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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 523; doi:10.3390/nu9050523

Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress-Mediated Injury in Cardiomyocytes

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
IRCCS “S. Donato” Hospital, San Donato Milanese, Piazza Edmondo Malan, 20097 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 00164 Rome, Italy
4
Center for Regenerative Medicine (CIMER), University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes. Polyphenols are a large group of natural compounds ubiquitously expressed in plants, and epidemiological studies have shown associations between a diet rich in polyphenols and the prevention of various ROS-mediated human diseases. Polyphenols reduce cardiomyocytes damage, necrosis, apoptosis, infarct size and improve cardiac function by decreasing oxidative stress-induced production of ROS or RNS. These effects are achieved by the ability of polyphenols to modulate the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and several signaling pathways involved in cells survival. This report reviews current knowledge on the potential anti-oxidative effects of polyphenols to control the cardiotoxicity induced by ROS and RNS stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease; cardiomyocytes polyphenols; oxidative stress; cardiovascular disease; cardiomyocytes
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Mattera, R.; Benvenuto, M.; Giganti, M.G.; Tresoldi, I.; Pluchinotta, F.R.; Bergante, S.; Tettamanti, G.; Masuelli, L.; Manzari, V.; Modesti, A.; Bei, R. Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress-Mediated Injury in Cardiomyocytes. Nutrients 2017, 9, 523.

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