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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 516; doi:10.3390/nu9050516

Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity

1
EpitoGenesis, Inc., 933 Hartford Turnpike Vernon, Hartford, CT 06066, USA
2
TICRO at Trudeau Institute, 154 Algonquin Ave, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
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Abstract

Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c) mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil), and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly (I:C), induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1) or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; adjuvant; natural; vitamin A; vitamin E; flavonoid; catechin; influenza; immunity vaccine; adjuvant; natural; vitamin A; vitamin E; flavonoid; catechin; influenza; immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, S.; Faraj, Y.; Duso, D.K.; Reiley, W.W.; Karlsson, E.A.; Schultz-Cherry, S.; Vajdy, M. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity. Nutrients 2017, 9, 516.

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