate metabolism or methionine cycle. To bridge the gap between deficiency markers in these pathways we designed a dietary induced folate deficiency study using male C57BL/6N mice.
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Studies on one-carbon metabolism for the assessment of folate deficiency have focused on either metabolites of folate metabolism or methionine cycle. To bridge the gap between deficiency markers in these pathways we designed a dietary induced folate deficiency study using male C57BL/6N mice. After weaning (3 weeks) mice were fed a defined control diet (1 week) before being fed a folate deficient diet (n = 6 mice) and the control diet (n = 6 mice) for 12 additional weeks. Thereafter, we determined total homocysteine in plasma and folate in erythrocytes as well as S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and six folate vitamers in tissues including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolate, 10-formylfolic acid, and folic acid by means of stable isotope dilution assays coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In all organs, except heart (mainly 5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate), tetrahydrofolate constitutes the main vitamer. Moreover, in liver tetrahydrofolate was most abundant followed by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (heart: tetrahydrofolate), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. Because of the significant decrease (p < 0.05) of folate status and S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio accompanied with increasing S-adenosylhomocysteine (p < 0.05), hepatocytes are most susceptible to folate deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, we herein present the first method for simultaneous quantitation of eight metabolites for both folate and methionine cycle in one tissue sample, tHcy in plasma, and erythrocyte folate to shed light on physiological interrelations of one-carbon metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Picky Eating Behaviors and Nutritional Status in Early Childhood: Performance of a Picky Eating Behavior Questionnaire
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 463; doi:10.3390/nu9050463
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Picky eating behaviors are frequently observed in childhood, leading to concern that an unbalanced and inadequate diet will result in unfavorable growth outcomes. However, the association between picky eating behaviors and nutritional status has not been investigated in detail. This study was conducted
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Picky eating behaviors are frequently observed in childhood, leading to concern that an unbalanced and inadequate diet will result in unfavorable growth outcomes. However, the association between picky eating behaviors and nutritional status has not been investigated in detail. This study was conducted to assess eating behaviors and growth of children aged 1–5 years from the Seoul Metropolitan area. Primary caregivers completed self-administered questionnaires and 3-day diet records. Differences in the nutrient intake and growth indices between picky and non-picky eaters were tested by analysis of covariance. Children “eating small amounts” consumed less energy and micronutrients (with the exception of calcium intake), but picky behaviors related to a “limited variety” resulted in a significant difference regarding nutrient density for some micronutrients. Children with the behavior of “eating small amounts” had a lower weight-for-age than that of non-picky eaters; especially, the older children with the behaviors of “eating small amounts” or “refusal of specific food groups” had lower height-for-age compared with non-picky eaters. These results suggest that specific picky eating behaviors are related to different nutrient intake and unfavorable growth patterns in early childhood. Thus, exploration of potential interventions according to specific aspects of picky eating and their efficacy is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 464; doi:10.3390/nu9050464
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as
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Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m2) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC0–2 h) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 465; doi:10.3390/nu9050465
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated.
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Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Zeolite-Containing Mixture Supplementation Ameliorated Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice by Suppressing the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pathway and Improving Apoptosis in Colon Mucosa
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 467; doi:10.3390/nu9050467
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast®, HY)—a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast®, HY)—a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of zeolite and oyster shell burned under high temperature), citric acid, red rice yeast (monascus) and calcium stearate—as a nutraceutical intervention in IBD to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. We show the mechanism through integrated omics using transcriptomics and proteomics. C57BL6 mice were given an AIN-93G basal diet or a 0.8% HY containing diet and sterilized tap water for 11 days. Colitis was then induced by 1.5% (w/v) DSS-containing water for 9 days. HY fed mice showed significantly improved disease activity index and colon length compared to DSS mice. Colonic mucosa microarray analysis plus RT-PCR results indicate HY supplementation may ameliorate inflammation by inhibiting the intestinal inflammatory pathway and suppress apoptosis by curbing the expression of genes like tumor protein 53 and epidermal growth factor receptor and by upregulating epithelial protection-related proteins such as epithelial cell adhesion molecule and tenascin C, thus maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis and epithelial integrity, mirroring the proteome analysis results. HY appears to have a suppressive effect on colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Dietary Guidelines for Vitamin D: Application of Individual Participant Data (IPD)-Level Meta-Regression Analyses
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 469; doi:10.3390/nu9050469
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse
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Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse approaches to data analysis. Modelling strategies for pooling of individual subject data from cognate vitamin D randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are likely to provide the most appropriate DRV estimates. Thus, the objective of the present work was to undertake the first-ever individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-regression, which is increasingly recognized as best practice, from seven winter-based RCTs (with 882 participants ranging in age from 4 to 90 years) of the vitamin D intake–serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dose-response. Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of 25(OH)D concentrations >25, 30, and 50 nmol/L across the population are 10, 13, and 26 µg/day, respectively. In contrast, standard meta-regression analyses with aggregate data (as used by several agencies in recent years) from the same RCTs estimated that a vitamin D intake requirement of 14 µg/day would maintain 97.5% of 25(OH)D >50 nmol/L. These first IPD-derived estimates offer improved dietary recommendations for vitamin D because the underpinning modeling captures the between-person variability in response of serum 25(OH)D to vitamin D intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 470; doi:10.3390/nu9050470
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect
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Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (L. kefiri) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w/v) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri. Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri, being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Psychometric Properties of a Developed Questionnaire to Assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Vitamin D (D-KAP-38)
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 471; doi:10.3390/nu9050471
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practices in Tehranian adults, who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 572 individuals, aged ≥20
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The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practices in Tehranian adults, who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 572 individuals, aged ≥20 years from public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of a literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire (D-KAP-38) with four subscales was developed: (1) general knowledge; (2) nutritional knowledge; (3) attitudes; (4) behaviors. Validity of the D-KAP-38 questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2 ± 7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0%, 1.1%, 2.4%, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59 ± 14.52) and nutrition knowledge had the lowest (42.58 ± 20.40), among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of D-KAP-38 questionnaire. Further investigations in different populations are recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Low Glycaemic Index Diet Incorporating Isomaltulose Is Associated with Lower Glycaemic Response and Variability, and Promotes Fat Oxidation in Asians
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 473; doi:10.3390/nu9050473
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
Low glycaemic index (GI) foods minimize large blood glucose fluctuations and have been advocated to enhance fat oxidation and may contribute to weight management. We determined whether the inclusion of isomaltulose compared to sucrose in a low/high GI meal sequence can modulate the
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Low glycaemic index (GI) foods minimize large blood glucose fluctuations and have been advocated to enhance fat oxidation and may contribute to weight management. We determined whether the inclusion of isomaltulose compared to sucrose in a low/high GI meal sequence can modulate the glycaemic response and substrate oxidation in an Asian population. Twenty Chinese men (body mass index (BMI): 17–28 kg/m2) followed a 24 h low GI (isomaltulose, PalatinoseTM) or high GI (sucrose) diet in a randomized double-blind, controlled cross-over design. Treatment meals included dinner (day 1), breakfast, lunch, and snack (day 2). Continuous glucose monitoring provided incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE) and 10 h indirect calorimetry (whole body calorimeter) (day 2) provided energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Our results demonstrated that the low GI diet resulted in lower 24 h glucose iAUC (502.5 ± 231.4 vs. 872.6 ± 493.1 mmol/L; p = 0.002) and lower 24 h glycaemic variability (MAGE: 1.67 ± 0.53 vs. 2.68 ± 1.13 mmol/L; p < 0.001). Simultaneously, 10 h respiratory quotient increased more during high GI (p = 0.014) and fat oxidation was higher after low GI breakfast (p = 0.026), lunch (p < 0.001) and snack (p = 0.013). This indicates that lower GI mixed meals incorporating isomaltulose are able to acutely reduce the glycaemic response and variability and promote fat oxidation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cold Storage and Reheating of Parboiled Rice on Postprandial Glycaemic Response, Satiety, Palatability and Chewed Particle Size Distribution
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 475; doi:10.3390/nu9050475
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot- and cold-stored parboiled rice to widely available medium-grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight
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Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot- and cold-stored parboiled rice to widely available medium-grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three-treatment experiment where postprandial blood glucose was measured over 120 min after consumption of 140 g of rice. The three rice samples were freshly cooked medium-grain white rice, freshly cooked parboiled rice, and parboiled rice stored overnight at 4 °C. All rice was served warm at 65 °C. Chewing time was recorded. Results: incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the control rice, freshly cooked medium-grain white rice, was the highest: 1.7-fold higher (1.2, 2.6) than reheated parboiled rice (p < 0.001) and 1.5-fold higher (1.0, 2.2) than freshly cooked parboiled rice (p = 0.001). No significant difference in postprandial glycaemic response was observed between freshly cooked and reheated parboiled rice samples (p = 0.445). Chewing time for 10 g cold-stored parboiled rice was 6 s (25%) longer and was considered more palatable, visually appealing and better tasting than freshly cooked medium-grain (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: For regular consumers of rice, reheating cooked rice after cold storage would lower the dietary glycaemic load and, in the long term, may reduce the risk for type 2 and gestational diabetes. More trials are needed to identify the significance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 476; doi:10.3390/nu9050476
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal
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We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with 13C-labeled lipids and 13C-labeled glucose, respectively. The molecular basis of alterations in hepatic liver metabolism was analyzed in detail ex vivo using immunoblotting and targeted quantitative proteomics. Both glucose and fructose feeding increased adiposity, but only fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation. In vivo MRS showed that this was not caused by increased hepatic uptake of dietary lipids, but could be attributed to an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Stimulation of lipogenesis by fructose was confirmed by a strong upregulation of lipogenic enzymes, which was more potent than with glucose. The non-caloric sweetener aspartame did not significantly affect liver lipid content or metabolism. In conclusion, liquid fructose more severely affected liver lipid metabolism in rats than glucose, while aspartame had no effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Neuroprotective Effects of Phenolic Acids: Molecular Mechanism of Action
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 477; doi:10.3390/nu9050477
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and
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The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and vision disturbances, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Chagas disease and other less distributed diseases is discussed. This review covers the in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies concerning the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders (on the biochemical and gene expression levels) by phenolic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Significance and Prognostic Effect of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Critical and Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 478; doi:10.3390/nu9050478
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Objective: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD. Methods: This is a prospective observational study.
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Objective: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD. Methods: This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Another 59 healthy children undergoing outpatient medical examinations during the same period were chosen as the control group. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all the subjects, and each group was subdivided by serum 25(OH)D concentration into 25(OH)D normal (≥30 ng/mL); insufficiency (20–29.9 ng/mL), and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) groups. The pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) was recorded for the critical and severe HFMD group upon admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children with critical and severe HFMD were also monitored for blood lactate (LAC), serum calcium ions (Ca++), D-dimer (DD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels; the incidences of brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and circulatory failure; and the 14-day mortality rate. Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were generally low in all groups. The critical HFMD group showed a significantly lower serum 25(OH)D mean concentration (20.0 ± 8.4 ng/mL) and a higher proportion of deficiency (18%) compared with the control group (28.1 ± 6.6 ng/mL, 8%), common (29.5 ± 8.1 ng/mL, 10%) and severe (31.9 ± 9.7 ng/mL, 8%) HFMD groups (p < 0.05). In the critical and severe HFMD groups, the 25(OH)D deficiency group had lower PCISs than the 25(OH)D normal and insufficiency groups (p < 0.05); and had higher values than the latter two groups for LAC, LDH, CK-MB and DD; and the incidences of brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, circulatory failure, and mortality (p < 0.05). The death group showed significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations and PCISs than the survival group (p < 0.05) and had higher LAC, LDH, CK-MB and DD levels and higher incidences of brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and circulatory failure (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the serum 25(OH)D concentration was an independent factor that influenced mortality in children with critical and severe HFMD. Conclusions: In this study, we find the serum 25(OH)D concentrations are substantially reduced in children with critical and severe HFMD and are associated with the severity of HFMD. The serum 25(OH)D concentrations may have clinical value for determining the progression of critical HFMD and predicting the risk of death. Further evidence is needed before it can be stated that 25(OH)D concentrations have clinical value in HMFD diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multibehavioural Interventions with a Focus on Specific Energy Balance-Related Behaviours Can Affect Diet Quality in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 479; doi:10.3390/nu9050479
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
The present study aimed to examine whether a multibehavioural intervention with a focus on specific energy balance-related behaviours can affect total diet quality and its four subcomponents in European preschoolers and to investigate if these intervention effects differed by socioeconomic status (SES). Parents/caregivers
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The present study aimed to examine whether a multibehavioural intervention with a focus on specific energy balance-related behaviours can affect total diet quality and its four subcomponents in European preschoolers and to investigate if these intervention effects differed by socioeconomic status (SES). Parents/caregivers of 3.5 to 5.5 year-olds (n = 4968) recruited through kindergartens in six European countries within the ToyBox-study completed questionnaires on socio-demographics and a food frequency questionnaire on their preschoolers’ diet. To assess intervention effects and differences by SES, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted. In contrast to no significant difference in total diet quality, in both the intervention and control group, the dietary quality and dietary equilibrium increased, with a larger increase in the intervention group (mean difference quality: +3.4%; mean difference equilibrium: +0.9%) compared to the control group (quality: +1.5%; equilibrium: +0.2%). SES was not a significant moderator for intervention effects on total diet quality, nor for the four subcomponents. This study indicates that multibehavioural interventions with a focus on specific energy balance-related behaviours in preschoolers not only affect those targeted behaviours, but can also have more generalized effects. The ToyBox-intervention effects were similar for both lower and high SES preschoolers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Color-Coded Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels—An Option for US Packaged Foods?
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 480; doi:10.3390/nu9050480
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
The implementation of a standardized front-of-pack-labelling (FoPL) scheme would likely be a useful tool for many consumers trying to improve the healthfulness of their diets. Our objective was to examine what the traffic light labelling scheme would look like if implemented in the
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The implementation of a standardized front-of-pack-labelling (FoPL) scheme would likely be a useful tool for many consumers trying to improve the healthfulness of their diets. Our objective was to examine what the traffic light labelling scheme would look like if implemented in the US. Data were extracted from Label Insight’s Open Access branded food database in 2017. Nutrient levels and the proportion of products classified as “Red” (High), “Amber” (Medium) or “Green” (Low) in total fat, saturated fat, total sugar and sodium for food and beverage items were examined. The proportion of products in each category that had each possible combination of traffic light colors, and met the aggregate score for “healthy” was examined. Out of 175,198 products, >50% of all US packaged foods received a “Red” rating for total sugar and sodium. “Confectionery” had the highest mean total sugar (51.9 g/100 g) and “Meat and meat alternatives” the highest mean sodium (781 mg/100 g). The most common traffic light label combination was “Red” for total fat, saturated fat and sodium and “Green” for sugar. Only 30.1% of products were considered “healthy”. A wide variety (n = 80) of traffic light color combinations were observed. A color coded traffic light scheme appears to be an option for implementation across the US packaged food supply to support consumers in making healthier food choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Their Relationship with Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk in Adults Receiving Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 481; doi:10.3390/nu9050481
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
It has been demonstrated that low bone mass and vitamin D deficiency occur in adult patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its relationship with bone mineral
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It has been demonstrated that low bone mass and vitamin D deficiency occur in adult patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in long-term HPN patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all 186 patients in the HPN registry followed by the Northern Alberta Home Parenteral Nutrition Program receiving HPN therapy >6 months with a 25 (OH) D level and BMD reported were studied. Results: The mean age at the initiation of HPN was 53.8 (20–79) years and 23 (37%) were male. The mean HPN duration was 56 (6–323) months and the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome. Based on a total of 186 patients, 62 patients were categorized based on serum vitamin D status as follows: 1 (24.2%) sufficient, 31 (50%) insufficient and 16 (25.8%) deficient. Despite an average of 1891 IU/day orally and 181 IU/day intravenously vitamin D, the mean vitamin D level was 25.6 ng/mL (insufficiency) and 26.2 ± 11.9 ng/mL in patients with the highest 10-year fracture risk. Conclusion: Suboptimal vitamin D levels are common among patients on long-term HPN despite nutrient intake that should meet requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Diet Wheat Source on the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus—Lessons Learned from the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 482; doi:10.3390/nu9050482
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Nutrition, especially wheat consumption, is a major factor involved in the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases such as celiac. While modern wheat cultivars possess similar gliadin proteins associated with the onset of celiac disease and T1D, alternative dietary
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Nutrition, especially wheat consumption, is a major factor involved in the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases such as celiac. While modern wheat cultivars possess similar gliadin proteins associated with the onset of celiac disease and T1D, alternative dietary wheat sources from Israeli landraces and native ancestral species may be lacking the epitopes linked with T1D, potentially reducing the incidence of T1D. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model was used to monitor the effects of dietary wheat sources on the onset and development of T1D. The effects of modern wheat flour were compared with those from either T. aestivum, T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides, or T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landraces or a non-wheat diet. Animals which received wheat from local landraces or ancestral species such as emmer displayed a lower incidence of T1D and related complications compared to animals fed a modern wheat variety. This study is the first report of the diabetogenic properties of various dietary wheat sources and suggests that alternative dietary wheat sources may lack T1D linked epitopes, thus reducing the incidence of T1D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Parent Diet Quality and Child Dietary Patterns in Nine- to Eleven-Year-Old Children from Dunedin, New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 483; doi:10.3390/nu9050483
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Previous research investigating the relationship between parents’ and children’s diets has focused on single foods or nutrients, and not on global diet, which may be more important for good health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parental diet
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Previous research investigating the relationship between parents’ and children’s diets has focused on single foods or nutrients, and not on global diet, which may be more important for good health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parental diet quality and child dietary patterns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. Information on food consumption and related factors in children and their primary caregiver/parent were collected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate dietary patterns in children and diet quality index (DQI) scores were calculated in parents. Relationships between parental DQI and child dietary patterns were examined in 401 child-parent pairs using mixed regression models. PCA generated two patterns; ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ and ‘Snacks’. A one unit higher parental DQI score was associated with a 0.03SD (CI: 0.02, 0.04) lower child ‘Snacks’ score. There was no significant relationship between ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ score and parental diet quality. Higher parental diet quality was associated with a lower dietary pattern score in children that was characterised by a lower consumption frequency of confectionery, chocolate, cakes, biscuits and savoury snacks. These results highlight the importance of parental modelling, in terms of their dietary choices, on the diet of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Dietary Glycemic Properties on Markers of Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal American Women: An Ancillary Study from a Multicenter Protein Supplementation Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 484; doi:10.3390/nu9050484
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to
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Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a whey protein supplement (PRO, n = 38) and a maltodextrin supplement (CHO, n = 46) on bone density to evaluate the impact of a calibrated increase in GI/GL on inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in a healthy aging population. Markers of inflammation, HOMA, body composition, and GI/GL (estimated from 3-day food records) were assessed at baseline and 18 months. By 18 months, the GL in the CHO group increased by 34%, 88.4 ± 5.2 → 118.5 ± 4.9 and did not change in the PRO group, 86.5 ± 4.1 → 82.0 ± 3.6 (p < 0.0001). Despite this change there were no differences in serum CRP, IL-6, or HOMA at 18 months between the two groups, nor were there significant associations between GL and inflammatory markers. However, trunk lean mass (p = 0.0375) and total lean mass (p = 0.038) were higher in the PRO group compared to the CHO group at 18 months There were also significant associations for GL and change in total fat mass (r = 0.3, p = 0.01), change in BMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.005), and change in the lean-to-fat mass ratio (r = −0.3, p = 0.002). Our data suggest that as dietary GL increases within the moderate range, there is no detectable change in markers of inflammation or insulin resistance, despite which there is a negative effect on body composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urinary Metabolomics in Pediatric Obesity and NAFLD Identifies Metabolic Pathways/Metabolites Related to Dietary Habits and Gut-Liver Axis Perturbations
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 485; doi:10.3390/nu9050485
Received: 2 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO),
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To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD). SIBO was increased in all obese children (p = 0.0022), IP preferentially in those with NAFLD (p = 0.0002). The partial least-square discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome correctly allocated children based on their obesity, NAFLD, visceral fat, pathological IP and SIBO. Compared to NW, obese children had (1) higher levels of glucose/1-methylhistidine, the latter more markedly in NAFLD patients; and (2) lower levels of xylitol, phenyl acetic acid and hydroquinone, the latter especially in children without NAFLD. The metabolic pathways of BCAA and/or their metabolites correlated with excess of visceral fat centimeters (leucine/oxo-valerate), and more deranged IP and SIBO (valine metabolites). Urinary metabolome analysis contributes to define a metabolic fingerprint of pediatric obesity and related NAFLD, by identifying metabolic pathways/metabolites reflecting typical obesity dietary habits and GLA perturbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Maternal Selenium Status on Infant Outcome during the First 6 Months of Life
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 486; doi:10.3390/nu9050486
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Pregnant women and infants are at risk for selenium deficiency, which is known to have negative effects on immune and brain function. We have investigated selenium levels in 158 healthy never-pregnant women and in 114 pregnant and lactating women and their infants at
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Pregnant women and infants are at risk for selenium deficiency, which is known to have negative effects on immune and brain function. We have investigated selenium levels in 158 healthy never-pregnant women and in 114 pregnant and lactating women and their infants at age 6 months and related this to clinical outcomes during the first 6 months of life. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the parental questionnaire Ages and Stages (ASQ) at 6 months. A maternal selenium level ≤0.90 µmol/L in pregnancy week 18 was negatively related to infant neurodevelopment at 6 months (B = −20, p = 0.01), whereas a selenium level ≤0.78 µmol/L in pregnancy week 36 was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio 4.8) of having an infant infection during the first 6 weeks of life. A low maternal selenium status in pregnancy was found to be associated with an increased risk of infant infection during the first 6 weeks of life and a lower psychomotor score at 6 months. We suggest a cutoff for maternal serum selenium deficiency of 0.90 µmol/L in pregnancy week 18 and 0.78 µmol/L in pregnancy week 36. This should be reevaluated in an intervention study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle B-Vitamin Intake from Diet and Supplements and Breast Cancer Risk in Middle-Aged Women: Results from the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 488; doi:10.3390/nu9050488
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Experimental studies suggest a protective effect of B-vitamins on breast cancer risk, potentially modulated by alcohol intake. However, epidemiological studies are limited, especially regarding non-folate B-vitamins. Furthermore, few studies included quantitative assessment of supplemental intake. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations
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Experimental studies suggest a protective effect of B-vitamins on breast cancer risk, potentially modulated by alcohol intake. However, epidemiological studies are limited, especially regarding non-folate B-vitamins. Furthermore, few studies included quantitative assessment of supplemental intake. This prospective study aimed to investigate the associations between intakes of B-vitamins (dietary, supplemental, total) and breast cancer risk. 27,853 women aged ≥45 years from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2016) were included, with a median follow-up time of 4.2 years. Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of 8000 supplements was developed. Associations were characterized by multivariable Cox models, and 462 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Dietary (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.74 (0.55, 0.99), P-trend = 0.05), supplemental (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.61 (0.38, 0.98), P-trend = 0.05), and total (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.67 (0.50, 0.91), P-trend = 0.01) pyridoxine intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Total thiamin intake was borderline inversely associated with breast cancer risk (HRper 1-unit increment = 0.78 (0.61, 1.00), P = 0.05). Statistically significant interactions between alcohol consumption and B-vitamin (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin) supplemental intake were observed, the latter being inversely associated with breast cancer risk in non-to-low alcohol drinkers but not in higher drinkers. This large prospective study, including quantitative assessment of supplemental intake, suggests a potential protective effect of pyridoxine and thiamin on breast cancer risk in middle-aged women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Desalted Duck Egg White Peptides Promote Calcium Uptake and Modulate Bone Formation in the Retinoic Acid-Induced Bone Loss Rat and Caco-2 Cell Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 490; doi:10.3390/nu9050490
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Desalted duck egg white peptides (DPs) have been proven to promote calcium uptake in Caco-2 cells and rats treated with a calcium-deficient diet. The retinoic acid-induced bone loss model was used to evaluate the effect of DPs on calcium absorption and bone formation.
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Desalted duck egg white peptides (DPs) have been proven to promote calcium uptake in Caco-2 cells and rats treated with a calcium-deficient diet. The retinoic acid-induced bone loss model was used to evaluate the effect of DPs on calcium absorption and bone formation. Three-month-old Wistar female rats were treated with 0.9% saline, DPs (800 mg/kg), or alendronate (5 mg/kg) for three weeks immediately after retinoic acid treatment (80 mg/kg) once daily for two weeks. The model group was significantly higher in serum bone alkaline phosphatase than the other three groups (p < 0.05), but lower in calcium absorption rate, serum osteocalcin, bone weight index, bone calcium content, bone mineral density, and bone max load. After treatment with DPs or alendronate, the absorption rate increased and some serum and bone indices recovered. The morphology results indicated bone tissue form were ameliorated and numbers of osteoclasts decreased after supplementation with DPs or alendronate. The in vitro study showed that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) calcium channel was the main transport pathway of both DPs and Val-Ser-Glu-Glu peptitde (VSEE), which was identified from DPs. Our results indicated that DPs could be a promising alternative to current therapeutic agents for bone loss because of the promotion of calcium uptake and regulation of bone formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Stunting among Children Aged 0 to 59 Months from the Central Region of Mozambique
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 491; doi:10.3390/nu9050491
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify the major socio-demographic, health, and environmental determinants of stunting among children aged 0–59 months from the Tete province (Mozambique) and offering useful information for future healthcare strategies and interventions. A case-control study was conducted among
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The objective of this study was to identify the major socio-demographic, health, and environmental determinants of stunting among children aged 0–59 months from the Tete province (Mozambique) and offering useful information for future healthcare strategies and interventions. A case-control study was conducted among 282 (162 boys; 120 girls) children under five years of age from the central region of Mozambique between 1 May and 3 June 2014. Children with stunting (HAZ < −2 SD according to the WHO Child Growth Standards in 2006) were considered as cases and those who had a Z-score < −2 SD were considered as controls. We collected data related to mothers and children and their environment, and they were assessed in two groups to find a possible association. The software used for data analysis was the SPSS®(version, 21.0) using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, chi-square analyses, bivariate comparisons, and stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that birth weight, mother’s educational status, maternal occupation, living in a rural area, family size, number of children under five years of age in the household, cooking with charcoal, inhabiting wooden or straw housing or housing without proper floors, overall duration of breastfeeding as well as duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and time of initiation of complementary feeding were significantly related to stunting. Thus, appropriate nutritional intervention programmes considering these determinants and the dissemination of knowledge at the population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate the children´s nutritional status. Full article
Open AccessArticle NAFLD and Atherosclerosis Are Prevented by a Natural Dietary Supplement Containing Curcumin, Silymarin, Guggul, Chlorogenic Acid and Inulin in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 492; doi:10.3390/nu9050492
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS)
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS. NAFLD and atherogenic lesions in aorta and carotid artery (histological analysis), hepatic expression of genes involved in the NAFLD (PCR array), hepatic angiotensinogen (AGT) and AT1R mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and plasma angiotensin (ANG)-II levels (ELISA) were evaluated. In the NDS group, steatosis, aortic lesions or carotid artery thickening was not observed. PCR array showed upregulation of some genes involved in lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity (Cpt2, Ifng) and downregulation of some genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and in free fatty acid up-take (Fabp5, Socs3). Hepatic AGT, AT1R mRNA and ANG II plasma levels were significantly lower with respect to the untreated-group. Furthermore, NDS inhibited the dyslipidemia observed in the untreated animals. Altogether, these results suggest that NDS prevents NAFLD and atherogenesis by modulating the expression of different genes involved in NAFLD and avoiding RAS imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 493; doi:10.3390/nu9050493
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study
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Background: Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Results: 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants’ iodine status. Conclusion: This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 494; doi:10.3390/nu9050494
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Food sources of nutrients in Mexican children are not well known. To fill the knowledge gap, dietary intake was assessed in 2057 children using a 24-hour dietary recall. All reported foods and beverages were assigned to one of 76 food groups. Percent contribution
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Food sources of nutrients in Mexican children are not well known. To fill the knowledge gap, dietary intake was assessed in 2057 children using a 24-hour dietary recall. All reported foods and beverages were assigned to one of 76 food groups. Percent contribution of each food group to nutrient intake was estimated for four age groups: 0–5.9, 6–11.9, 12–23.9, and 24–47.9 months. Breast milk, infant formula, and cow’s milk were the top sources of energy and nutrients, especially in younger groups. Among infants aged 6–11.9 months, the top food sources of energy included soups and stews, cookies, fruit, tortillas, eggs and egg dishes, and traditional beverages. The same foods plus sweetened breads, dried beans, and sandwiches and tortas were consumed as the top sources of energy among toddlers and young children. Milk, soups, and stews were the top contributors for all nutrients and tortillas, eggs, and egg dishes were among the top contributors for iron and zinc. This study showed that low nutrient-dense cookies, sweetened breads, and traditional beverages were among the core foods consumed early in life in Mexico. This compromises the intake of more nutritious foods such as vegetables and fortified cereals and increases the risk of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
Open AccessArticle Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 497; doi:10.3390/nu9050497
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR) or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects
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Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR) or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD), DR, high-fat diet (HFD), and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw)/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG) elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Unprocessed Meat Consumption and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 498; doi:10.3390/nu9050498
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from
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Meat consumption has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Western societies; however, epidemiological data are limited on the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the associations between unprocessed meat consumption and CVD incidence in Korea. Data were derived from the Ansung-Ansan cohort (2001–2012), including 9370 adults (40–69 years) without CVD or cancer at baseline. Total unprocessed meat consumption was estimated as the sum of unprocessed red meat (beef, pork, and organ meat) and poultry consumption. In the fully adjusted Cox regression model, the relative risks of CVD across increasing quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.95), 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95), and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.97), but no significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.14). Frequent poultry consumption was significantly associated with a decreased CVD risk; this association showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend = 0.04). This study showed that a moderate intake of total unprocessed meat was inversely associated with CVD risk. A significant inverse association between poultry consumption and incident CVD was observed in Korean adults, requiring further confirmation in other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessCommunication A Proposal for a Study on Treatment Selection and Lifestyle Recommendations in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: A Danish Multidisciplinary Collaboration on Prognostic Factors and Personalised Medicine
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 499; doi:10.3390/nu9050499
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro-inflammatory molecule tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) (i.e., TNF inhibitors). Approximately one-third of
[...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro-inflammatory molecule tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) (i.e., TNF inhibitors). Approximately one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. Genetics and lifestyle may affect the treatment results. The aims of this multidisciplinary collaboration are to identify (1) molecular signatures of prognostic value to help tailor treatment decisions to an individual likely to initiate TNF inhibitor therapy, followed by (2) lifestyle factors that support achievement of optimised treatment outcome. This report describes the establishment of a cohort that aims to obtain this information. Clinical data including lifestyle and treatment response and biological specimens (blood, faeces, urine, and, in IBD patients, intestinal biopsies) are sampled prior to and while on TNF inhibitor therapy. Both hypothesis-driven and data-driven analyses will be performed according to pre-specified protocols including pathway analyses resulting from candidate gene expression analyses and global approaches (e.g., metabolomics, metagenomics, proteomics). The final purpose is to improve the lives of patients suffering from CIDs, by providing tools facilitating treatment selection and dietary recommendations likely to improve the clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
Open AccessArticle Macronutrient Intake and Risk of Crohn’s Disease: Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 500; doi:10.3390/nu9050500
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
Dietary intake is potentially associated with the onset of Crohn’s disease (CD), but evidence from epidemiological studies has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the role of macronutrient intake in the development of CD. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and
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Dietary intake is potentially associated with the onset of Crohn’s disease (CD), but evidence from epidemiological studies has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the role of macronutrient intake in the development of CD. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies, and the role of macronutrients in the development of CD was quantitatively assessed by dose–response meta-analysis. Four case-control studies (a total of 311 CD cases and 660 controls) and five prospective cohort studies (238,887 participants and 482 cases) were identified. The pooled relative risks (RR) for per 10 g increment/day were 0.991 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.978–1.004) for total carbohydrate intake, 1.018 (95% CI: 0.969–1.069) for total fat intake, and 1.029 (95% CI: 0.955–1.109) for total protein intake. Fiber intake was inversely associated with CD risk (RR for per 10 g increment/day: 0.853, 95% CI: 0.762–0.955), but the association was influenced by study design and smoking adjustment. In subtypes, sucrose intake was positively related with CD risk (RR for per 10 g increment/day: 1.088, 95% CI: 1.020–1.160). Non-linear dose–response association was also found between fiber and sucrose intake and CD risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total carbohydrate, fat or protein intake and the risk of CD, while high fiber intake might decrease the risk. In subtypes, high sucrose intake might increase the risk of CD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in the Sodium Content of Australian Processed Foods between 1980 and 2013 Using Analytical Data
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 501; doi:10.3390/nu9050501
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to obtain analytical data on the sodium content of a range of processed foods and compare the levels obtained with their label claims and with published data of the same or equivalent processed foods in the 1980s
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The objective of this study was to obtain analytical data on the sodium content of a range of processed foods and compare the levels obtained with their label claims and with published data of the same or equivalent processed foods in the 1980s and 1990s to investigate the extent of any change in sodium content in relation to reformulation targets. The sodium contents of 130 Australian processed foods were obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis and compared with previously published data. The sodium content between 1980 and 2013 across all products and by each product category were compared. There was a significant overall sodium reduction of 23%, 181 mg/100 g (p <0.001, 95% CI (Confidence Interval), 90 to 272 mg/100 g), in Australian processed foods since 1980, with a 12% (83 mg/100 g) reduction over the last 18 years. The sodium content of convenience foods (p < 0.001, 95% CI, 94 to 291 mg/100 g) and snack foods (p = 0.017, 95% CI, 44 to 398 mg/100 g) had declined significantly since 1980. Meanwhile, the sodium contents of processed meats (p = 0.655, 95% CI, −121 to 190) and bread and other bakery products (p = 0.115, 95% CI, −22 to 192) had decreased, though not significantly. Conversely, the sodium content of cheese (p = 0.781, 95% CI, −484 to 369 mg/100 g) had increased but also not significantly. Of the 130 products analysed, 62% met Australian reformulation targets. Sodium contents of the processed foods and the overall changes in comparison with previous data indicate a decrease over the 33 years period and suggest that the Australian recommended reformulation targets have been effective. Further sodium reduction of processed foods is still required and continuous monitoring of the reduction of sodium levels in processed foods is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Emerging Evidence on Neutrophil Motility Supporting Its Usefulness to Define Vitamin C Intake Requirements
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 503; doi:10.3390/nu9050503
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
Establishing intake recommendations for vitamin C remains a challenge, as no suitable functional parameter has yet been agreed upon. In this report, we review the emerging evidence on neutrophil motility as a possible marker of vitamin C requirements and put the results in
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Establishing intake recommendations for vitamin C remains a challenge, as no suitable functional parameter has yet been agreed upon. In this report, we review the emerging evidence on neutrophil motility as a possible marker of vitamin C requirements and put the results in perspective with other approaches. A recent in vitro study showed that adequate levels of vitamin C were needed for this function to work optimally when measured as chemotaxis and chemokinesis. In a human study, neutrophil motility was optimal at intakes ≥250 mg/day. Interestingly, a Cochrane review showed a significant reduction in the duration of episodes of common cold with regular vitamin C intakes in a similar range. Additionally, it was shown that at a plasma level of 75 µmol/L, which is reached with vitamin C intakes ≥200 mg/day, incidences of cardiovascular disease were lowest. This evidence would suggest that daily intakes of 200 mg vitamin C might be advisable for the general adult population, which can be achieved by means of a diverse diet. However, additional studies are warranted to investigate the usefulness of neutrophil motility as a marker of vitamin C requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 504; doi:10.3390/nu9050504
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca) supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD) on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca
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The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca) supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD) on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 505; doi:10.3390/nu9050505
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during
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Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). In school children, no difference was observed between the intervention and control groups with regard to anthropometric data. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Intravenous Arginine Administration Promotes Proangiogenic Cells Mobilization and Attenuates Lung Injury in Mice with Polymicrobial Sepsis
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 507; doi:10.3390/nu9050507
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the influence of intravenous arginine (Arg) administration on alteration of circulating proangiogenic cells and remote lung injury in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were assigned to one normal control group (NC) and two sepsis groups that were induced by
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This study investigated the influence of intravenous arginine (Arg) administration on alteration of circulating proangiogenic cells and remote lung injury in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were assigned to one normal control group (NC) and two sepsis groups that were induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). One of the sepsis groups was injected with saline (SS), whereas the other (SA) was administered with a single bolus of 300 mg Arg/kg body weight via the tail vein 1 h after CLP. Septic mice were sacrificed at either 24 or 48 h after CLP, with their blood and lung tissues collected for analysis. Results showed that septic groups had higher proangiogenic cells releasing factors and proangiogenic cells percentage in blood. Also, concentration of inflammatory cytokines and expression of angiopoietin (Angpt)/Tie-2 genes in lung tissues were upregulated. Arg administration promoted mobilization of circulating proangiogenic cells while it downregulated the production of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Angpt/Tie-2 genes in the lung. The results of this investigation suggested that intravenous administration of Arg shortly after the onset of sepsis enhanced the mobilization of circulating proangiogenic cells, maintained the homeostasis of the Angpt/Tie-2 axis, and attenuated remote organ injury in polymicrobial sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 508; doi:10.3390/nu9050508
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were
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Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Green Pea Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice Challenged with High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 509; doi:10.3390/nu9050509
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation
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Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days followed by a 7-day recovery period. GP supplementation ameliorated the disease activity index score in HFD-fed mice during the recovery stage, and reduced neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HFD-fed mice. Further, GP supplementation increased mucin 2 content and mRNA expression of goblet cell differentiation markers including Trefoil factor 3 (Tff3), Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), and SAM pointed domain ETS factor 1 (Spdef1) in HFD-fed mice. In addition, GP ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as indicated by the reduced expression of Activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6) protein and its target genes chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), the ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1 protein (Edem1), and the X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, GP supplementation ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in HFD-fed mice, which was associated with the suppression of inflammation, mucin depletion, and ER stress in the colon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Dietary Calcium Intake on Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 510; doi:10.3390/nu9050510
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary calcium intake and the risk of esophageal cancer, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to make a comprehensive evaluation regarding the association between calcium intake and risk of esophageal cancer through a
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Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary calcium intake and the risk of esophageal cancer, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to make a comprehensive evaluation regarding the association between calcium intake and risk of esophageal cancer through a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant articles from the inception to April 2017, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge. The pooled odds ratio (ORs) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of calcium intake was calculated using a Mantel–Haenszel fixed-effect model. In total, 15 articles reporting 17 studies including 3396 esophageal cancer cases and 346,815 controls were selected for the meta-analysis. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest levels of dietary calcium intake, we found that dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.71–0.91, I2 = 33.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated that the protective function of dietary calcium intake were observed in esophageal squamous cell cancer, but not in esophageal adenocarcinoma in the studies conducted in Asia, but not those in Europe and America. In conclusion, our results suggest that higher dietary calcium intake is associated with a lower risk of esophageal cancer—especially esophageal squamous cell cancer—in Asian populations, though more data from prospective cohort studies are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vegetable and Fruit Intake and Fracture-Related Hospitalisations: A Prospective Study of Older Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 511; doi:10.3390/nu9050511
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
The importance of vegetable and fruit intakes for the prevention of fracture in older women is not well understood. Few studies have explored vegetable and fruit intakes separately, or the associations of specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture hospitalisations. The objective
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The importance of vegetable and fruit intakes for the prevention of fracture in older women is not well understood. Few studies have explored vegetable and fruit intakes separately, or the associations of specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture hospitalisations. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of vegetable and fruit intakes, separately, and specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture-related hospitalisations in a prospective cohort of women aged ≥70 years. Vegetable and fruit intakes were assessed at baseline (1998) in 1468 women using a food frequency questionnaire. The incidence of fracture-related hospitalisations over 14.5 years of follow-up was determined using the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, linked via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Fractures were identified in 415 (28.3%) women, of which 158 (10.8%) were hip fractures. Higher intakes of vegetables, but not fruits, were associated with lower fracture incidence. In multivariable-adjusted models for vegetable types, cruciferous and allium vegetables were inversely associated with all fractures, with a hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) of 0.72 (0.54, 0.95) and 0.66 (0.49, 0.88), respectively, for the highest vs. lowest quartiles. Increasing vegetable intake, with an emphasis on cruciferous and allium vegetables, may prevent fractures in older postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
Open AccessArticle Sleep-Promoting Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action Associated with a Standardized Rice Bran Supplement
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 512; doi:10.3390/nu9050512
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran—a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of
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Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran—a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS), we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Moreover, both RBS (1000 mg/kg) and doxepin hydrochloride (histamine H1 receptor antagonist, 30 mg/kg) counteracted a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. In terms of sleep phases, RBS (500 mg/kg) promoted non-rapid eye movement sleep for the first 3 h following its administration. Lastly, we unveiled a possible mechanism for RBS action as the hypnotic effect of RBS was blocked by a histamine H1 receptor agonist. The present study revealed sleep-promoting effects of RBS using various animal assays. Such effects seem to be mediated through the histaminergic system. Our findings suggest that RBS may be a promising natural aid for relieving sleep problems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 514; doi:10.3390/nu9050514
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on
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Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity” (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p < 0.001), MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05,1.23; p = 0.001), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05,1.21; p = 0.001), B(a)P (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02,1.19; p = 0.017) and MDM (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07,1.28; p = 0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose–response meta-analysis between CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p < 0.001). No publication bias could be detected, whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calculation of Haem Iron Intake and Its Role in the Development of Iron Deficiency in Young Women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 515; doi:10.3390/nu9050515
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate
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Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate haem iron intake in a representative sample of young women (25–30 years). The association between dietary haem iron intakes and incident self-reported diagnosed iron deficiency over six years of follow-up was examined. Haem iron contents for Australian red meats, fish, and poultry were applied to haem-containing foods in the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies V2 (DQESv2) FFQ. Haem iron intakes were calculated for 9076 women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) using the DQESv2 dietary data from 2003. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between haem iron intake (2003) and the incidence of iron deficiency in 2006 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression showed baseline haem iron intake was a statistically significant predictor of iron deficiency in 2006 (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.84–0.99; p-value: 0.020) and 2009 (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82–0.99; p-value: 0.007). Using the energy-adjusted haem intake made little difference to the associations. Higher haem iron intake is associated with reduced odds of iron deficiency developing in young adult Australian women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 516; doi:10.3390/nu9050516
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
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Abstract
Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza
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Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c) mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil), and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly (I:C), induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1) or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 518; doi:10.3390/nu9050518
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a
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In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index)/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1–16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins) ratio (p < 0.001) and non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.044) and a statistically significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009) in the exposed group, while there was no difference in the BMI and BMI z-scores. The dietary advice has no adverse effect on the lipid profile, BMI, and BMI z-scores in children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Increase in Weight in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Fortified Breast Milk versus Formula Milk: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 520; doi:10.3390/nu9050520
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
There has been a dramatic rise in preterm births in developed countries owing to changes in clinical practices and greater use of assisted reproductive techniques. However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding
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There has been a dramatic rise in preterm births in developed countries owing to changes in clinical practices and greater use of assisted reproductive techniques. However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we included 642 preterm infants at gestational age <37 weeks with birth weights <2200 g. According to World Health Organization criteria, 466 were classified as low birth weight (LBW) infants (≥1500 g and <2200 g) and 176 were classified as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g). The mothers of approximately 80% of VLBW infants and 60% LBW infants initiated breast milk feeding. When compared with no breast milk intake, LBW infants that received breast milk were significantly more likely to have growth z-scores closer to the median of the reference population on admission and experienced slower weight gain from birth to discharge. When breast milk was categorized by percent of total enteral intake, significant differences were seen among LBW infants, with lower percentages of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status at discharge with increased proportions of breast milk intake. Our results suggest that LBW infants fed breast milk had better growth z-scores and lower SGA status at discharge compared with those predominately fed preterm formula. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vitamin A Status of Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, is Unchanged One Year after Initiation of a National Vitamin A Oil Fortification Program
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 522; doi:10.3390/nu9050522
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin A (VA) fortification of cooking oil is considered a cost-effective strategy for increasing VA status, but few large-scale programs have been evaluated. We conducted representative surveys in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 2 years before and 1 year after the introduction of a
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Vitamin A (VA) fortification of cooking oil is considered a cost-effective strategy for increasing VA status, but few large-scale programs have been evaluated. We conducted representative surveys in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 2 years before and 1 year after the introduction of a mandatory national program to fortify cooking oil with VA. In each survey, 10 different households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters (n = ~300). Malaria infection and plasma indicators of inflammation and VA (retinol-binding protein, pRBP) status were assessed among women aged 15–49 years and children aged 12–59 months, and casual breast milk samples were collected for VA and fat measurements. Refined oil intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire, and VA was measured in household oil samples post-fortification. Pre-fortification, low inflammation-adjusted pRBP was common among children (33% <0.83 µmol/L), but not women (2% <0.78 µmol/L). Refined cooking oil was consumed by >80% of participants in the past week. Post-fortification, only 44% of oil samples were fortified, but fortified samples contained VA concentrations close to the target values. Controlling for age, inflammation, and other covariates, there was no difference in the mean pRBP, mean breast milk VA, prevalence of low pRBP, or prevalence of low milk VA between the pre- and post-fortification surveys. The frequency of refined oil intake was not associated with VA status indicators post-fortification. In sum, after a year of cooking oil fortification with VA, we did not detect evidence of increased plasma RBP or milk VA among urban women and preschool children, possibly because less than half of the refined oil was fortified. The enforcement of norms should be strengthened, and the program should be evaluated in other regions where the prevalence of VA deficiency was greater pre-fortification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Retrospective Evaluation of Metformin and/or Metformin Plus a New Polysaccharide Complex in Treating Severe Hyperinsulinism and Insulin Resistance in Obese Children and Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 524; doi:10.3390/nu9050524
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: Pharmacological treatment of obesity and glucose-insulin metabolism disorders in children may be more difficult than in adults. Thus, we evaluate the effects of metformin in comparison with metformin plus a polysaccharide complex (Policaptil Gel Retard®, PGR) on body weight and
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Background: Pharmacological treatment of obesity and glucose-insulin metabolism disorders in children may be more difficult than in adults. Thus, we evaluate the effects of metformin in comparison with metformin plus a polysaccharide complex (Policaptil Gel Retard®, PGR) on body weight and metabolic parameters in obese children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Patients and methods: We retrospectively collected 129 children and adolescents (67 girls, 62 boys; median age 12.6 years) treated for a minimum of two years with metformin and low glycemic index (LGI) diet. Of these, 71 patients were treated with metformin plus PGR after at least 12 months of metformin alone. To minimize the confounding effect of the LGI on auxological and metabolic parameters, the patients were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control group with obesity and MetS (51 subjects; 24 males, 27 females) treated only with a LGI diet. Assessments included lipids, glucose and insulin (fasting and after oral glucose tolerance test) concentrations. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indices were calculated. Results: Metformin treatment led to a significant reduction in BMI SDS (p < 0.0001), with a significant difference in ΔBMI SDS between patients and controls (p < 0.0001). Moreover, metformin treated patients showed a reduction in HOMA-IR (p < 0.0001), HbA1c levels (p < 0.0001) and a significant increase in Matsuda index (p < 0.0001) in respect to the reduction discovered in controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, in contrast to the group treated with metformin alone and controls, patients treated with metformin plus PGR showed a further reduction in BMI SDS (p < 0.0001), HOMA-IR (p < 0.0001), HbA1c (p < 0.0001), total, HDL and LDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001), as well as an increase in Matsuda (p < 0.0001), disposition (p < 0.005) and insulinogenic (respectively, p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001) indices. Conclusions: Metformin appears to show short-term efficacy in reducing BMI, adiposity and glucose and insulin parameters in obese children and adolescents with MetS. However, PGR added to metformin may be useful to potentiate weight loss and to improve glucose-insulin metabolism and adiposity parameters in these patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Urban–Rural Disparities in Energy Intake and Contribution of Fat and Animal Source Foods in Chinese Children Aged 4–17 Years
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 526; doi:10.3390/nu9050526
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Excessive energy intake and poor food choices are major health concerns associated with overweight and obesity risk. This study aims to explore disparities in energy intake and the contributions from fat and animal source foods among Chinese school-aged children and adolescents in
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Objective: Excessive energy intake and poor food choices are major health concerns associated with overweight and obesity risk. This study aims to explore disparities in energy intake and the contributions from fat and animal source foods among Chinese school-aged children and adolescents in different communities based on urbanization levels. Design: Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to assess dietary intake. Subjects’ height and weight were measured using standard equipment. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics by trained interviewers. Setting: The 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey is part of an ongoing longitudinal household survey across 228 communities in nine provinces and three mega-cities in China. Subjects consisted of children aged 4–17 years (n = 1866; 968 boys and 898 girls). Results: The estimated average energy intake was 1604 kcal/day (1706 kcal/day for boys and 1493 kcal/day for girls). Proportions of energy from fat and animal source foods were 36.8% and 19.8% respectively and did not differ by gender. Total energy intake showed no significant disparity, but the proportion of energy from fat and animal source foods increased with increasing urbanization levels and increasing household income level. The largest difference in consumption percentages between children in rural areas and those in highly urban areas was for milk and dairy products (14.8% versus 74.4%) and the smallest difference was seen in percent consuming meat and meat products (83.1% versus 97.1%). Conclusions: Results of this study highlight the need for developing and implementing community-specific strategies to improve Chinese children’s diet quality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimal Energy Delivery, Rather than the Implementation of a Feeding Protocol, May Benefit Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 527; doi:10.3390/nu9050527
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
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Abstract
Malnutrition is common in intensive care units (ICU), and volume based feeding protocols have been proposed to increase nutrient delivery. However, the volume based approach compared to trophic feeding has not been proven entirely successful in critically ill patients. Our study aimed to
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Malnutrition is common in intensive care units (ICU), and volume based feeding protocols have been proposed to increase nutrient delivery. However, the volume based approach compared to trophic feeding has not been proven entirely successful in critically ill patients. Our study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes both before and after the implementation of the feeding protocol, and to also evaluate the effects of total energy delivery on outcomes in these patients. We retrospectively collected all patient data, one year before and after the implementation of the volume-based feeding protocol, in the ICU at Taichung Veterans General Hospital. Daily actual energy intake from enteral nutritional support was recorded from the day of ICU admission until either the 7th day of ICU stay, or the day of discharge from the ICU. The energy achievement rate (%) was calculated as: (actual energy intake/estimated energy requirement) × 100%. Two-hundred fourteen patients were enrolled before the implementation of the volume-based feeding protocol (pre-FP group), while 198 patients were enrolled after the implementation of the volume-based feeding protocol (FP group). Although patients in the FP group had significantly higher actual energy intakes and achievement rates when compared with the patients in the pre-FP group, there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups. Comparing survivors and non-survivors from both groups, an energy achievement rate of less than 65% was associated with an increased mortality rate after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 1.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.47). The implementation of the feeding protocol could improve energy intake for critically ill patients, however it had no beneficial effects on reducing the ICU mortality rate. Receiving at least 65% of their energy requirements is the main key point for improving clinical outcomes in patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 529; doi:10.3390/nu9050529
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The
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Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L. rhamnosus GR-1 when grown in 8% millet in water. Single cultures of L. rhamnosus GR-1 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of dextrose, galactose and fructose. Single cultures of S. thermophilus C106 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of sucrose and lactose. All tested recipes reached viable counts of the probiotic bacteria, with counts greater than 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Notably, a number of organic acids were quantified, in particular phytic acid, which was shown to decrease when fermentation time increased, thereby improving the bioavailability of specific micronutrients. Millet fermented in milk proved to be the most favorable, according to a sensory evaluation. In conclusion, this study has shown that sachets being provided to African communities to produce fermented milk, can also be used to produce fermented millet. This provides an option for when milk supplies are short, or if communities wish to utilize the nutrient-rich qualities of locally-grown millet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle (−)-Epiafzelechin Protects against Ovariectomy-induced Bone Loss in Adult Mice and Modulate Osteoblastic and Osteoclastic Functions In Vitro
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 530; doi:10.3390/nu9050530
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (−)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were
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The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (−)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice. EAF significantly increased cell viability, alkaline phosphatise (ALP) activity, and collagen content, as well as runt-related transcriptional factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA expression in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, EAF significantly reduced the viability of osteoclast precursor murine leukemia monocyte RAW 264.7 cells and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities in mature osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. EAF is a bioactive flavan-3-ol that protects estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in OVX mice and exerts direct modulating effects in bone cells in vitro. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose, Glucocorticoids and Adipose Tissue: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 426; doi:10.3390/nu9050426
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake
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The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 429; doi:10.3390/nu9050429
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Anxiety related conditions are the most common affective disorders present in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of over 15%. Magnesium (Mg) status is associated with subjective anxiety, leading to the proposition that Mg supplementation may attenuate anxiety symptoms. This systematic
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Background: Anxiety related conditions are the most common affective disorders present in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of over 15%. Magnesium (Mg) status is associated with subjective anxiety, leading to the proposition that Mg supplementation may attenuate anxiety symptoms. This systematic review examines the available evidence for the efficacy of Mg supplementation in the alleviation of subjective measures of anxiety and stress. Methods: A systematic search of interventions with Mg alone or in combination (up to 5 additional ingredients) was performed in May 2016. Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched using equivalent search terms. A grey literature review of relevant sources was also undertaken. Results: 18 studies were included in the review. All reviewed studies recruited samples based upon an existing vulnerability to anxiety: mildly anxious, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), postpartum status, and hypertension. Four/eight studies in anxious samples, four/seven studies in PMS samples, and one/two studies in hypertensive samples reported positive effects of Mg on subjective anxiety outcomes. Mg had no effect on postpartum anxiety. No study administered a validated measure of subjective stress as an outcome. Conclusions: Existing evidence is suggestive of a beneficial effect of Mg on subjective anxiety in anxiety vulnerable samples. However, the quality of the existing evidence is poor. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to further confirm the efficacy of Mg supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessReview The “Metabolic Memory” Theory and the Early Treatment of Hyperglycemia in Prevention of Diabetic Complications
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 437; doi:10.3390/nu9050437
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Several epidemiological and prospective studies suggest that an early intensive control of hyperglycaemia is able to decrease the risk of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. A growing body of experimental evidence supports the concept that the risk for diabetes complications may be linked
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Several epidemiological and prospective studies suggest that an early intensive control of hyperglycaemia is able to decrease the risk of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. A growing body of experimental evidence supports the concept that the risk for diabetes complications may be linked to oxidative stress, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, epigenetic changes, and chronic inflammation, laying the foundation for the “metabolic memory” theory. From a clinical point of view, this theory supports the need for a very early aggressive treatment, with the goal of normalizing metabolic control as soon as possible. It may also prove beneficial to introduce therapeutic agents that are able to reduce reactive species and glycation, in addition to presenting better control of glucose levels in patients with diabetes, in order to minimize long-term diabetes complications. In this review, we evaluate the effect of glucose intake and metabolism in the light of this theory. Full article
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Open AccessReview Trace Elements in Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for the Prescribing Clinician
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 440; doi:10.3390/nu9050440
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of
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Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of the effects of deficiencies and toxicities of certain trace elements. Despite this heightened awareness, much is still unknown in terms of trace element monitoring, the accuracy of different assays, and current TE contamination of solutions. The supplementation of TEs is a complex and important part of the PN prescription. Understanding the role of different disease states and the need for reduced or increased doses is essential. Given the heterogeneity of the PN patients, supplementation should be individualized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
Open AccessReview Choline, Other Methyl-Donors and Epigenetics
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 445; doi:10.3390/nu9050445
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Choline dietary intake varies such that many people do not achieve adequate intakes. Diet intake of choline can modulate methylation because, via betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), this nutrient (and its metabolite, betaine) regulate the concentrations of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine. Some of the epigenetic
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Choline dietary intake varies such that many people do not achieve adequate intakes. Diet intake of choline can modulate methylation because, via betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), this nutrient (and its metabolite, betaine) regulate the concentrations of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine. Some of the epigenetic mechanisms that modify gene expression without modifying the genetic code depend on the methylation of DNA or of histones; and diet availability of choline and other methyl-group donors influences both of these methylations. Examples of methyl-donor mediated epigenetic effects include the changes in coat color and body weight in offspring when pregnant agouti mice are fed high choline, high methyl diets; the changes in tail kinking in offspring when pregnant Axin(Fu) mice are fed high choline, high methyl diets; the changes in Cdkn3 methylation and altered brain development that occurs in offspring when pregnant rodents are fed low choline diets. When choline metabolism is disrupted by deleting the gene Bhmt, DNA methylation is affected (especially in a region of chromosome 13), expression of specific genes is suppressed, and liver cancers develop. Better understanding of how nutrients such as choline and methyl-donors influence epigenetic programs has importance for our understanding of not only developmental abnormalities but also for understanding the origins of chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Open AccessReview The Impact of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) on the Gut Microbiome in Crohn’s Disease: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 0447; doi:10.3390/nu9050447
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
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Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is thought to arise from a complex interaction of genetics, the gut microbiome, and environmental factors, such as diet. There is clear evidence that dietary intervention is successful in the treatment of CD—exclusive
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Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is thought to arise from a complex interaction of genetics, the gut microbiome, and environmental factors, such as diet. There is clear evidence that dietary intervention is successful in the treatment of CD—exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is able to induce remission in up to 80% of CD patients. While the mechanism of action of EEN is not clear, EEN is known to cause profound changes in the gut microbiome. Understanding how EEN modifies the gut microbiome to induce remission could provide insight into CD etiopathogenesis and aid the development of microbiome-targeted interventions to guide ongoing dietary therapy to sustain remission. This review includes current literature on changes in composition and function of the gut microbiome associated with EEN treatment in CD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
Open AccessReview Effect of Probiotics on Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 461; doi:10.3390/nu9050461
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with
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The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English between 2001 and 2017 investigating the metabolic effects of a 6–8 week dietary probiotic intervention in pregnant women following diagnosis with GDM. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias and subjected to qualitative and quantitative synthesis using a random effects model meta-analyses. Four high quality RCTs involving 288 participants were included in the review. Probiotic supplementation was not effective in decreasing FBG (Mean Difference = −0.13; 95% CI −0.32, 0.06, p = 0.18) or LDL-cholesterol (−0.16; 95% CI −0.45, 0.13, p = 0.67) in women with GDM. However, a significant reduction in HOMA-IR was observed following probiotic supplementation (−0.69; 95% CI −1.24, −0.14, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in gestational weight gain, delivery method or neonatal outcomes between experimental and control groups, and no adverse effects of the probiotics were reported. Probiotic supplementation for 6–8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in insulin resistance in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. The use of probiotic supplementation is promising as a potential therapy to assist in the metabolic management of GDM. Further high quality studies of longer duration are required to determine the safety, optimal dose and ideal bacterial composition of probiotics before their routine use can be recommended in this patient group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 466; doi:10.3390/nu9050466
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients
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Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient’s home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
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Open AccessReview Attenuating the Biologic Drive for Weight Regain Following Weight Loss: Must What Goes Down Always Go Back Up?
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 468; doi:10.3390/nu9050468
Received: 11 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements—producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin
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Metabolic adaptations occur with weight loss that result in increased hunger with discordant simultaneous reductions in energy requirements—producing the so-called energy gap in which more energy is desired than is required. The increased hunger is associated with elevation of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and decrements in anorexigenic hormones. The lower total daily energy expenditure with diet-induced weight loss results from (1) a disproportionately greater decrease in circulating leptin and resting metabolic rate (RMR) than would be predicted based on the decline in body mass, (2) decreased thermic effect of food (TEF), and (3) increased energy efficiency at work intensities characteristic of activities of daily living. These metabolic adaptations can readily promote weight regain. While more experimental research is needed to identify effective strategies to narrow the energy gap and attenuate weight regain, some factors contributing to long-term weight loss maintenance have been identified. Less hunger and greater satiation have been associated with higher intakes of protein and dietary fiber, and lower glycemic load diets. High levels of physical activity are characteristic of most successful weight maintainers. A high energy flux state characterized by high daily energy expenditure and matching energy intake may attenuate the declines in RMR and TEF, and may also result in more accurate regulation of energy intake to match daily energy expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessReview Transcriptomics and the Mediterranean Diet: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 472; doi:10.3390/nu9050472
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and in decreasing overall mortality. Nowadays, transcriptomics is gaining particular relevance due to the existence of non-coding RNAs capable of regulating many biological processes. The
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The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and in decreasing overall mortality. Nowadays, transcriptomics is gaining particular relevance due to the existence of non-coding RNAs capable of regulating many biological processes. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of the Mediterranean diet on transcriptomes of different tissues in various experimental models. While information on regulatory RNA is very limited, they seem to contribute to the effect. Special attention has been given to the oily matrix of virgin olive oil. In this regard, monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets prevented the expression of inflammatory genes in different tissues, an action also observed after the administration of olive oil phenolic compounds. Among these, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and secoiridoids have been found to be particularly effective in cell cycle expression. Less explored terpenes, such as oleanolic acid, are important modulators of circadian clock genes. The wide range of studied tissues and organisms indicate that response to these compounds is universal and poses an important level of complexity considering the different genes expressed in each tissue and the number of different tissues in an organism. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Recruitment, Adherence and Drop-Out Rates in Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Trials in Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 474; doi:10.3390/nu9050474
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been reported. However,
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Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation on health outcomes has been studied extensively with randomized controlled trials (RCT). In many research fields, difficulties with recruitment, adherence and high drop-out rates have been reported. However, what is unknown is how common these problems are in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper will review n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents with regard to recruitment, adherence and drop-out rates. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Ovid databases were searched for papers reporting on RCT supplementing children and adolescents (2–18 years) with a form of n-3 LCPUFA (or placebo) for at least four weeks. As a proxy for abiding to CONSORT guidelines, we noted whether manuscripts provided a flow-chart and provided dates defining the period of recruitment and follow-up. Results: Ninety manuscripts (reporting on 75 studies) met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies did not abide by the CONSORT guidelines: 55% did not provide a flow-chart, while 70% did not provide dates. The majority of studies provided minimal details about the recruitment process. Only 25 of the 75 studies reported an adherence rate which was on average 85%. Sixty-five of the 75 studies included drop-out rates which were on average 17%. Conclusion: Less than half of the included studies abided by the CONSORT guidelines (45% included a flow chart, while 30% reported dates). Problems with recruitment and drop-out seem to be common in n-3 LCPUFA supplementation trials in children and adolescents. However, reporting about recruitment, adherence and dropout rates was very heterogeneous and minimal in the included studies. Some techniques to improve recruitment, adherence and dropout rates were identified from the literature, however these techniques may need to be tailored to n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies in children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Endothelial Vasodilator Function and Cognition—Are They Interrelated?
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 487; doi:10.3390/nu9050487
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) may improve brain functions by acting on endothelial cells in the cerebrovasculature to facilitate vasodilatation and perfusion. The aim of this review is to explore this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation on
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Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) may improve brain functions by acting on endothelial cells in the cerebrovasculature to facilitate vasodilatation and perfusion. The aim of this review is to explore this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation on systemic vasodilator and cognitive function and finding evidence to link LCn-3 PUFA intake, vasodilator function and cognition. Forty randomized controlled trials examining the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation in humans on either endothelial vasodilator function or cognition were identified and pooled effects measured with a weighted analysis. Compared to placebo, LCn-3 PUFA tended to increase flow-mediated dilatation and significantly improved cognitive function. Emerging evidence links vasodilator dysfunction to cognitive impairment, but evidence that LCn-3 PUFA can improve cognition through enhancements of vasodilator function is still lacking. Further research is needed to determine: (1) whether LCn-3 PUFA can enhance dilatation of cerebral vessels; (2) if improvements in cerebrovascular responsiveness by LCn-3 PUFA are accompanied by cognitive benefits; and (3) the target population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessReview Nutrients Turned into Toxins: Microbiota Modulation of Nutrient Properties in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 489; doi:10.3390/nu9050489
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of
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In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects. Unfortunately, most patients with CKD are not aware of their condition. Some of the dietary components may modify the gut microbiota, increasing the number of bacteria that process them to yield uremic toxins, such as trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and indole-3 acetic acid. Circulating levels of nutrient-derived uremic toxins are associated to increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease and there is evidence that this association may be causal. Future developments may include maneuvers to modify gut processing or absorption of these nutrients or derivatives to improve CKD patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Diet on the Survival of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 495; doi:10.3390/nu9050495
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet
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The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and it is gradually increasing. Individuals with CKD should introduce appropriate measures to hamper the progression of kidney function deterioration as well as prevent the development or progression of CKD-related diseases. A kidney-friendly diet may help to protect kidneys from further damage. Patients with kidney damage should limit the intake of certain foods to reduce the accumulation of unexcreted metabolic products and also to protect against hypertension, proteinuria and other heart and bone health problems. Despite the fact that the influence of certain types of nutrients has been widely studied in relation to kidney function and overall health in CKD patients, there are few studies on the impact of a specific diet on their survival. Animal studies demonstrated prolonged survival of rats with CKD fed with protein-restricted diets. In humans, the results of studies are conflicting. Some of them indicate slowing down of the progression of kidney disease and reduction in proteinuria, but other underline significant worsening of patients’ nutritional state, which can be dangerous. A recent systemic study revealed that a healthy diet comprising many fruits and vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and fibers and also the cutting down on red meat, sodium, and refined sugar intake was associated with lower mortality in people with kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to review the results of studies concerning the impact of diet on the survival of CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Open AccessReview Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 496; doi:10.3390/nu9050496
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
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Abstract
Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production,
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Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
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Open AccessReview Nutraceutical Value of Citrus Flavanones and Their Implications in Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 502; doi:10.3390/nu9050502
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
Background- Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery pathology, are a major cause of illness and death in Western countries. Therefore, identifying effective therapeutic approaches and their cellular signalling pathways is a challenging goal for medicine. In this regard, several epidemiological
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Background- Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, dyslipidaemia and coronary artery pathology, are a major cause of illness and death in Western countries. Therefore, identifying effective therapeutic approaches and their cellular signalling pathways is a challenging goal for medicine. In this regard, several epidemiological studies demonstrate a relationship between the intake of flavonoid-rich foods and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. In particular, flavonoids present in citrus fruits, such as oranges, bergamots, lemons and grapefruit (95% from flavanones), are emerging for their considerable nutraceutical value. Methods- In this review an examination of literature was performed while considering both epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical evidence supporting the beneficial role of the flavanone class. We evaluated studies in which citrus fruit juices or single flavanone administration and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed; to identify these studies, an electronic search was conducted in PUBMED for papers fulfilling these criteria and written in English. Results- In addition to epidemiological evidence and clinical studies demonstrating that fruits in the Citrus genus significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease risk, pre-clinical investigations highlight cellular and subcellular targets that are responsible for these beneficial effects. There has been special attention on evaluating intracellular pathways involved in direct cardiovascular and cardiometabolic effects mediated by naringenin, hesperetin and eriodictyol or their glycosylated derivatives. Conclusions- Although some mechanisms of action remain unclear and bioavailability problems remain to be solved, the current evidence supports the use of a nutraceutical approach with citrus fruits to prevent and cure several aspects of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Fat, Sugar, and Bone Health: A Complex Relationship
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 506; doi:10.3390/nu9050506
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
With people aging, osteoporosis is expected to increase notably. Nutritional status is a relatively easily-modified risk factor, associated with many chronic diseases, and is involved in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), along with osteoporosis. Nutrients, such as fats, sugars, and proteins,
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With people aging, osteoporosis is expected to increase notably. Nutritional status is a relatively easily-modified risk factor, associated with many chronic diseases, and is involved in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), along with osteoporosis. Nutrients, such as fats, sugars, and proteins, play a primary function in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. In Western nations, diets are generally high in saturated fats, however, currently, the nutritional patterns dominating in China continue to be high in carbohydrates from starch, cereals, and sugars. Moreover, high fat or high sugar (fructose, glucose, or sucrose) impart a significant impact on bone structural integrity. Due to diet being modifiable, demonstrating the effects of nutrition on bone health can provide an approach for osteoporosis prevention. Most researchers have reported that a high-fat diet consumption is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and, as bone strength diminishes, adverse microstructure changes occur in the cancellous bone compartment, which is involved with lipid metabolism modulation disorder and the alteration of the bone marrow environment, along with an increased inflammatory environment. Some studies, however, demonstrated that a high-fat diet contributes to achieving peak bone mass, along with microstructure, at a younger age. Contrary to these results, others have shown that a high-fructose diet consumption leads to stronger bones with a superior microarchitecture than those with the intake of a high-glucose diet and, at the same time, research indicated that a high-fat diet usually deteriorates cancellous bone parameters, and that the incorporation of fructose into a high-fat diet did not aggravate bone mass loss. High-fat/high-sucrose diets have shown both beneficial and detrimental influences on bone metabolism. Combined, these studies showed that nutrition exerts different effects on bone health. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation between dietary nutrition and bone health might provide a basis for the development of strategies to improve bone health by modifying nutritional components. Full article
Open AccessReview Potential Impact of Nutrition on Immune System Recovery from Heavy Exertion: A Metabolomics Perspective
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 513; doi:10.3390/nu9050513
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations,
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This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations, and there are increasing data indicating that these are sensitive to nutritional influences. The most effective nutritional countermeasures, especially when considered from a metabolomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and polyphenols. Carbohydrate supplementation reduces post-exercise stress hormone levels, inflammation, and fatty acid mobilization and oxidation. Ingestion of fruits high in carbohydrates, polyphenols, and metabolites effectively supports performance, with added benefits including enhancement of oxidative and anti-viral capacity through fruit metabolites, and increased plasma levels of gut-derived phenolics. Metabolomics and lipidomics data indicate that intensive and prolonged exercise is associated with extensive lipid mobilization and oxidation, including many components of the linoleic acid conversion pathway and related oxidized derivatives called oxylipins. Many of the oxylipins are elevated with increased adiposity, and although low in resting athletes, rise to high levels during recovery. Future targeted lipidomics-based studies will help discover whether n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3-PUFA) supplementation enhances inflammation resolution in athletes post-exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 517; doi:10.3390/nu9050517
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets,
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The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 521; doi:10.3390/nu9050521
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics
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Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress-Mediated Injury in Cardiomyocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 523; doi:10.3390/nu9050523
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and
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Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes. Polyphenols are a large group of natural compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, and epidemiological studies have shown associations between a diet rich in polyphenols and the prevention of various ROS-mediated human diseases. Polyphenols reduce cardiomyocytes damage, necrosis, apoptosis, infarct size and improve cardiac function by decreasing oxidative stress-induced production of ROS or RNS. These effects are achieved by the ability of polyphenols to modulate the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and several signaling pathways involved in cells survival. This report reviews current knowledge on the potential anti-oxidative effects of polyphenols to control the cardiotoxicity induced by ROS and RNS stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Multifaceted Health Benefits of Mangifera indica L. (Mango): The Inestimable Value of Orchards Recently Planted in Sicilian Rural Areas
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 525; doi:10.3390/nu9050525
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely planted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia, and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars in Sicily, an island to the south of Italy, where
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Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely planted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia, and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars in Sicily, an island to the south of Italy, where the favourable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for the Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Glenn, Maya, and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicily and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets. Mango plants produce fleshy stone fruits rich in phytochemicals with an undisputed nutritional value for its high content of polyphenolics and vitamins. This review provides an overview of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties of mango, a fruit that should be included in everyone’s diet for its multifaceted biochemical actions and health-enhancing properties. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper Tradeoff-in-the-Nephron: A Theory to Explain the Primacy of Phosphate in the Pathogenesis of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 427; doi:10.3390/nu9050427
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The cardinal features of SHPT are persistence of normocalcemia as CKD progresses and dependence of the parathyroid hormone concentration ([PTH]) on phosphate influx (IP). The tradeoff-in-the-nephron hypothesis integrates these features. It states that
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The cardinal features of SHPT are persistence of normocalcemia as CKD progresses and dependence of the parathyroid hormone concentration ([PTH]) on phosphate influx (IP). The tradeoff-in-the-nephron hypothesis integrates these features. It states that as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls, the phosphate concentration ([P]CDN) rises in the cortical distal nephron, the calcium concentration ([Ca]CDN) in that segment falls, and [PTH] rises to maintain normal calcium reabsorption per volume of filtrate (TRCa/GFR). In a clinical study, we set GFR equal to creatinine clearance (Ccr) and IP equal to the urinary excretion rate of phosphorus (EP). We employed EP/Ccr as a surrogate for [P]CDN. We showed that TRCa/Ccr was high in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and normal in those with SHPT despite comparably increased [PTH] in each group. In subjects with SHPT, we examined regressions of [PTH] on EP/Ccr before and after treatment with sevelamer carbonate or a placebo. All regressions were significant, and ∆[PTH] correlated with ∆EP/Ccr in each treatment cohort. We concluded that [P]CDN determines [PTH] in CKD. This inference explains the cardinal features of SHPT, much of the evidence on which other pathogenic theories are based, and many ancillary observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Eating Like a Rainbow: The Development of a Visual Aid for Nutritional Treatment of CKD Patients. A South African Project
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 435; doi:10.3390/nu9050435
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Providing nutritional education for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in South Africa is complicated by several conditions: the population is composed of diverse ethnic groups, each with its own culture and food preferences; eleven languages are spoken and illiteracy is common in the
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Providing nutritional education for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in South Africa is complicated by several conditions: the population is composed of diverse ethnic groups, each with its own culture and food preferences; eleven languages are spoken and illiteracy is common in the lower socio-economic groups. Food preparation and storage are affected by the lack of electricity and refrigeration, and this contributes to a monotonous diet. In traditional African culture, two meals per day are often shared “from the pot”, making portion control difficult. There is both under- and over-nutrition; late referral of CKD is common. Good quality protein intake is often insufficient and there are several misconceptions about protein sources. There is a low intake of vegetables and fruit, while daily sodium intake is high, averaging 10 g/day, mostly from discretionary sources. On this background, we would like to describe the development of a simplified, visual approach to the “renal diet”, principally addressed to illiterate/non-English speaking CKD patients in Southern Africa, using illustrations to replace writing. This tool “Five steps to improve renal diet compliance”, also called “Eating like a Rainbow”, was developed to try to increase patients’ understanding, and has so far only been informally validated by feedback from users. The interest of this study is based on underlining the feasibility of dietary education even in difficult populations, focusing attention on this fundamental issue of CKD care in particular in countries with limited access to chronic dialysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessCommentary Evolution not Revolution: Nutrition and Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 519; doi:10.3390/nu9050519
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of
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The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do. Public health and education services need legislation to mandate supportive environments and promote food literacy. Two New Zealand case studies of proof-of-principle of positive change are described: Project Energize and Under 5 Energize as exemplars of school environment change, and the development of the Nothing Else™ healthier snack bar as an example of working with the food industry. Changes in food literacy alongside food supply will contribute in the long term to positive effects on the future prevalence of obesity and the onset of non-communicable disease. More cross-disciplinary translational research to inform how to improve the food supply and food literacy will improve the health and wellbeing of the economy and the population. Full article

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