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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2017)

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Open AccessArticle South Asian Ethnicity Is Related to the Highest Risk of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Pregnant Canadian Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 317; doi:10.3390/nu9040317
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin B12 (B12) adequacy during pregnancy is crucial for maternal health and optimal fetal development; however, suboptimal B12 status has been reported in pregnant Canadian women. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive indicator of B12 status. Since few studies have measured MMA during
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Vitamin B12 (B12) adequacy during pregnancy is crucial for maternal health and optimal fetal development; however, suboptimal B12 status has been reported in pregnant Canadian women. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive indicator of B12 status. Since few studies have measured MMA during pregnancy in Canadian women, the objective of this study was to evaluate B12 status in pregnant women living in Metro Vancouver, using both plasma total B12 and MMA. We recruited a convenience sample of 320 pregnant women between 20 and 35 gestational weeks from local healthcare facilities. Plasma total B12 concentrations indicative of deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148–220 pmol/L) were found in 18% and 33% of the women, respectively. Normal plasma MMA concentration (<210 nmol/L) was observed in 82% of all women. Gestational age was a strong predictor of plasma total B12 and MMA concentration, and South Asian ethnicity of B-12 deficiency and MMA concentrations. Overall, there was a high discrepancy between the prevalence of B12 inadequacy depending on the biomarker used. Independently, however, South Asian women were at particular risk for B12 deficiency, likely due to lower animal source food intake. Further study of this vulnerable group and performance testing of B12 biomarkers is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle Nutrient Status of Vitamin D among Chinese Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 319; doi:10.3390/nu9040319
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a public health problem. However, the nutrient status of vitamin D in Chinese children is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the vitamin D status among children aged under 18 years in
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a public health problem. However, the nutrient status of vitamin D in Chinese children is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the vitamin D status among children aged under 18 years in southeast China. Methods: Children who visited the Huzhou Maternal and Child Care Hospital from January 2012 to August 2015 were included in this large cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Vitamin D status was defined as deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL), insufficiency (25(OH)D: 20–29 ng/mL) and sufficiency (25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL). The association between relevant variables and vitamin D status was analyzed by a using generalized estimated equation model and a multivariate regression model. Results: 13,997 children aged under 18 years were included. Of these, 23.3% children suffered from low vitamin D status (deficiency and insufficiency), while 76.7% had a sufficient vitamin D status. The prevalence of low vitamin D status was 29.7% in winter and 23.4% in spring, which was higher than that in summer (21.4%) and autumn (19.9%). Clinical visiting children (32.1%) suffered more from low vitamin D than health examination children (17.6%). Additionally, age and season were independently and significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, respectively. Conclusions: The deficiency and insufficiency status of vitamin D was very common among newborns and children aged one to 17 years. This indicates that more sunshine and vitamin D–fortified foods are necessary among Chinese children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems) and Bioactive Intakes: Major Updates of the Bioactive Compound Composition and Beneficial Bioeffects Database and the Development of a Probabilistic Model to Assess Intakes in Europe
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 320; doi:10.3390/nu9040320
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects,
[...] Read more.
eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information Systems), a web-based database that contains compositional and biological effects data for bioactive compounds of plant origin, has been updated with new data on fruits and vegetables, wheat and, due to some evidence of potential beneficial effects, extended to include meat bioactives. eBASIS remains one of only a handful of comprehensive and searchable databases, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on the composition of food bioactives and their putative health benefits. The database has a user-friendly, efficient, and flexible interface facilitating use by both the scientific community and food industry. Overall, eBASIS contains data for 267 foods, covering the composition of 794 bioactive compounds, from 1147 quality-evaluated peer-reviewed publications, together with information from 567 publications describing beneficial bioeffect studies carried out in humans. This paper highlights recent updates and expansion of eBASIS and the newly-developed link to a probabilistic intake model, allowing exposure assessment of dietary bioactive compounds to be estimated and modelled in human populations when used in conjunction with national food consumption data. This new tool could assist small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the development of food product health claim dossiers for submission to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Regular Intake of Dry-Cured Ham Rich in Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation, Platelet and Monocyte Activation Markers in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 321; doi:10.3390/nu9040321
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers
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Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers and the inflammatory status of healthy humans with pre-hypertension. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy volunteers with systolic blood pressure of >125 mmHg were enrolled in a two-arm crossover randomized controlled trial. Participants received 80 g/day dry-cured pork ham of >11 months proteolysis or 100 g/day cooked ham (control product) for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week washout before “crossing over” to the other treatment for 4 more weeks. Soluble markers and cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. Platelet function was assessed by measuring P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding after ADP (adenosine diphosphate) stimulation using whole blood flow cytometry. Monocyte markers of the pathological status (adhesion, inflammatory and scavenging receptors) were also measured by flow cytometry in the three monocyte subsets after the interventional period. Results: The mean differences between dry-cured ham and cooked ham followed by a time period adjustment for plasmatic P-selectin and interleukin 6 proteins slightly failed (p = 0.062 and p = 0.049, respectively), notably increased for MCP-1 levels (p = 0.023) while VCAM-1 was not affected. Platelet function also decreased after ADP stimulation. The expression of adhesion and scavenging markers (ICAM1R, CXCR4 and TLR4) in the three subsets of monocytes was significantly higher (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The regular consumption of biopeptides contained in the dry-cured ham but absent in cooked ham impaired platelet and monocyte activation and the levels of plasmatic P-selectin, MCP-1 and interleukin 6 in healthy subjects. This study strongly suggests the existence of a mechanism that links dietary biopeptides and beneficial health effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 323; doi:10.3390/nu9040323
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in
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Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Benefits of n-3 PUFA and ɤ-Linolenic Acid in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 325; doi:10.3390/nu9040325
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis
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(1) Background: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ɤ-linolenic acid (GLA) are well-known anti-inflammatory agents that may help in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Their effects were examined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; (2) Methods: Sixty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were involved in a prospective, randomized trial of a 12 week supplementation with fish oil (group I), fish oil with primrose evening oil (group II), or with no supplementation (group III). Clinical and laboratory evaluations were done at the beginning and at the end of the study; (3) Results: The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS 28 score), number of tender joints and visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased notably after supplementation in groups I and II (p < 0.001). In plasma phospholipids the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio declined from 15.47 ± 5.51 to 10.62 ± 5.07 (p = 0.005), and from 18.15 ± 5.04 to 13.50 ± 4.81 (p = 0.005) in groups I and II respectively. The combination of n-3 PUFA and GLA (group II) increased ɤ-linolenic acid (0.00 ± 0.00 to 0.13 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), which was undetectable in all groups before the treatments; (4) Conclusion: Daily supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with GLA exerted significant clinical benefits and certain changes in disease activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 326; doi:10.3390/nu9040326
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data,
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The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p < 0.001 or obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p < 0.001, with abdominal obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p < 0.001 or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in relation with the fibre intake according to the body mass index (BMI), presence or absence of abdominal obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p < 0.05 or OB (4.79%), p < 0.05, with abdominal obesity (5.18%), p < 0.01, or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (5.21%), p < 0.01, in the whole sample. Conversely, these differences were not observed in the plausible reporters. The present study demonstrates an insufficient fibre intake both in the whole sample and in the plausible reporters and confirms its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Lifetime Exposure to a Constant Environment Amplifies the Impact of a Fructose-Rich Diet on Glucose Homeostasis during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 327; doi:10.3390/nu9040327
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a
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The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy. Markers of maternal hepatic metabolism were differentially influenced, as the gene expression of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase was raised in Gen1 given fructose and controls, whereas glucose transporter 5 and fatty acid synthase expression were only raised with fructose. Gen1 rats weighed more than Gen0 throughout the study, although fructose feeding raised the percent body fat but not body weight. We show that long-term habituation to the living environment has a profound impact on the animal’s metabolic responses to nutritional intervention and pregnancy. This has important implications for interpreting many studies investigating the influence of maternal consumption of fructose on pregnancy outcomes and offspring to date. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Assessment of B-Vitamins in Highly Active and Sedentary Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 329; doi:10.3390/nu9040329
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
Background: Female athletes and active women require adequate nutrition for optimal health and performance. Nutrition assessments are needed to identify potential nutrients of concern. Folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 function in important pathways used during physical activity and female athletes may be
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Background: Female athletes and active women require adequate nutrition for optimal health and performance. Nutrition assessments are needed to identify potential nutrients of concern. Folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 function in important pathways used during physical activity and female athletes may be at risk for poor status of these micronutrients. This cross-sectional study described a comprehensive nutrition assessment of the B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) using both dietary (food and dietary supplements) and biochemical assessments among highly active and sedentary women. Methods: Highly active (n = 29; age 20 ± 2 years; body mass index (BMI) 23.8 ± 3.5 kg/m2) and sedentary (n = 29; age 24 ± 3 years; BMI 22.6 ± 3.0 kg/m2) women were recruited for this study. Participants completed 7-day weighed food records and a fasting blood draw. Results: Although the highly active women reported higher intakes of energy (p < 0.01), folate (p < 0.01), vitamin B6 (p < 0.01), and vitamin B12 (p < 0.01), no significant differences were found between the groups for biomarkers of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. All of the highly active women had biomarkers within the desired reference ranges, suggesting good status. In general, most participants were able to meet the 1998 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) from food alone. For the women that reported using dietary supplements, micronutrient intakes met the 1998 RDA and in some cases, exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusion: This nutrition assessment documented good status for folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in the highly active women. Similar assessment approaches (food, dietary supplements, and biomarkers) should to completed with other nutrients of concern for the female athlete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Novel Sorghum Bran Diets on DSS-Induced Colitis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 330; doi:10.3390/nu9040330
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
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Abstract
We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley
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We have demonstrated that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets alter fecal microbiota; however, little is known regarding their effect on colon inflammation. Our aim was to characterize the effect of sorghum bran diets on intestinal homeostasis during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20/diet) were provided diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins) or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Colitis was induced (N = 10/diet) with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected. On Day 82, animals were euthanized and the colon resected. Only discrete mucosal lesions, with no diarrhea or bloody stools, were observed in DSS rats. Only bran diets upregulated proliferation and Tff3, Tgfβ and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) transporter expression after a DSS challenge. DSS did not significantly affect fecal SCFA concentrations. Bran diets alone upregulated repair mechanisms and SCFA transporter expression, which suggests these polyphenol-rich sorghum brans may suppress some consequences of colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Engineered Resistant-Starch (ERS) Diet Shapes Colon Microbiota Profile in Parallel with the Retardation of Tumor Growth in In Vitro and In Vivo Pancreatic Cancer Models
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 331; doi:10.3390/nu9040331
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
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Abstract
Background/aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have
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Background/aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods: BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells were cultured in the control, and in the ERS-mimicking diet culturing condition, to evaluate tumor growth and proliferation pathways. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to an ERS diet to assess tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed with a control diet. The composition and activity of fecal microbiota were further analyzed in growth experiments by isothermal microcalorimetry. Results: Pancreatic cancer cells cultured in an ERS diet-mimicking medium showed decreased levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins) and phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) levels, as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to an ERS diet displayed significant retardation in tumor growth. In in vitro growth experiments, the fecal microbial cultures from mice fed with an ERS diet showed enhanced growth on residual substrates, higher production of formate and lactate, and decreased amounts of propionate, compared to fecal microbiota from mice fed with the control diet. Conclusion: A positive effect of the ERS diet on composition and metabolism of mouse fecal microbiota shown in vitro is associated with the decrease of tumor progression in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that engineered dietary interventions could be supportive as a synergistic approach to enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Pancreatic Health)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Impact of Light Phase-Restricted Fructose Consumption Is Linked to Changes in Hypothalamic AMPK Phosphorylation and Melatonin Production in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 332; doi:10.3390/nu9040332
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies show that the metabolic effects of fructose may vary depending on the phase of its consumption along with the light/dark cycle. Here, we investigated the metabolic outcomes of fructose consumption by rats during either the light (LPF) or the dark (DPF)
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Recent studies show that the metabolic effects of fructose may vary depending on the phase of its consumption along with the light/dark cycle. Here, we investigated the metabolic outcomes of fructose consumption by rats during either the light (LPF) or the dark (DPF) phases of the light/dark cycle. This experimental approach was combined with other interventions, including restriction of chow availability to the dark phase, melatonin administration or intracerebroventricular inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with Compound C. LPF, but not DPF rats, exhibited increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation, glucose intolerance, reduced urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-S-Mel) (a metabolite of melatonin) and increased corticosterone levels. LPF, but not DPF rats, also exhibited increased chow ingestion during the light phase. The mentioned changes were blunted by Compound C. LPF rats subjected to dark phase-restricted feeding still exhibited increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation but failed to develop the endocrine and metabolic changes. Moreover, melatonin administration to LPF rats reduced corticosterone and prevented glucose intolerance. Altogether, the present data suggests that consumption of fructose during the light phase results in out-of-phase feeding due to increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation. This shift in spontaneous chow ingestion is responsible for the reduction of 6-S-Mel and glucose intolerance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Time Trends and Patterns of Reported Egg Consumption in the U.S. by Sociodemographic Characteristics
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 333; doi:10.3390/nu9040333
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eggs have the potential to contribute essential nutrients to nutritionally vulnerable populations on limited food budgets. Further research is needed to better understand patterns of egg consumption across diverse sociodemographic groups in order to inform clinical practice to improve nutrient adequacy. Data on
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Eggs have the potential to contribute essential nutrients to nutritionally vulnerable populations on limited food budgets. Further research is needed to better understand patterns of egg consumption across diverse sociodemographic groups in order to inform clinical practice to improve nutrient adequacy. Data on demographics and egg intake of 29,694 U.S. adults were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2012. The National Cancer Institute’s usual intake methodology was used to estimate the distribution of egg intake. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test for time trends in egg consumption and for differences between sociodemographic groups. The proportion of the U.S. population, overall (21%–22%; p = 0.311) and by sociodemographic group (p > 0.05 for all groups), that reported consuming eggs remained unchanged from 2001 to 2012. Mean egg consumption increased overall from 23.0 (95% CI, 20.8–25.2) g/day in 2001–2002 to 25.5 (22.7–28.4) g/day in 2011–2012 (p = 0.012), but not among food insecure individuals (p = 0.816) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (p = 0.399). No differences in the odds of egg consumption were observed by income level, food security status, or SNAP participation status (p > 0.05 for all groups). Given the nutritional benefits of eggs, as well as their low cost and culinary versatility, the results presented here have important implications for reducing disparities in health outcomes and diet quality, in particular among food insecure individuals and SNAP participants. Further research is needed to examine factors that influence egg consumption and associated nutrient intake, and to identify potential barriers to increasing egg consumption, such as egg price changes, across diverse sociodemographic groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Decreases Serum VEGF Correlating with Clinical Improvement in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with PCOS: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 334; doi:10.3390/nu9040334
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and may contribute to increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in affected individuals. Vitamin D (VitD) supplementation improves multiple clinical parameters in
[...] Read more.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and may contribute to increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in affected individuals. Vitamin D (VitD) supplementation improves multiple clinical parameters in VitD-deficient women with PCOS and decreases VEGF levels in several other pathologic conditions. Unveiling the basic mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of vitamin D on PCOS may enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. It may also suggest a new treatment for PCOS that can improve it through the same mechanism as vitamin D and can be given regardless of vitamin D levels. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effect of VitD supplementation on serum VEGF levels and assess whether changes in VEGF correlate with an improvement in characteristic clinical abnormalities of PCOS. This is a randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted between October 2013 and March 2015. Sixty-eight VitD-deficient women with PCOS were recruited. Women received either 50,000 IU of oral VitD3 or placebo once weekly for 8 weeks. There was a significant decrease in serum VEGF levels (1106.4 ± 36.5 to 965.3 ± 42.7 pg·mL–1; p < 0.001) in the VitD group. Previously reported findings of this trial demonstrated a significant decrease in the intermenstrual intervals, Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, and triglycerides following VitD supplementation. Interestingly, ∆VEGF was positively correlated with ∆triglycerides (R2 = 0.22; p = 0.02) following VitD supplementation. In conclusion, VitD replacement significantly decreases serum VEGF levels correlating with a decrease in triglycerides in women with PCOS. This is a novel molecular explanation for the beneficial effects of VitD treatment. It also suggests the need to investigate a potential role of VitD treatment in reducing the incidence or severity of OHSS in VitD-deficient women with PCOS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Two Different Dietary Patterns on Inflammatory Markers, Advanced Glycation End Products and Lipids in Subjects without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomised Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 336; doi:10.3390/nu9040336
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and increased inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers. We hypothesised that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD)
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Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and increased inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers. We hypothesised that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would increase inflammatory markers and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) compared with a diet high in dairy, whole grains, nuts and legumes (HWD). We performed a randomised crossover study of two four-week interventions in 51 participants without type 2 diabetes (15 men and 36 women aged 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m2). No baseline measurements were performed. Plasma fluorescent AGEs, carboxymethyllysine, glucose, insulin, lipids, hs-CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analysed after four weeks on each diet. IL-6, hs-CRP, AGEs and carboxymethyllysine were not different between diets but PAI-1 was higher after the HMD than after HWD ((median and interquartile range) 158, 81 vs. 121, 53 ng/mL p < 0.001). PAI-1 on the HWD diet was inversely correlated with whole grains intake (p = 0.007). PAI-1 was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index (r = −0.45; p = 0.001) and positively correlated with serum total cholesterol (r = 0.35; p = 0.012) and serum triglyceride (r = 0.32; p = 0.021) on HMD. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614000519651). Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Lychee Seed Saponins on Apoptosis Induced by Aβ25-35 through Regulation of the Apoptotic and NF-κB Pathways in PC12 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 337; doi:10.3390/nu9040337
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that lychee seed saponins (LSS), isolated and extracted from traditional Chinese medicine lychee seeds, possess many beneficial activities including anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, anti-AD, etc. In the present
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Neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that lychee seed saponins (LSS), isolated and extracted from traditional Chinese medicine lychee seeds, possess many beneficial activities including anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, anti-AD, etc. In the present study, we established an in vitro neuronal apoptotic model of PC12 cells induced by Aβ25-35 and studied the effect of LSS on apoptosis by the methods of Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence double staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). We also investigated the effects of LSS on mitochondria membrane potential, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and the mRNA expression and the nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in PC12 cells. The results showed that LSS markedly inhibited apoptosis, improved the mitochondria membrane potentials, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein, downregulated the expression of Bax protein, and decreased the mRNA expression and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in PC12 cells. The study demonstrated that LSS significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 via regulation of the apoptotic and NF-κB pathways in PC12 cells. Therefore, LSS has the potential to be developed as a novel agent or nutrient supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Insufficiency Exacerbates Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration and Decreases AMPK/SIRT1 Activity in Obese Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 338; doi:10.3390/nu9040338
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Obesity is recognized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation due to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and production of proinflammatory adipokines. Decreased vitamin D status is associated with obesity. The specific aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of
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Obesity is recognized as a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation due to adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and production of proinflammatory adipokines. Decreased vitamin D status is associated with obesity. The specific aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of vitamin D on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed a normal diet (NOR, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), a 45% high-fat diet (HF, 1000 IU vitamin D/kg diet), or a 45% high-fat diet containing 25 IU vitamin D/kg diet (HF+LVD) for 12 weeks. The vitamin D-insufficient diet (HF+LVD) led to vitamin D inadequacy as determined by serum 25(OH)D level, 68.56 ± 7.97 nmol/L. The HF+LVD group exacerbated HF-increased adipocyte size, adipogenic gene expression of PPARγ, adipose tissue macrophage recruitment, and proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNFα levels in epididymal white adipose tissue. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency significantly decreased mRNA levels of β-oxidation-related genes such as CPT1α, PGC1α, PPARα, VLCAD, LCAD, MCAD, and UCP1. Moreover, significant decrements of SIRT1 and AMPK activity were noted in obese rats fed with a vitamin D-insufficient diet. The observed deleterious effects of vitamin D insufficiency on adipose tissue expansion, immune cell infiltration and inflammatory status suggest vitamin D plays a beneficial role in adipocyte metabolic metabolism and obesity progression. SIRT1 and AMPK activity may play a role in the mechanism of vitamin D action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plasma Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Poor Sleep Quality and Night-Time Eating at Mid-Pregnancy in Singapore
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 340; doi:10.3390/nu9040340
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian
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Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890) from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L), insufficient (50–75 nmol/L), or deficient (<50 nmol/L). Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT) and predominantly night-time (pNT) were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50%) from 07:00–18:59 and from 19:00–06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR) 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84–6.63) and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00–3.41) than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gelidium elegans Regulates the AMPK-PRDM16-UCP-1 Pathway and Has a Synergistic Effect with Orlistat on Obesity-Associated Features in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 342; doi:10.3390/nu9040342
Received: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii, has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity
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The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii, has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which GENS is able to do this remains unclear. In the present study, our results showed that GENS prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain through modulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16)-uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) pathway in a mice model. We also found that GENS decreased hyperglycemia in mice that had been fed a HFD compared to corresponding controls. We also assessed the beneficial effect of the combined treatment with GENS and orlistat (a Food and Drug Administration-approved obesity drug) on obesity characteristics in HFD-fed mice. We found that in HFD-fed mice, the combination of GENS and orlistat is associated with more significant weight loss than orlistat treatment alone. Moreover, our results demonstrated a positive synergistic effect of GENS and orlistat on hyperglycemia and plasma triglyceride level in these animals. Thus, we suggest that a combination therapy of GENS and orlistat may positively influence obesity-related health outcomes in a diet-induced obese population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Copper to Zinc Ratio as Disease Biomarker in Neonates with Early-Onset Congenital Infections
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 343; doi:10.3390/nu9040343
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements for regular development. Acute infections alter their metabolism, while deficiencies increase infection risks. A prospective observational case-control study was conducted with infected (n = 21) and control (n = 23) term and
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Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements for regular development. Acute infections alter their metabolism, while deficiencies increase infection risks. A prospective observational case-control study was conducted with infected (n = 21) and control (n = 23) term and preterm newborns. We analyzed trace element concentrations by X-ray fluorescence, and ceruloplasmin (CP) by Western blot. Median concentration of Cu at birth (day 1) was 522.8 [387.1–679.7] μg/L, and Zn was 1642.4 ± 438.1 μg/L. Cu and Zn correlated positively with gestational age in control newborns. Cu increased in infected newborns from day 1 to day 3. CP correlated positively to Cu levels at birth in both groups and on day 3 in the group of infected neonates. The Cu/Zn ratio was relatively high in infected newborns. Interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations on day 1 were unrelated to Cu, Zn, or the Cu/Zn ratio, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on day 3 correlated positively to the Cu/Zn -ratio at both day 1 and day 3. We conclude that infections affect the trace element homeostasis in newborns: serum Zn is reduced, while Cu and CP are increased. The Cu/Zn ratio combines both alterations, independent of gestational age. It may, thus, constitute a meaningful diagnostic biomarker for early-onset infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Daily Intake of Grape Powder Prevents the Progression of Kidney Disease in Obese Type 2 Diabetic ZSF1 Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 345; doi:10.3390/nu9040345
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
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Abstract
Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP) diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease
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Individuals living with metabolic syndrome (MetS) such as diabetes and obesity are at high risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the beneficial effect of whole grape powder (WGP) diet on MetS-associated CKD. Obese diabetic ZSF1 rats, a kidney disease model with MetS, were fed WGP (5%, w/w) diet for six months. Kidney disease was determined using blood and urine chemical analyses, and histology. When compared to Vehicle controls, WGP intake did not change the rat bodyweight, but lowered their kidney, liver and spleen weight, which were in parallel with the lower serum glucose and the higher albumin or albumin/globin ratio. More importantly, WGP intake improved the renal function as urination and proteinuria decreased, or it prevented kidney tissue damage in these diabetic rats. The renal protection of WGP diet was associated with up-regulation of antioxidants (Dhcr24, Gstk1, Prdx2, Sod2, Gpx1 and Gpx4) and downregulation of Txnip (for ROS production) in the kidneys. Furthermore, addition of grape extract reduced H2O2-induced cell death of cultured podocytes. In conclusion, daily intake of WGP reduces the progression of kidney disease in obese diabetic rats, suggesting a protective function of antioxidant-rich grape diet against CKD in the setting of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Homocysteine Induces Hepatic Steatosis Involving ER Stress Response in High Methionine Diet-Fed Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 346; doi:10.3390/nu9040346
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Elevated circulating homocysteine (Hcy) has been proposed to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is also reported that Hcy causes protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we used a high methionine diet (HMD)-fed mouse model and
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Elevated circulating homocysteine (Hcy) has been proposed to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is also reported that Hcy causes protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we used a high methionine diet (HMD)-fed mouse model and cultured primary hepatocytes to investigate the effects of Hcy on hepatic lipids metabolism. C57BL/6J mice received either standard chow diet (CT, n = 10) or diet supplemented with 2% methionine (MET, n = 10) for 16 weeks. In in vitro experiments, cultured mouse primary hepatocytes were treated with Hcy, or Hcy combined with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), or tunicamycin (TM), respectively. HMD-fed mice exhibited a mild increase in plasma Hcy level. There was no significant difference of body weight gain between the two groups. Nevertheless, HMD feeding increased epididymal fat/body weight ratio, elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) level, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level. Similarly, mice on HMD displayed higher liver/body weight ratio, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and its ratio to alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which was supported by the morphological observations of hepatic triglyceride accumulation in liver tissue as well as primary hepatocytes. Activation of the sterol response element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) in Hcy-treated hepatocytes with increased expression of genes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis was partially reduced by pretreatment of 4-PBA. Hcy-induced ER stress was also ameliorated by 4-PBA pretreatment, thus demonstrating an important role of Hcy-induced ER stress response in hepatic steatosis. These findings suggest that elevated Hcy was a critical factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Activation of the ER stress response may be involved in Hcy-induced hepatic steatosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Ethnic Variability in Glycemic Response to Sucrose and Isomaltulose
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 347; doi:10.3390/nu9040347
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the glycemic response of Caucasians and Asians to two disaccharides of different glycemic index (GI), and to examine if ethnic groups that showed the largest glycemic response to sucrose would benefit the most when it
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The aim of this study was to compare the glycemic response of Caucasians and Asians to two disaccharides of different glycemic index (GI), and to examine if ethnic groups that showed the largest glycemic response to sucrose would benefit the most when it is replaced with isomaltulose. Forty healthy participants (10 Chinese; 10 Malays; 10 Caucasians; and 10 Indians) consumed beverages containing 50 g of sucrose or isomaltulose on two separate occasions using a randomized crossover design. Capillary blood glucose was measured in a fasted state and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage ingestion. Glycemic response to sucrose was significantly higher in Malays compared to Caucasians (p = 0.041), but did not differ between Caucasians vs. Chinese (p = 0.145) or vs. Indians (p = 0.661). When sucrose was replaced with isomaltulose, glycemic responses were significantly reduced in all ethnic groups, with the largest reduction in glycemic response being observed in Malays. Malays, who had the greatest glycemic response to sucrose, also showed the greatest improvement in glycemic response when sucrose was replaced with isomaltulose. This implies that Malays who are more susceptible to type 2 diabetes mellitus may benefit from strategies that replace high GI carbohydrate with lower GI alternatives to assist in glycemic control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors and Beliefs of High School Soccer Players
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 350; doi:10.3390/nu9040350
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
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For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p < 0.01). Supplement knowledge differed by sex (16% lower in females; p = 0.047) and race/ethnicity (33% lower in Latinos; p < 0.001). Breakfast consumption was 57%; females ate breakfast less (50%) than males (60%; p < 0.001); NSLP-participants ate breakfast less (47%) than non-NSLP (62%; p < 0.001). Supplement use was 46%, with Latinos using more supplements than Whites do (p = 0.016). Overall, 30% used protein shakes, with females using less than males (p = 0.02), while use was twice as likely in Latino vs. White (p = 0.03). Overall, 45% reported their nutrient requirements were different from non-athlete peers. Latinos were less likely (p = 0.03) to report that their diet met nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training (p < 0.001). Adolescent athletes, especially females and Latinos, would benefit from sport nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Is Associated with Dietary Inflammatory Index and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 351; doi:10.3390/nu9040351
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations
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There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. The cut-offs of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and ≥30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize the weight status of pregnant women prior to pregnancy. The DII, a literature-based dietary index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one-day 24-h recall. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were performed to estimate beta coefficients and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) on the association of pre-pregnancy BMI categories with the DII and CRP concentrations during pregnancy. After controlling for variables including: race/ethnicity, family poverty income ratio, education, marital status, month in pregnancy, and smoking status during pregnancy; women who were obese before pregnancy (n = 136) had increased odds for being in the highest tertile of the DII and CRP concentrations compared to women with normal weight (AORs 2.40, 95% CIs 1.01–5.71; AORs 24.84, 95% CIs 6.19–99.67, respectively). These findings suggest that women with pre-pregnancy obesity had greater odds of reporting higher DII and having elevated CRP. In conclusion, high pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with increased odds of pro-inflammatory diet and elevated CRP levels during pregnancy in the USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 352; doi:10.3390/nu9040352
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract
Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal
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Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin A Oral Supplementation Induces Oxidative Stress and Suppresses IL-10 and HSP70 in Skeletal Muscle of Trained Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 353; doi:10.3390/nu9040353
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract
Exercise training intensity is the major variant that influences the relationship between exercise, redox balance, and immune response. Supplement intake is a common practice for oxidative stress prevention; the effects of vitamin A (VA) on exercise training are not yet described, even though
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Exercise training intensity is the major variant that influences the relationship between exercise, redox balance, and immune response. Supplement intake is a common practice for oxidative stress prevention; the effects of vitamin A (VA) on exercise training are not yet described, even though this molecule exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the role of VA supplementation on redox and immune responses of adult Wistar rats subjected to swimming training. Animals were divided into four groups: sedentary, sedentary + VA, exercise training, and exercise training + VA. Over eight weeks, animals were submitted to intense swimming 5 times/week and a VA daily intake of 450 retinol equivalents/day. VA impaired the total serum antioxidant capacity acquired by exercise, with no change in interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. In skeletal muscle, VA caused lipid peroxidation and protein damage without differences in antioxidant enzyme activities; however, Western blot analysis showed that expression of superoxide dismutase-1 was downregulated, and upregulation of superoxide dismutase-2 induced by exercise was blunted by VA. Furthermore, VA supplementation decreased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and heat shock protein 70 expression, important factors for positive exercise adaptations and tissue damage prevention. Our data showed that VA supplementation did not confer any antioxidative and/or protective effects, attenuating exercise-acquired benefits in the skeletal muscle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparisons of the Postprandial Inflammatory and Endotoxaemic Responses to Mixed Meals in Young and Older Individuals: A Randomised Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 354; doi:10.3390/nu9040354
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract
Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a
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Postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia are determinants of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk which are amplified by high fat meals. We aimed to examine the determinants of postprandial inflammation and endotoxaemia in older and younger adults following a high fat mixed meal. In a randomised cross-over trial, healthy participants aged 20–25 and 60–75 years (n = 15/group) consumed a high-fat breakfast and a low-fat breakfast. Plasma taken at baseline and post-meal for 5 h was analysed for circulating endotoxin, cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Older subjects had lower baseline PBMC expression of Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1) but greater insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and circulating MCP-1 compared to younger subjects. After either meal, there were no age differences in plasma, chylomicron endotoxin, or plasma LBP concentrations, nor in inflammatory cytokine gene and protein expression (MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α). Unlike younger participants, the older group had decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 expression after the meals. After a high-fat meal, older adults have no increased inflammatory or endotoxin response, but an altered oxidative stress gene response compared with younger adults. Healthy older adults, without apparent metabolic dysfunction, have a comparable postprandial inflammatory and endotoxaemia response to younger adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 355; doi:10.3390/nu9040355
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study
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Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 357; doi:10.3390/nu9040357
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next,
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Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene–diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5–7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanisms of Iron Uptake from Ferric Phosphate Nanoparticles in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 359; doi:10.3390/nu9040359
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract
Food fortification programs to reduce iron deficiency anemia require bioavailable forms of iron that do not cause adverse organoleptic effects. Rodent studies show that nano-sized ferric phosphate (NP-FePO4) is as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate, but there is controversy over the mechanism of absorption.
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Food fortification programs to reduce iron deficiency anemia require bioavailable forms of iron that do not cause adverse organoleptic effects. Rodent studies show that nano-sized ferric phosphate (NP-FePO4) is as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate, but there is controversy over the mechanism of absorption. We undertook in vitro studies to examine this using a Caco-2 cell model and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Supernatant iron concentrations increased inversely with pH, and iron uptake into Caco-2 cells was 2–3 fold higher when NP-FePO4 was digested at pH 1 compared to pH 2. The size and distribution of NP-FePO4 particles during GI digestion was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The d50 of the particle distribution was 413 nm. Using disc centrifugal sedimentation, a high degree of agglomeration in NP-FePO4 following simulated GI digestion was observed, with only 20% of the particles ≤1000 nm. In Caco-2 cells, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and endocytosis inhibitors demonstrated that NP-FePO4 was mainly absorbed via DMT1. Small particles may be absorbed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and micropinocytosis. These findings should be considered when assessing the potential of iron nanoparticles for food fortification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are miRNA-103, miRNA-107 and miRNA-122 Involved in the Prevention of Liver Steatosis Induced by Resveratrol?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 360; doi:10.3390/nu9040360
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction in liver fat previously observed in our laboratory in a cohort of rats which had been fed an obesogenic diet was mediated by changes in the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-103-3p, miRNA-107-3p
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The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction in liver fat previously observed in our laboratory in a cohort of rats which had been fed an obesogenic diet was mediated by changes in the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-103-3p, miRNA-107-3p and miRNA-122-5p, which represent 70% of total miRNAs in the liver, as well as in their target genes. The expression of the three analysed miRNAs was reduced in rats treated with resveratrol. A reduction in sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and an increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were observed in resveratrol-treated rats. No changes were found in fatty acid synthase (FAS). In cultured hepatocytes, SREBP1 protein was increased after the transfection of each miRNA. FAS protein expression was decreased after the transfection of miRNA-122-5p, and CPT1a protein was down-regulated by the over-expression of miRNA-107-3p. This study provides new evidences which show that srebf1 is a target gene for miRNA-103-3p and miRNA-107-3p, fasn a target gene for miRNA-122-5p and cpt1a a target gene for miRNA-107-3p. Moreover, the reduction in liver steatosis induced by resveratrol in rats fed an obesegenic diet is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in CPT1a protein expression and activity, via a decrease in miRNA-107-3p expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessArticle Eliminating Iodine Deficiency in China: Achievements, Challenges and Global Implications
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 361; doi:10.3390/nu9040361
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a
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The prevention of iodine deficiency through salt iodization has been recognized as a global success story, and China stands at the forefront of this achievement with one of the most successful programs in the world. High level political commitment, national mandatory legislation, a state-managed edible salt industry and a complex and highly sophisticated surveillance system have facilitated the success of the program. Challenges have arisen however, including: (i) concern that adequate iodine status in pregnant women cannot be achieved without causing above adequate iodine intakes in children; (ii) declining iodine intake as a result of reductions in salt consumption and increased consumption of processed foods, which may not be made with iodized salt; (iii) the existence of areas with high iodine content in the water; and (iv) declines in household use of iodized salt due to concerns about excess iodine intake and thyroid disease. This article reviews the achievements and challenges of the Chinese Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Elimination Program and reflects on lessons learned and implications for other national salt iodization programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Very Low Volume Sprint Interval Exercise Suppresses Subjective Appetite, Lowers Acylated Ghrelin, and Elevates GLP-1 in Overweight Individuals: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 362; doi:10.3390/nu9040362
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
High-intensity exercise has been shown to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and create a more anorexigenic profile of appetite-associated hormones. It is yet to be fully elucidated whether such a response is observed following very low-volume, intermittent exercise at supramaximal intensity in
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High-intensity exercise has been shown to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and create a more anorexigenic profile of appetite-associated hormones. It is yet to be fully elucidated whether such a response is observed following very low-volume, intermittent exercise at supramaximal intensity in those who are overweight. Eight overweight individuals (BMI 27.7 ± 1.7 kg·m2) completed resting (REST) and exercise (EX) trials in a counterbalanced order. EX consisted of 4 × 30 s “flat-out” cycling on an ergometer (adapted Wingate test). Two hours post-exercise (or REST), participants were presented with an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite measures and blood samples were obtained throughout. Subjective appetite, measured using VAS, was significantly lower immediately after exercise compared with REST (38.0 ± 28.5 mm vs. 75.1 ± 26.2 mm, p = 0.018, d = 1.09). This difference remained significant 30 min post-exercise. Acylated ghrelin concentration was suppressed in EX compared with REST immediately post-exercise (113.4 ± 43.0 pg·mL−1 vs. 189.2 ± 91.8 pg·mL−1, p = 0.03, d = 1.07) and remained lower until the ad libitum test-meal. Area-under-the-curve for GLP-1 concentration was significantly greater for EX, versus REST. There was no difference in absolute ad libitum intake or relative energy intake. As little as 4 × 30 s of “flat-out” cycling was sufficient to elicit a transient suppression of appetite and an enduring suppression of plasma acylated ghrelin. Nonetheless, food intake 2-h post-exercise was unaffected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Intake of Marine-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 363; doi:10.3390/nu9040363
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
The effect of marine-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR) remains unclear. We investigated whether marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in RTR. Intake of eicosapentaenoic
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The effect of marine-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR) remains unclear. We investigated whether marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in RTR. Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA-DHA) was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations of EPA-DHA intake with all-cause and CV mortality. We included 627 RTR (age 53 ± 13 years). EPA-DHA intake was 102 (42–215) mg/day. During median follow-up of 5.4 years, 130 (21%) RTR died, with 52 (8.3%) due to CV causes. EPA-DHA intake was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75–0.97). Age (p = 0.03) and smoking status (p = 0.01) significantly modified this association, with lower risk of all-cause and CV mortality particularly in older (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.92; HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.95) and non-smoking RTR (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.93; HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98). In conclusion, marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of all-cause and CV mortality in RTR. The strongest associations were present in subgroups of patients, which adds further evidence to the plea for EPA-DHA supplementation, particularly in elderly and non-smoking RTR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Restoration of Tear Secretion in a Murine Dry Eye Model by Oral Administration of Palmitoleic Acid
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 364; doi:10.3390/nu9040364
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)–derived products have traditionally been used as food and medicinal ingredients in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral intake of sea buckthorn oil products on tear secretion using a
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)–derived products have traditionally been used as food and medicinal ingredients in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral intake of sea buckthorn oil products on tear secretion using a murine dry eye model. Orally administered sea buckthorn pulp oil (not seed oil) restored aqueous tear secretion to its normal value under a dry eye condition. Palmitoleate (C16:1), a fatty acid present in sea buckthorn pulp oil, preserved tear secretion and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in the lacrimal gland to the same extent as that by pulp oil. These results suggest that an oral intake of sea buckthorn pulp oil has a potency to preserve tear secretion capacity in the dry eye state and palmitoleate, its main constituent fatty acid, is an active component of the oil. This effect may enable a potent diet-based treatment for the prevention of dry eye. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Peripheral Immune Mediators: Results from Two Nationwide Danish Pediatric Cohorts
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 365; doi:10.3390/nu9040365
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: We aimed to examine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was related to the peripheral immunological and inflammatory signature both at birth, and in newly diagnosed patients with childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their healthy controls; (2) Methods: The birth cohort consisted
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(1) Background: We aimed to examine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was related to the peripheral immunological and inflammatory signature both at birth, and in newly diagnosed patients with childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their healthy controls; (2) Methods: The birth cohort consisted of 470 patients and 500 healthy controls. Dried blood samples were collected from the neonates in the period 1981–1999. The newly diagnosed cohort consisted of 460 patients and 453 siblings. Serum samples were collected in the period 1997–2005. A variety of peripheral immune mediators were measured and compared to total 25(OH)D levels (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3). For each immune mediator, the relative change (RC) in the mean level was modeled by robust log-normal regression and correction for multiple testing was performed; (3) Results: Two associations were identified; there was a negative association between 25(OH)D (10 nmol/L increase) and leptin (RC (95% confidence interval (CI)), 0.98 (0.96; 1.00)), and a positive association between 25(OH)D (10 nmol/L increase) and the chemokine, chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand (CXCL) 8 (RC (95% CI), 1.07 (1.01; 1.13)); (4) Conclusion: CXCL8 and leptin have significant associations with levels of 25(OH)D in the newly diagnosed cohort. These results do not indicate a strong influence of 25(OH)D on the peripheral immunological or inflammatory signature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 368; doi:10.3390/nu9040368
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationships among Different Water-Soluble Choline Compounds Differ between Human Preterm and Donor Milk
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 369; doi:10.3390/nu9040369
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Choline is essential for infant development. Human milk choline is predominately present in three water-soluble choline (WSC) forms: free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). It is unclear whether mother’s own preterm milk and pooled donor milk differ in WSC composition and
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Choline is essential for infant development. Human milk choline is predominately present in three water-soluble choline (WSC) forms: free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). It is unclear whether mother’s own preterm milk and pooled donor milk differ in WSC composition and whether WSC compounds are interrelated. Mother’s own preterm milk (n = 75) and donor milk (n = 30) samples from the neonatal intensive care unit, BC Women’s Hospital were analyzed for WSC composition using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Associations between different WSC compounds were determined using Pearson’s correlations, followed by Fischer r-to-z transformation. Total WSC concentration and concentrations of FC, PhosC, and GPC did not significantly differ between mother’s own milk and donor milk. FC was negatively associated with PhosC and GPC in mother’s own milk (r = −0.27, p = 0.02; r = −0.34, p = 0.003, respectively), but not in donor milk (r = 0.26, p = 0.181 r = 0.37, p = 0.062, respectively). The difference in these associations between the two milk groups were statistically significant (p = 0.03 for the association between PhosC and FC; and p = 0.003 for the association between FC and GPC). PhosC and GPC were positively associated in mother’s own milk (r = 0.32, p = 0.036) but not donor milk (r = 0.36, p = 0.062), although the difference in correlation was not statistically significant. The metabolic and clinical implications of these associations on the preterm infant need to be further elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 370; doi:10.3390/nu9040370
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
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Abstract
Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of
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Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wholegrain Food Acceptance in Young Singaporean Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 371; doi:10.3390/nu9040371
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
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Abstract
Previous epidemiological evidence suggests that habitual consumption of whole grains is associated with reduction of disease risk. While wholegrain food consumption appears to be increasing in Singapore, it is still low, with more infrequent consumption noted in younger Singaporeans. Therefore, the primary objective
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Previous epidemiological evidence suggests that habitual consumption of whole grains is associated with reduction of disease risk. While wholegrain food consumption appears to be increasing in Singapore, it is still low, with more infrequent consumption noted in younger Singaporeans. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to determine the knowledge of whole grains and barriers to consumption of wholegrain foods. Thirty participants (age range 21–26 year, 19 females) took part in two focus groups separated by a 2-week period in which participants trialled a range of wholegrain foods. Barriers towards whole grain consumption and experiences of products during this familiarization period were discussed during the focus groups and knowledge of whole grains was assessed by questionnaire. Potential barriers such as personal factors, product-specific factors and external factors were identified with sensory and habitual being stronger barriers. The whole grain familiarization period did not alter the taste expectations of the consumers but it did manage to increase acceptance for four of the wholegrain products tested (muesli, cookies, granola bars and wholewheat pasta). These findings suggest existing barriers to wholegrain food consumption should be considered by public health agencies and manufacturing companies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Pre-Operative Enteral Nutrition from Nasal Feeding Tubes on Gastric Outlet Obstruction
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 373; doi:10.3390/nu9040373
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 1 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal–jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this
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We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal–jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal–jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune function, and gastrointestinal function, and sped up recovery, while not increasing the cost of hospitalization. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 375; doi:10.3390/nu9040375
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
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Abstract
A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy
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A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age. The oral glucose tolerance was tested (OGTT) at 70 days of age, and rats were sacrificed at 90 days of age. Pre-weaning citrulline supplementation failed to alter the growth trajectory, OGTT, plasma triglycerides, or fat mass accretion in adulthood; yet, it was associated with increased liver triglycerides, decreased liver total cholesterol, and a distinct liver lipidomic profile that may result in a predisposition to liver disease. We conclude that pre-weaning supplementation with citrulline does not impact early growth, but might impact liver fat metabolism in adulthood upon exposure to a high fructose diet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Risk Score of Nine Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants that Interact with Erythrocyte Phospholipid Alpha-Linolenic Acid for Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Hans: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 376; doi:10.3390/nu9040376
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
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Abstract
Modulation of n-3 fatty acids on genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still not clear. In a case-control study of 622 Chinese T2D patients and 293 healthy controls, a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on nine T2D genetic variants.
[...] Read more.
Modulation of n-3 fatty acids on genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still not clear. In a case-control study of 622 Chinese T2D patients and 293 healthy controls, a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on nine T2D genetic variants. Logistic regression was used to examine the interaction of the GRS with erythrocyte phospholipid n-3 fatty acids for T2D risk. Every 1-unit (corresponding to 1 risk allele) increase in GRS was associated with 12% (Odds ratio (OR): 1.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04–1.20) higher risk of T2D. Compared with the lowest quartile, participants had lower T2D risk in the 2nd (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36–0.84), 3rd (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38–0.88) and 4th (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44–1.03) quartile of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) levels. Significant interaction (p-interaction = 0.029) of GRS with ALA for T2D risk was observed. Higher ALA levels were associated with lower T2D risk only among participants within the lowest GRS tertile, with ORs 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26–1.03), 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22–0.89) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.25–0.96) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th ALA quartile, compared with the 1st. This study suggests that higher erythrocyte ALA levels are inversely associated with T2D risk only among participants with low T2D genetic risk, with high genetic risk abolishing the ALA-T2D association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 377; doi:10.3390/nu9040377
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the
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Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO), hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO), and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO). They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% (w/v). In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O2max, one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA) was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a “time to exhaustion test” (TTE). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort) were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than baseline following the treatment of L-CHO, H-CHO, and PLA (p < 0.05). The CHO oxidation rate at 60 min in the first exercise session was significantly higher than that at 60 min in the second exercise session following the L-CHO treatment (p < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The CHO sports beverage with additional PRO maintains insulin production during endurance cycling at 70% V̇O2max in the postprandial state. L-CHO sports beverage suppresses fat utilization during the subsequent exercise performance test. The subsequent exercise performance (as evaluated by TTE) was not influenced by the type of CHO or the addition of PRO in the commercially available sports beverages used in the present study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interactions of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer Risk in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 378; doi:10.3390/nu9040378
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
Some, but not all, epidemiologic studies report an association between vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. The inconsistent findings might be explained in the context of modification by members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Data and specimens for this nested case-control
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Some, but not all, epidemiologic studies report an association between vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. The inconsistent findings might be explained in the context of modification by members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Data and specimens for this nested case-control study (n = 1695 cases and n = 1682 controls) are from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Baseline serum samples were assayed for 25(OH)D, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and the ratio of IGF1:BP3, along with insulin-related markers c-peptide and leptin. The presence of prostate cancer was assessed by prostate biopsy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer risk. There were no interactions between serum 25(OH)D and IGF analytes in relation to prostate cancer risk when PCPT treatment arms were combined. In the placebo arm, above median serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among men with higher IGF-2 (OR:1.33, 95% CI: 1.00–1.65), with a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and treatment arm (Pinteraction = 0.04). Additionally, there was an interaction between treatment arm and serum IGFBP-3 (Pinteraction = 0.03). Higher serum 25(OH)D may increase risk of prostate cancer in the presence of higher circulating IGF-2. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Status, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance Decline in Very Old Adults: A Prospective Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 379; doi:10.3390/nu9040379
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Mixed reports exist about the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in muscle ageing and there are few prospective studies involving the very old (aged ≥ 85) who are at highest risk of low 25(OH)D, loss of muscle mass and strength, and physical performance
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Mixed reports exist about the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in muscle ageing and there are few prospective studies involving the very old (aged ≥ 85) who are at highest risk of low 25(OH)D, loss of muscle mass and strength, and physical performance decline. In the Newcastle 85+ Study (n = 845), we aimed to determine the association between 25(OH)D season-specific quartiles (hereafter SQ1–SQ4), grip strength (GS) and physical performance decline (Timed Up-and-Go Test, TUG) over 5 years using mixed models. In the time-only models with linear and quadratic slopes, SQ1 and SQ4 of 25(OH)D were associated with weaker GS initially in men (SQ1: β (SE) = −2.56 (0.96); SQ4: −2.16 (1.06)) and women (SQ1: −1.10 (0.52); SQ4: −1.28 (0.50)) (all p ≤ 0.04). In the fully adjusted models, only men in SQ1 had a significant annual decline in GS of 1.41 kg which accelerated over time (−0.40 (0.1)), (both p ≤ 0.003) compared with those in combined middle quartiles. Only women in SQ1 and SQ4 of 25(OH)D had worse TUG times initially, but the rate of TUG decline was not affected. Low baseline 25(OH)D may contribute to muscle strength decline in the very old and particularly in men. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 380; doi:10.3390/nu9040380
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function
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The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. <10 g of glucose). Fructose and sucrose intake were not associated with insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations between Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 382; doi:10.3390/nu9040382
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiencies, as these micronutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, which is affected by IBD. However, a consensus has not been reached on the association between IBD and
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Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients may be at risk of vitamin B12 and folate insufficiencies, as these micronutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, which is affected by IBD. However, a consensus has not been reached on the association between IBD and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Methods: In this study, a comprehensive search of multiple databases was performed to identify studies focused on the association between IBD and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Studies that compared serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations between IBD and control patients were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results: The main outcome was the mean difference in serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations between IBD and control patients. Our findings indicated that the average serum folate concentration in IBD patients was significantly lower than that in control patients, whereas the mean serum vitamin B12 concentration did not differ between IBD patients and controls. In addition, the average serum folate concentration in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) but not Crohn’s disease (CD) was significantly lower than that in controls. This meta-analysis identified a significant relationship between low serum folate concentration and IBD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest IBD may be linked with folate deficiency, although the results do not indicate causation. Thus, providing supplements of folate and vitamin B12 to IBD patients may improve their nutritional status and prevent other diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Beverage Consumption Habits among the European Population: Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 383; doi:10.3390/nu9040383
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand
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Background: Fluid and water intake have received limited attention in epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to compare the average daily consumption of foods and beverages in adults of selective samples of the European Union (EU) population in order to understand the contribution of these to the total water intake (TWI), evaluate if the EU adult population consumes adequate amounts of total water (TW) according to the current guidelines, and to illustrate the real water intake in Europe. Methods: Three national European dietary surveys have been selected: Spain used the Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance Study (ANIBES) population database, Italy analyzed data from the Italian National Food Consumption Survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06), and French data came from the NutriNet-Santé database. Mean daily consumption was used to compare between individuals. TWI was compared with European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference values for adult men and women. Results: On average, in Spain, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 22.9) for men and 1.6 L (SE 19.4) for women; Italy recorded 1.7 L (SE 16.9) for men and 1.7 L (SE 14.1) for women; and France recorded 2.3 L (SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. With the exception of women in France, neither men nor women consumed sufficient amounts of water according to EFSA reference values. Conclusions: This study highlights the need to formulate appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase TWI in the EU population. The future of beverage intake assessment requires the use of new instruments, techniques, and the application of the new available technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 384; doi:10.3390/nu9040384
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n
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The effect of skipping breakfast on health, especially in adults, remains a controversial topic. A secondary data analysis was conducted to examine associations between breakfast eating patterns and weight loss, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters among participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 240). Three randomly selected 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant at baseline and at the one-year visit. Skipped breakfast was seen in 32.9% at baseline and in 17.4% at the one-year visit, respectively. At baseline, after adjustment for demographics and physical activity, participants who ate breakfast had a higher thiamin, niacin, and folate intake than did breakfast skippers (p < 0.05); other selected parameters including body weight, dietary quality scores, nutrient intake, and metabolic parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). From baseline to one year, after adjustment for covariates, mean fat intake increased by 2.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): −1.0, 6.5%) of total energy in breakfast skippers in comparison to the 1.2% decrease observed in breakfast eaters (95% CI: −3.4, 1.1%) (p = 0.02). Mean changes in other selected parameters showed no significant differences between breakfast skippers and eaters (p > 0.05). This study did not support the hypothesis that skipping breakfast has impact on body weight, nutrient intakes, and selected metabolic measures in participants with MetS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Plantago asiatica L. Ameliorates Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 386; doi:10.3390/nu9040386
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disease with a variety of causes, is mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and ascites. This study was designed to evaluate the underlying mechanism of action of Plantago asiatica L. (PAL) in treating nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin
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Objective: Nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disease with a variety of causes, is mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and ascites. This study was designed to evaluate the underlying mechanism of action of Plantago asiatica L. (PAL) in treating nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin aminonucleoside. Methods: PAL has been used in Asia as a traditional medicine and dietary health supplement. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intravenously injected with puromycin aminonucleoside (75 mg/kg/day), then treated with either Losartan (30 mg/kg/day) or PAL (200 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for seven days. Results: PAL significantly decreased ascites, proteinuria level, and plasma lipid parameters. In addition, treatment with PAL attenuated histological damage and hypoalbuminemia. Treatment with PAL also restored podocin expression and reduced inflammation markers such as intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Lower expression levels of the apoptosis markers Bax, caspase-3 and capase-9 were documented in SD rats receiving PAL. PAL also significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of MAPKs such as ERK, JNK and p38. Conclusion: As a multifunctional agent, PAL has a renoprotective effect in nephrotic syndrome rat models. The anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, along with reductions in hyperlipidemia and ascites, represent important therapeutic effects. These results indicate that Plantago asiatica is likely to be a promising agent in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Salt Intake and Potassium Supplementation on Serum Gastrin Levels in Chinese Adults: A Randomized Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 389; doi:10.3390/nu9040389
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by
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Excess dietary salt is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Conversely, potassium likely elicits favorable effects against cardiovascular disorders. Gastrin, which is produced by the G-cells of the stomach and duodenum, can increase renal sodium excretion and regulate blood pressure by acting on the cholecystokinin B receptor. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium supplementation on serum gastrin levels in humans. A total of 44 subjects (38–65 years old) were selected from a rural community in northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a relatively low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and then a high-salt diet supplemented with potassium for another 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl). The high-salt intake significantly increased serum gastrin levels (15.3 ± 0.3 vs. 17.6 ± 0.3 pmol/L). This phenomenon was alleviated through potassium supplementation (17.6 ± 0.3 vs. 16.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L). Further analyses revealed that serum gastrin was positively correlated with 24 h urinary sodium excretion (r = 0.476, p < 0.001). By contrast, gastrin level was negatively correlated with blood pressure in all dietary interventions (r = −0.188, p = 0.031). The present study indicated that variations in dietary salt and potassium supplementation affected the serum gastrin concentrations in the Chinese subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Child Refractory Esophageal Stricture with Food Allergy by Exome Sequencing
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 390; doi:10.3390/nu9040390
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Refractory esophageal stricture (RES) may be attributed to food allergy. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Identification of novel genetic variants associated with this disease by exome sequencing (exome-seq) may provide new mechanistic insights and new therapeutic targets. Methods: To
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Background: Refractory esophageal stricture (RES) may be attributed to food allergy. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Identification of novel genetic variants associated with this disease by exome sequencing (exome-seq) may provide new mechanistic insights and new therapeutic targets. Methods: To identify new and novel disease-associating variants, whole-exome sequencing was performed on an Illumina NGS platform in three children with RES as well as food allergy. Results: A total of 91,024 variants were identified. By filtering out ‘normal variants’ against those of the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified 12,741 remaining variants which are potentially associated with RES plus food allergy. Among these variants, there are 11,539 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 627 deletions, 551 insertions and 24 mixture variants. These variants are located in 1370 genes. They are enriched in biological processes or pathways such as cell adhesion, digestion, receptor metabolic process, bile acid transport and the neurological system. By the PubMatrix analysis, 50 out of the top 100 genes, which contain most variants, have not been previously associated with any of the 17 allergy-associated diseases. These 50 genes represent newly identified allergy-associated genes. Those variants of 627 deletions and 551 insertions have also not been reported before in RES with food allergy. Conclusions: Exome-seq is potentially a powerful tool to identify potential new biomarkers for RES with food allergy. This study has identified a number of novel genetic variants, opening new avenues of research in RES plus food allergy. Additional validation in larger and different patient populations and further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanisms are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Oleuropein Decreases Cyclooxygenase-2 and Interleukin-17 Expression and Attenuates Inflammatory Damage in Colonic Samples from Ulcerative Colitis Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 391; doi:10.3390/nu9040391
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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Abstract
Oleuropein (OLE) is the major phenolic secoiridoid of olive tree leaves, and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of OLE in the colonic
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Oleuropein (OLE) is the major phenolic secoiridoid of olive tree leaves, and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of OLE in the colonic mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Biopsies obtained during colonoscopy from 14 patients with active UC were immediately placed in an organ culture chamber and challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) at 1 μg/mL in the presence or absence of 3 mM OLE. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin (IL)-17 was assessed in total protein extracts from treated colonic biopsies by Western blotting. Levels of IL-17 were also measured in culture supernatant by ELISA. A microscopic evaluation of the cultured biopsies was performed by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of COX-2 and IL-17 were significantly lower in samples treated with OLE + EC-LPS compared with those treated with EC-LPS alone (0.80 ± 0.15 arbitrary units (a.u.) vs. 1.06 ± 0.19 a.u., p = 0.003, and 0.71 ± 0.08 a.u. vs. 1.26 ± 0.42 a.u., p = 0.03, respectively) as were the levels of IL-17 in culture supernatants of OLE + EC-LPS treated colonic samples (21.16 ± 8.64 pg/mL vs. 40.67 ± 9.24 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Histologically, OLE-treated colonic samples showed an amelioration of inflammatory damage with reduced infiltration of CD3, CD4, and CD20 cells, while CD68 numbers increased. The anti-inflammatory activity of OLE was demonstrated in colonic biopsies from UC patients. These new data support a potential role of OLE in the treatment of UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Intake Levels of Fish in the UK Paediatric Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 392; doi:10.3390/nu9040392
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 16 April 2017
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Abstract
The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA).
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The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2–18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (NDNS) Years 1–4 (2008–2012) were extracted. Average nutrient and food intakes were estimated. Logistic regression models were used to predict the meeting of fish intake recommendations, controlling for age, sex, income, total energy intake, and survey year. All analyses were conducted using survey routines and dietary survey weights. In this nationally representative study, 4.7% of children met the fish and 4.5% the oily fish intake recommendations; only 1.3% of the population met both recommendations. Fish intake levels did not significantly change with children’s increasing age. Higher vegetable but lower meat consumption predicted meeting the fish intake recommendations, indicating that children eating fish have better diet quality than non-consumers. Further research is needed to explore how intake behaviours can be changed to improve children’s diet quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
Open AccessArticle Differential Effect of Sucrose and Fructose in Combination with a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Kidney Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 393; doi:10.3390/nu9040393
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 16 April 2017
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Abstract
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota
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There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group. Body fat mass, metabolic inflexibility, glucose intolerance, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), insulin, renal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nadphox, and Srebp-1 were significantly higher and antioxidant enzymes and lean body mass were significantly lower in the HFS group with respect to the HF-F group. Change in the consumption of HFS or HFF to a C diet ameliorated the insulin and glucose intolerance. The type of carbohydrate differentially modified the microbiota composition, however, both groups significantly decreased C. eutactus with respect to the C group. Thus, metabolic alterations with the HFS diet had a more detrimental effect than HFF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 394; doi:10.3390/nu9040394
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Objective: To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). Methods: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016) in addition to the reference lists
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Objective: To investigate the association between serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PaC). Methods: We identified eligible studies in Medline and EMBASE databases (no reference trials from 2014 to 2016) in addition to the reference lists of original studies and review articles on this topic. A summary of relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. The heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Results: Ten studies (seven nested case-control studies and three retrospective case-control studies) were selected as they met our inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. All these studies were published between 1997 and 2013. The current data suggested that serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)in addition to the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with an increased risk of PaC (Summary relative risks (SRRs) = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.67–1.16 for IGF-I; SRRs = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54–1.15 for IGF-II; SRRs = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.69–1.17 for IGFBP-3; SRRs = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.71–1.23 for IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio). There was no publication bias in the present meta-analysis. Conclusion: Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio were not associated with increased risk of PaC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Cereal Consumption among Subjects with Celiac Disease: A Snapshot for Nutritional Considerations
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 396; doi:10.3390/nu9040396
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP) consumption among people with celiac disease (CD). Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population.
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Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP) consumption among people with celiac disease (CD). Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population. Methods: Eighty-two volunteers with CD and 77 non-CD volunteers enrolled throughout Italy were asked to register their consumption of CBP on specific diaries for three days. Results: CD patients’ median three-day intake of biscuits and crackers was higher compared to controls (65.8 g vs. 22.7 g and 44.7 g vs. 10.6 g, p < 0.05 respectively, Mann–Whitney test). A significant difference was observed also comparing the two groups for median three-day bread consumption, with the CD group consuming less bread than controls (109.5 g vs. 150.7 g, p < 0.05, Mann–Whitney test). When assessing regional and gender-related CBP consumption patterns, significantly higher rice consumption was found among CD women from Northern Italy compared to CD women from Central and Southern Italy (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 respectively, Fisher’s exact test). No other significant differences were observed. Conclusions: Our results provide a snapshot of the overall consumption of CBP among Italian subjects with CD. Altogether, these data show that, despite minor differences, dietary consumption of CBP among CD patients is similar to the general population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Chinese Children Get Enough Micronutrients?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 397; doi:10.3390/nu9040397
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined
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The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2009. The means, medians and percentages below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age, and the intakes of boys were found to be higher than girls in the same age group. The average calcium intake increased from 272 mg/day in 4–6 years to 391 mg/day in 14–17 years, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%). The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirements of micronutrients increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in the 11–17 years age groups. Among 14–17 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among 11–13 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, micronutrient deficiency is a problem in Chinese children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address these nutritional gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Status Predicts 10-Year Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 399; doi:10.3390/nu9040399
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW.
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Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis. The correct diagnosis of PEW is extremely important in order to predict clinical outcomes. However, it is unclear which parameters should be used to diagnose PEW. Therefore, this retrospective observational study investigated the relationship between mortality and nutritional parameters in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 144 patients were enrolled. Nutritional parameters, including body mass index, serum albumin, dietary intake, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), were measured at baseline. Fifty-three patients died during the study. Survivors had significantly higher nPCR (1.10 ± 0.24 g/kg/day vs. 1.01 ± 0.21 g/kg/day; p = 0.048), energy intake (26.7 ± 5.8 kcal/kg vs. 24.3 ± 4.2 kcal/kg; p = 0.009) and protein intake (0.91 ± 0.21 g/kg vs. 0.82 ± 0.24 g/kg; p = 0.020), and lower MIS (5.2 ± 2.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1, p = 0.039). In multivariable analysis, energy intake <25 kcal/kg (HR 1.860, 95% CI 1.018–3.399; p = 0.044) and MIS > 5 (HR 2.146, 95% CI 1.173–3.928; p = 0.013) were independent variables associated with all-cause mortality. These results suggest that higher MIS and lower energy intake are harmful to ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Optimal energy intake could reduce mortality in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 400; doi:10.3390/nu9040400
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order
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Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 402; doi:10.3390/nu9040402
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed,
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Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose–response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82–0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (<7 servings/week) and 0.94 (0.80–1.09) for high consumption (≥7 servings/week). In dose–response meta-analysis, we detected a curve linear relationship between chocolate consumption and risk of HF (p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88–0.97), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), 0.93 (0.85–1.03), and 1.07 (0.92–1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Genistein Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury in a SIRT1-Dependent Manner
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 403; doi:10.3390/nu9040403
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury
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Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury continues to be a complicated situation in clinical practice. Genistein, the main isoflavone found in soy products, is known to possess a wide spectrum of biochemical and pharmacological activities. However, the protective effect of genistein on renal I/R injury has not been well investigated. In the current study, we explore whether genistein exhibits its renal-protective effects through SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) in I/R-induced mice model. We found the treatment of genistein significantly reduced renal I/R-induced cell death, simultaneously stimulating renal cell proliferation. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression was up-regulated following the administration of genistein in renal region. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated depletion of SIRT1 significantly reversed the protective effect of genistein on renal dysfunction, cellular damage, apoptosis, and proliferation following I/R injury, suggesting an indispensible role of the increased SIRT1 expression and activity in this process. Meanwhile, the reduced p53 and p21 expression and increased PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) expression were blocked after the depletion of SIRT1 compared with the genistein treatment group in the renal I/R process. Hence, our results provided further experimental basis for the potential use of genistein for the treatment of kidney disease with deficiency of SIRT1 activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Sodium Content of Processed Foods in South Africa during the Introduction of Mandatory Sodium Limits
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 404; doi:10.3390/nu9040404
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading
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Background: In June 2016, the Republic of South Africa introduced legislation for mandatory limits for the upper sodium content permitted in a wide range of processed foods. We assessed the sodium levels of packaged foods in South Africa during the one-year period leading up to the mandatory implementation date of the legislation. Methods: Data on the nutritional composition of packaged foods was obtained from nutrition information panels on food labels through both in-store surveys and crowdsourcing by users of the HealthyFood Switch mobile phone app between June 2015 and August 2016. Summary sodium levels were calculated for 15 food categories, including the 13 categories covered by the sodium legislation. The percentage of foods that met the government’s 2016 sodium limits was also calculated. Results: 11,065 processed food items were included in the analyses; 1851 of these were subject to the sodium legislation. Overall, 67% of targeted foods had a sodium level at or below the legislated limit. Categories with the lowest percentage of foods that met legislated limits were bread (27%), potato crisps (41%), salt and vinegar flavoured snacks (42%), and raw processed sausages (45%). About half (49%) of targeted foods not meeting the legislated limits were less than 25% above the maximum sodium level. Conclusion: Sodium levels in two-thirds of foods covered by the South African sodium legislation were at or below the permitted upper levels at the mandatory implementation date of the legislation and many more were close to the limit. The South African food industry has an excellent opportunity to rapidly meet the legislated requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Testing the Capacity of a Multi-Nutrient Profiling System to Guide Food and Beverage Reformulation: Results from Five National Food Composition Databases
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 406; doi:10.3390/nu9040406
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets
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Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS ‘Pass’ if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium). In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were ‘reformulated’ to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36%) of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%–40%; 5%–72%, respectively), with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%–44%) and TF (23%–42%). Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively) at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prenatal Exposure to a Maternal High-Fat Diet Affects Histone Modification of Cardiometabolic Genes in Newborn Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 407; doi:10.3390/nu9040407
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs
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Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0.1). In the HF-diet exposed offspring, 54% of the annotated genes showed the gene-activating mark trimethylated lysine 4. Many of these genes (1) are associated with the “metabolic process” in general and particularly with “positive regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis” (FDR = 0.03); (2) overlap with 455 quantitative trait loci for blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol (all, FDR < 0.1); and (3) are linked to cardiac disease susceptibility/progression, based on disease ontology analyses and scientific literature. These results indicate that maternal HF-diet changes the cardiac histone signature in offspring suggesting a fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of cardiac tissue in utero. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 410; doi:10.3390/nu9040410
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p < 0.05). In sedentary HFD mice, colonic lesions were aggravated, colonic tissue weight increased and the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels significantly increased. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in the plasma irisin and adiponectin levels was observed in comparison with SD mice (p < 0.05). Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in IBD)
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Open AccessArticle Endurance Training with or without Glucose-Fructose Ingestion: Effects on Lactate Metabolism Assessed in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Sedentary Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 411; doi:10.3390/nu9040411
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of
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Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of glucose-fructose on lactate appearance, oxidation, and clearance were measured at rest and during exercise, pre-training, and post-training. Pre-training, resting lactate appearance was 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 mg·kg−1·min−1 in GF and C, and was increased to 11.2 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 0.7 mg·kg−1·min−1 by exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01). Lactate oxidation represented 20.6% ± 1.0% and 17.5% ± 1.7% of lactate appearance at rest, and 86.3% ± 3.8% and 86.8% ± 6.6% during exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01) in GF and C, respectively. Training with GF increased resting lactate appearance and oxidation (Training × Intervention: both p < 0.05), but not during exercise (Training × Intervention: both p > 0.05). Training with GF and C had similar effects to increase lactate clearance during exercise (+15.5 ± 9.2 and +10.1 ± 5.9 mL·kg−1·min−1; Training: p < 0.01; Training × Intervention: p = 0.97). The findings of this study show that in sedentary participants, glucose-fructose ingestion leads to high systemic lactate appearance, most of which is disposed non-oxidatively at rest and is oxidized during exercise. Training with or without glucose-fructose increases lactate clearance, without altering lactate appearance and oxidation during exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Suppression of Oxidative Stress and NFκB/MAPK Signaling by Lyophilized Black Raspberries for Esophageal Cancer Prevention in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 413; doi:10.3390/nu9040413
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
Research in the laboratory has shown that lyophilized black raspberries (BRB) significantly inhibit N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis in rats. The objective of the present study is to characterize the underlying mechanism(s) of anti-cancer action of BRB in this preclinical animal
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Research in the laboratory has shown that lyophilized black raspberries (BRB) significantly inhibit N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis in rats. The objective of the present study is to characterize the underlying mechanism(s) of anti-cancer action of BRB in this preclinical animal model focusing on oxidative stress and its related oncogenic signaling pathways. Esophageal epithelial tissues were collected and assessed for markers of oxidative stress and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). BRB reduced the incidence of esophageal cancer from 100% in NMBA-treated rats to 81.5% in rats treated with NMBA plus BRB (p < 0.05). Tumor multiplicity was reduced from 4.73 ± 0.45 tumors per esophagus in NMBA-treated rats to 1.44 ± 0.26 in rats treated with NMBA plus BRB (p < 0.001). The data indicated that NMBA treatment increased production of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide, reduced expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase 2, and activated NFκB/MAPK signaling in rat esophagus. The study’s results show that BRB reverses oxidative stress and suppresses NFκB/MAPK pathways, which could be the mechanisms for esophageal cancer chemopreventive action of BRB in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Inhibits Apoptosis of Chondrocytes through Activation ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways Induced Autophagy
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 414; doi:10.3390/nu9040414
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel,
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel, safe, and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoarthritis and related arthritic diseases. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid and the most active component in turmeric, is a biologically active phytochemical. Evidence from several recent in vitro studies suggests that curcumin may exert a chondroprotective effect through actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-catabolic activity that are critical for mitigating OA disease pathogenesis and symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of curcumin on interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-stimulated primary chondrocytes in vitro. The treatment of interleukin (IL)-1β significantly reduces the cell viability of chondrocytes in dose and time dependent manners. Co-treatment of curcumin with IL-1β significantly decreased the growth inhibition. We observed that curcumin inhibited IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in chondrocytes. Curcumin can increase the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and Beclin-1 in chondrocytes. The expression of autophagy markers could be decreased when the chondrocytes were incubated with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Our results suggest that curcumin suppresses apoptosis and inflammatory signaling through its actions on the ERK1/2-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. We propose that curcumin should be explored further for the prophylactic treatment of osteoarthritis in humans and companion animals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association of Ankle Brachial Index, Protein-Energy Wasting, and Inflammation Status with Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 416; doi:10.3390/nu9040416
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the association of abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI), PEW, and chronic inflammation status with clinical prognosis in HD patients. A total of 973 HD patients were enrolled and were followed-up for
[...] Read more.
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated the association of abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI), PEW, and chronic inflammation status with clinical prognosis in HD patients. A total of 973 HD patients were enrolled and were followed-up for 8 years. As a marker of the PEW, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was used. Cut-off levels were 91.2 for GNRI defined from previous studies and 1.9 mg/L for C-reactive protein (CRP) as median value, respectively. Abnormal ABI was seen in 332 (34.1%) patients. Declined GNRI and elevated CRP levels were independently associated with abnormal ABI (odds ratio (OR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–0.99, p = 0.0009 and OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07–1.83, p = 0.013, respectively). GNRI levels were also independently correlated with CRP levels (β = −0.126, p < 0.0001). During follow-up period, 283 (29.1%) patients died, including 123 (12.6%) due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abnormal ABI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% CI 1.13–2.32, p = 0.0096), GNRI < 91.2 (adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.06–2.33, p = 0.023) and CRP > 1.9 mg/L (adjusted HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.31–2.77, p = 0.0007) independently predicted mortality due to CVD, respectively. In conclusion, abnormal ABI, GNRI, and CRP levels were closely associated with each other, and the combination of these variables increase their predictive values for the risk of mortality due to CVD and all-cause mortality in HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 417; doi:10.3390/nu9040417
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies
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A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18–75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0–55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake <5 g/day, which is the target intake recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was 2.82 (1.07). There was no significant difference in salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger, nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 418; doi:10.3390/nu9040418
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused
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Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1.25% w/v) and stevioside (2.5% w/v), stimulated GLP-1 secretion (acesulfame K: 31 ± 3 pmol/L vs. 21 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6). In contrast, intra-arterial administration of sucralose (10 mM) and stevioside (10 mM), but not acesulfame K, stimulated GLP-1 secretion (sucralose: 51 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 34 ± 4 pmol/L, p < 0.05; stevioside: 54 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 32 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6), while 0.1 mM and 1 mM sucralose did not affect the secretion. Luminal glucose (20% w/v) doubled GLP-1 and GIP secretion, but basolateral STR inhibition by gurmarin (2.5 µg/mL) or the inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 5 (TRPM5) by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) (100 µM) did not attenuate the responses. In conclusion, STR activation does not drive GIP/GLP-1 secretion itself, nor does it have a role for glucose-stimulated GLP-1 or GIP secretion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) Questionnaire
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 419; doi:10.3390/nu9040419
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to determine the test–retest reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire in college students. Two hundred and seventy-six college students (127 men, 46%; 149 women, 54%; mean age 19.70 ± 1.32 years; mean height
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the test–retest reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) questionnaire in college students. Two hundred and seventy-six college students (127 men, 46%; 149 women, 54%; mean age 19.70 ± 1.32 years; mean height 1.75 ± 0.09 m; mean weight 69.28 ± 13.84 kg; mean body-mas index 22.41 ± 3.19 kg/m2) participated in the study. To investigate the reliability of the KIDMED questionnaire, the participants were asked to complete the questionnaire on two occasions two weeks apart, stratified by gender. Kappa statistics showed moderate to excellent agreement (ranging from 0.504 to 0.849) in the total sample and moderate to excellent agreement in both men (ranging from 0.467 to 0.803) and women (ranging from 0.435 to 0.927). Results in the total KIDMED score showed a moderate correlation between two occasions inthe total sample (κ = 0.597, p < 0.001) and in women (κ = 0.586, p < 0.001) and a good correlation in men (κ = 0.611, p < 0.001). Our study shows that the KIDMED questionnaire is a reliable instrument for assessing adherence to the Mediterranean diet in college students. Future studies should focus on investigating the reliability of the questionnaire in other countries and in different age groups for generating comparable data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations between Diet and Toenail Arsenic Concentration among Pregnant Women in Bangladesh: A Prospective Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 420; doi:10.3390/nu9040420
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
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Abstract
This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As) concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and
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This prospective study evaluated the relationship between long-term dietary habits and total arsenic (As) concentration in toenail clippings in a cohort of 1616 pregnant women in the Bangladeshi administrative regions of Sirajdikhan and Pabna Sadar. Diet was assessed at Gestation Week 28 and at Postpartum Month 1, using a locally-validated dish-based semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Toenail As concentration was analyzed by microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between natural log-transformed consumption of individual food items and temporally matched natural log-transformed toenail As concentration were quantified using general linear models that accounted for As concentration in the primary drinking water source and other potential confounders. The analysis was stratified by As in drinking water (≤50 μg/L versus >50 μg/L) and the time of dietary assessment (Gestation Week 28 versus Postpartum Week 1). Interestingly, toenail As was not significantly associated with consumption of plain rice as hypothesized. However, toenail As was positively associated with consumption of several vegetable, fish and meat items and was negatively associated with consumption of rice, cereal, fruits, and milk based food items. Further studies in pregnant women are needed to compare As metabolism at different levels of As exposure and the interaction between dietary composition and As absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 421; doi:10.3390/nu9040421
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
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Abstract
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an
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Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%), maximal peak power output (3.7%), and average power developed (5%), without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessReview Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory Peptides from Plants
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 316; doi:10.3390/nu9040316
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for
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Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for their potential ACE inhibitor activities by using in vitro and in vivo assays. These plant-based peptides can be obtained by solvent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis with or without novel food processing methods, and fermentation. ACE-inhibitory activities of peptides can be affected by their structural characteristics such as chain length, composition and sequence. ACE-inhibitory peptides should have gastrointestinal stability and reach the cardiovascular system to show their bioactivity. This paper reviews the current literature on plant-derived ACE-inhibitory peptides including their sources, production and structure, as well as their activity by in vitro and in vivo studies and their bioavailability. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 318; doi:10.3390/nu9040318
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism,
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Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Impact of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 322; doi:10.3390/nu9040322
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review
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In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM. HC diets are at least as effective as LC diets, leading to significant weight loss and a reduction in plasma glucose, HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The major concern is that HC diets may raise serum triglyceride levels and reduce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, these untoward effects were not a persistent consequence and may be ameliorated with the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI)/low glycemic load (GL) and high fiber. Carbohydrate intake should be individualized, and low caloric intake remains a crucial factor to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight; however, an HC diet, rich in fiber and with a low GI/GL, may be recommendable in patients with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Carbohydrate Diet and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 324; doi:10.3390/nu9040324
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that
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The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Soybean and other Grain Legumes)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D in Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 328; doi:10.3390/nu9040328
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20–29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin
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Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20–29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue. As in the general population, this condition is associated with increased morbidity and poor outcomes. Together with the progressive decline of serum calcitriol, vitamin D deficiency leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and its complications, tertiary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia, which require surgical parathyroidectomy or calcimimetics. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) experts have recognized that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency should be avoided in CKD and dialysis patients by using supplementation to prevent SHPT. Many vitamin D supplementation regimens using either ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol daily, weekly or monthly have been reported. The benefit of native vitamin D supplementation remains debatable because observational studies suggest that vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) use is associated with better outcomes and it is more efficient for decreasing the serum parathormone (PTH) levels. Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on the immune, cardiovascular and neurological systems and on antineoplastic activity. Extra-renal organs possess the enzymatic capacity to convert 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D. Despite many unanswered questions, much data support vitamin D use in renal patients. This article emphasizes the role of native vitamin D replacement during all-phases of CKD together with VDRA when SHPT persists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Open AccessReview High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 335; doi:10.3390/nu9040335
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free
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High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), uric acid (UA) and methylglyoxal (MG). Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vitamin C and Infections
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 339; doi:10.3390/nu9040339
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused
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In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Risk of Asthma, Wheezing and Immune Responses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 341; doi:10.3390/nu9040341
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract: Evidence suggests that reduced intake of fruit and vegetables may play a critical role in the development of asthma and allergies. The present review aimed to summarize the evidence for the association between fruit and vegetable intake, risk of asthma/wheeze and
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Abstract: Evidence suggests that reduced intake of fruit and vegetables may play a critical role in the development of asthma and allergies. The present review aimed to summarize the evidence for the association between fruit and vegetable intake, risk of asthma/wheeze and immune responses. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched up to June 2016. Studies that investigated the effects of fruit and vegetable intake on risk of asthma/wheeze and immune responses were considered eligible (n = 58). Studies used cross-sectional (n = 30), cohort (n = 13), case-control (n = 8) and experimental (n = 7) designs. Most of the studies (n = 30) reported beneficial associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with risk of asthma and/or respiratory function, while eight studies found no significant relationship. Some studies (n = 20) reported mixed results, as they found a negative association between fruit only or vegetable only, and asthma. In addition, the meta-analyses in both adults and children showed inverse associations between fruit intake and risk of prevalent wheeze and asthma severity (p < 0.05). Likewise, vegetable intake was negatively associated with risk of prevalent asthma (p < 0.05). Seven studies examined immune responses in relation to fruit and vegetable intake in asthma, with n = 6 showing a protective effect against either systemic or airway inflammation. Fruit and vegetable consumption appears to be protective against asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Glucose Plus Fructose Ingestion for Post-Exercise Recovery—Greater than the Sum of Its Parts?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 344; doi:10.3390/nu9040344
Received: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, when effective endurance performance is an objective on multiple occasions within a 24-h period, the restoration of endogenous
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Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, when effective endurance performance is an objective on multiple occasions within a 24-h period, the restoration of endogenous glycogen stores is the principal factor determining recovery. This review considers the role of glucose–fructose co-ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen repletion following prolonged exercise. Glucose and fructose are primarily absorbed by different intestinal transport proteins; by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. Moreover, the addition of glucose to fructose ingestion facilitates intestinal fructose absorption via a currently unidentified mechanism. The co-ingestion of glucose and fructose therefore provides faster rates of carbohydrate absorption than the sum of glucose and fructose absorption rates alone. Similar metabolic effects can be achieved via the ingestion of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose) because intestinal absorption is unlikely to be limited by sucrose hydrolysis. Carbohydrate ingestion at a rate of ≥1.2 g carbohydrate per kg body mass per hour appears to maximise post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion rates. Providing these carbohydrates in the form of glucose–fructose (sucrose) mixtures does not further enhance muscle glycogen repletion rates over glucose (polymer) ingestion alone. In contrast, liver glycogen repletion rates are approximately doubled with ingestion of glucose–fructose (sucrose) mixtures over isocaloric ingestion of glucose (polymers) alone. Furthermore, glucose plus fructose (sucrose) ingestion alleviates gastrointestinal distress when the ingestion rate approaches or exceeds the capacity for intestinal glucose absorption (~1.2 g/min). Accordingly, when rapid recovery of endogenous glycogen stores is a priority, ingesting glucose–fructose mixtures (or sucrose) at a rate of ≥1.2 g·kg body mass−1·h−1 can enhance glycogen repletion rates whilst also minimising gastrointestinal distress. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of the Enterocyte in Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridaemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 349; doi:10.3390/nu9040349
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Dietary fructose has been linked to an increased post-prandial triglyceride (TG) level; which is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although much research has focused on the effects of fructose consumption on liver-derived very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL); emerging evidence also suggests
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Dietary fructose has been linked to an increased post-prandial triglyceride (TG) level; which is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although much research has focused on the effects of fructose consumption on liver-derived very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL); emerging evidence also suggests that fructose may raise post-prandial TG levels by affecting the metabolism of enterocytes of the small intestine. Enterocytes have become well recognised for their ability to transiently store lipids following a meal and to thus control post-prandial TG levels according to the rate of chylomicron (CM) lipoprotein synthesis and secretion. The influence of fructose consumption on several aspects of enterocyte lipid metabolism are discussed; including de novo lipogenesis; apolipoprotein B48 and CM-TG production; based on the findings of animal and human isotopic tracer studies. Methodological issues affecting the interpretation of fructose studies conducted to date are highlighted; including the accurate separation of CM and VLDL. Although the available evidence to date is limited; disruption of enterocyte lipid metabolism may make a meaningful contribution to the hypertriglyceridaemia often associated with fructose consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism. What Can We Learn from Them?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 356; doi:10.3390/nu9040356
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn
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Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are rare conditions. Three inborn errors are known in the pathway of fructose metabolism; (1) essential or benign fructosuria due to fructokinase deficiency; (2) hereditary fructose intolerance; and (3) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. In this review the focus is set on the description of the clinical symptoms and biochemical anomalies in the three inborn errors of metabolism. The potential toxic effects of fructose in healthy humans also are discussed. Studies conducted in patients with inborn errors of fructose metabolism helped to understand fructose metabolism and its potential toxicity in healthy human. Influence of fructose on the glycolytic pathway and on purine catabolism is the cause of hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis and hyperuricemia. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provided new understandings into pathogenesis for these frequent diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Metabolites and Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 358; doi:10.3390/nu9040358
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Dietary contents and their metabolites are closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Advanced glycated end products (AGEs) are a type of uremic toxin produced by glycation. AGE accumulation is not only the result of elevated glucose levels or reduced renal clearance
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Dietary contents and their metabolites are closely related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Advanced glycated end products (AGEs) are a type of uremic toxin produced by glycation. AGE accumulation is not only the result of elevated glucose levels or reduced renal clearance capacity, but it also promotes CKD progression. Indoxyl sulfate, another uremic toxin derived from amino acid metabolism, accumulates as CKD progresses and induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis. Specific types of amino acids (d-serine) or fatty acids (palmitate) are reported to be closely associated with CKD progression. Promising therapeutic targets associated with nutrition include uremic toxin absorbents and inhibitors of AGEs or the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Probiotics and prebiotics maintain gut flora balance and also prevent CKD progression by enhancing gut barriers and reducing uremic toxin formation. Nrf2 signaling not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also reduces elevated AGE levels. Bardoxolone methyl, an Nrf2 activator and NF-κB suppressor, has been tested as a therapeutic agent, but the phase 3 clinical trial was terminated owing to the high rate of cardiovascular events. However, a phase 2 trial has been initiated in Japan, and the preliminary analysis reveals promising results without an increase in cardiovascular events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Sources and Bioactivities of Melatonin
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 367; doi:10.3390/nu9040367
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Insomnia is a serious worldwide health threat, affecting nearly one third of the general population. Melatonin has been reported to improve sleep efficiency and it was found that eating melatonin-rich foods could assist sleep. During the last decades, melatonin has been widely identified
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Insomnia is a serious worldwide health threat, affecting nearly one third of the general population. Melatonin has been reported to improve sleep efficiency and it was found that eating melatonin-rich foods could assist sleep. During the last decades, melatonin has been widely identified and qualified in various foods from fungi to animals and plants. Eggs and fish are higher melatonin-containing food groups in animal foods, whereas in plant foods, nuts are with the highest content of melatonin. Some kinds of mushrooms, cereals and germinated legumes or seeds are also good dietary sources of melatonin. It has been proved that the melatonin concentration in human serum could significantly increase after the consumption of melatonin containing food. Furthermore, studies show that melatonin exhibits many bioactivities, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory characteristics, boosting immunity, anticancer activity, cardiovascular protection, anti-diabetic, anti-obese, neuroprotective and anti-aging activity. This review summaries the dietary sources and bioactivities of melatonin, with special attention paid to the mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview The Diet and Haemodialysis Dyad: Three Eras, Four Open Questions and Four Paradoxes. A Narrative Review, Towards a Personalized, Patient-Centered Approach
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 372; doi:10.3390/nu9040372
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
The history of dialysis and diet can be viewed as a series of battles waged against potential threats to patients’ lives. In the early years of dialysis, potassium was identified as “the killer”, and the lists patients were given of forbidden foods included
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The history of dialysis and diet can be viewed as a series of battles waged against potential threats to patients’ lives. In the early years of dialysis, potassium was identified as “the killer”, and the lists patients were given of forbidden foods included most plant-derived nourishment. As soon as dialysis became more efficient and survival increased, hyperphosphatemia, was identified as the enemy, generating an even longer list of banned aliments. Conversely, the “third era” finds us combating protein-energy wasting. This review discusses four questions and four paradoxes, regarding the diet-dialysis dyad: are the “magic numbers” of nutritional requirements (calories: 30–35 kcal/kg; proteins > 1.2 g/kg) still valid? Are the guidelines based on the metabolic needs of patients on “conventional” thrice-weekly bicarbonate dialysis applicable to different dialysis schedules, including daily dialysis or haemodiafiltration? The quantity of phosphate and potassium contained in processed and preserved foods may be significantly different from those in untreated foods: what are we eating? Is malnutrition one condition or a combination of conditions? The paradoxes: obesity is associated with higher survival in dialysis, losing weight is associated with mortality, but high BMI is a contraindication for kidney transplantation; it is difficult to limit phosphate intake when a patient is on a high-protein diet, such as the ones usually prescribed on dialysis; low serum albumin is associated with low dialysis efficiency and reduced survival, but on haemodiafiltration, high efficiency is coupled with albumin losses; banning plant derived food may limit consumption of “vascular healthy” food in a vulnerable population. Tailored approaches and agreed practices are needed so that we can identify attainable goals and pursue them in our fragile haemodialysis populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessReview Vegetarian Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease—A Friend or Foe
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 374; doi:10.3390/nu9040374
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for
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Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension). It has been suggested that plant proteins may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as results in milder renal tissue damage when compared to animal proteins. The National Kidney Foundation recommends vegetarianism, or part-time vegetarian diet as being beneficial to CKD patients. Their recommendations are supported by the results of studies demonstrating that a plant-based diet may hamper the development or progression of some complications of chronic kidney disease, such as heart disease, protein loss in urine, and the progression of kidney damage. However, there are sparse reports suggesting that a vegan diet is not appropriate for CKD patients and those undergoing dialysis due to the difficulty in consuming enough protein and in maintaining proper potassium and phosphorus levels. Therefore, this review will focus on the problem as to whether vegetarian diet and its modifications are suitable for chronic kidney disease patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Open AccessReview Low Glycemic Index Prototype Isomaltulose—Update of Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 381; doi:10.3390/nu9040381
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide
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Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide isomaltulose that can be commercially produced from sucrose (beet sugar) to industrial scale. It is currently used in various food and drink applications as well as special and clinical nutrition feeds and formula diet as a food ingredient and alternative sugar. Here we provide an overview on clinical trials with isomaltulose including an analysis of its effects on glycemia and fat oxidation as compared to high glycemic index sugars and carbohydrates. In addition, we discuss recent reports on beneficial effects in weight-loss maintenance and pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Sugars and Endogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts: Emerging Mechanisms of Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 385; doi:10.3390/nu9040385
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to
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The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations. The in vitro observation that fructose is one of the most rapid and effective glycating agents when compared to other sugars has prompted the investigation of the in vivo fructose-induced glycation. In particular, the widespread employment of fructose as sweetener has been ascribed by many experimental and observational studies for the enhancement of lipogenesis and intracellular lipid deposition. Indeed, diet-derived AGEs have been demonstrated to interfere with many cell functions such as lipid synthesis, inflammation, antioxidant defences, and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, emerging evidence also in humans suggest that this impact of dietary AGEs on different signalling pathways can contribute to the onset of organ damage in liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and the brain, affecting not only metabolic control, but global health. Indeed, the most recent reports on the effects of high sugar consumption and diet-derived AGEs on human health reviewed here suggest the need to limit the dietary sources of AGEs, including added sugars, to prevent the development of metabolic diseases and related comorbidities. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance: New Insights and Potential New Treatments
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 387; doi:10.3390/nu9040387
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders worldwide. It is associated with clinical states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, and covers a wide range of liver changes, ranging from simple steatosis to
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders worldwide. It is associated with clinical states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, and covers a wide range of liver changes, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic disorders, such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, but the underlying mechanisms, including those that drive disease progression, are not fully understood. Both innate and recruited immune cells mediate the development of insulin resistance and NASH. Therefore, modifying the polarization of resident and recruited macrophage/Kupffer cells is expected to lead to new therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. Oxidative stress is also pivotal for the progression of NASH, which has generated interest in carotenoids as potent micronutrient antioxidants in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition to their antioxidative function, carotenoids regulate macrophage/Kupffer cell polarization and thereby prevent NASH progression. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, including macrophage/Kupffer cell polarization, and disturbed hepatic function in NAFLD. We also discuss dietary antioxidants, such as β-cryptoxanthin and astaxanthin, that may be effective in the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 388; doi:10.3390/nu9040388
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major
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Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition 2016)
Open AccessReview Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 395; doi:10.3390/nu9040395
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular
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There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 401; doi:10.3390/nu9040401
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of
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The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD). Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that postmenopausal women may safely consume dried plums as part of their fruit intake recommendations given their potential to have protective effects on bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health)
Open AccessReview Fructose Consumption in the Development of Obesity and the Effects of Different Protocols of Physical Exercise on the Hepatic Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 405; doi:10.3390/nu9040405
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context,
[...] Read more.
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength, or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increase and decrease triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength training, or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose. Full article
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Open AccessReview Association of Polyphenol Biomarkers with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 415; doi:10.3390/nu9040415
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the
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Epidemiologic studies have suggested an inverse association between flavonoids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the results might have been influenced by the use of dietary assessment methods, which are error prone. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the literature for evidence of associations between polyphenol biomarkers and CVD and mortality risk in observational studies. Eligible studies were identified through PubMed, Web of Science, and reference lists. Multivariable adjusted associations were extracted. Data were log-transformed and pooled using the random effects model. In total, eight studies were included, investigating 16 different polyphenol biomarkers in association with CVD and mortality. Blood and urine were used as biospecimens, and enterolactone, a lignan metabolite, was most often investigated. Three meta-analyses were conducted investigating the association between enterolactone, and all-cause and CVD mortality, and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A 30% and 45% reduced all-cause and CVD mortality risk were revealed at higher enterolactone concentrations. Furthermore, inverse associations were observed between polyphenol biomarkers and all-cause mortality, kaempferol, and acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence to suggest that enterolactone is associated with a lower CVD mortality risk. This emphasises the importance of the role of the microbiota in disease prevention. To strengthen the evidence, more studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperConference Report Nutrition Society of New Zealand Annual Conference Held in Christchurch, New Zealand, 8–9 December 2016
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 348; doi:10.3390/nu9040348
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The annual conference and scientific meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Christchurch, New Zealand from 8–9 December 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessCommentary Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 366; doi:10.3390/nu9040366
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious
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Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
Open AccessComment Comments to Article by Solah VA et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 398; doi:10.3390/nu9040398
Received: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Open AccessReply Response to Comments by Vuksan V. et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 398, Regarding an Article by Solah V.A. et al., Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 408; doi:10.3390/nu9040408
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary Choice in Overweight Individuals Nutrients 2017, 9, 149
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 409; doi:10.3390/nu9040409
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper “Eat as If You Could Save the Planet and Win!” Sustainability Integration into Nutrition for Exercise and Sport
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 412; doi:10.3390/nu9040412
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change
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Today’s industrial food production contributes significantly to environmental degradation. Meat production accounts for the largest impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use. While food production and consumption are important aspects when addressing climate change, this article focuses predominantly on dietary change that promotes both health for planet and people with focus on athletes. Healthy, sustainable eating recommendations begin to appear in various governmental guidelines. However, there remains resistance to the suggested reductions in meat consumption. While food citizens are likely to choose what is good for them and the planet, others may not, unless healthy eating initiatives integrate creative food literacy approaches with experiential learning as a potential vehicle for change. This concept paper is organized in three sections: (1) Environmental impact of food; (2) health and sustainability connections; and (3) application in sports and exercise. For active individuals, this article focuses on the quantity of protein, highlighting meat and dairy, and quality of food, with topics such as organic production and biodiversity. Finally, the timing of when to integrate sustainability principles in sport nutrition is discussed, followed by practical applications for education and inclusion in team, institutional, and event operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Yu et al. Low Iron Diet Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Young Rats. Nutrients 2016, 8, 456
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 422; doi:10.3390/nu9040422
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
The Nutrients Editorial Office has recently been made aware that the figures in the title paper [1] are taken from the same micrographs as those of other papers by the same authors [...] Full article

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