Next Article in Journal
Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria
Previous Article in Journal
Potential Impact of Nutrition on Immune System Recovery from Heavy Exertion: A Metabolomics Perspective
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 514; doi:10.3390/nu9050514

Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Department of Economics, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1953 KB, uploaded 18 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity” (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p < 0.001), MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05,1.23; p = 0.001), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05,1.21; p = 0.001), B(a)P (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02,1.19; p = 0.017) and MDM (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07,1.28; p = 0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose–response meta-analysis between CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p < 0.001). No publication bias could be detected, whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chiavarini, M.; Bertarelli, G.; Minelli, L.; Fabiani, R. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 514.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top