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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 504; doi:10.3390/nu9050504

Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
2
Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04170, Korea
3
Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
4
Department of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
5
Division of Food Bioscience, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract

The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca) supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD) on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; osteoporosis; differentiation; ovariectomy rat calcium; osteoporosis; differentiation; ovariectomy rat
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoo, H.S.; Kim, G.-J.; Song, D.H.; Chung, K.-H.; Lee, K.-J.; Kim, D.-H.; An, J.H. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation. Nutrients 2017, 9, 504.

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