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Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3777-3801; doi:10.3390/nu6093777

Dietary Regulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway: Focus on Plant-Derived Compounds and Trace Minerals

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
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Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [395 KB, uploaded 25 September 2014]   |  

Abstract

It has become increasingly evident that chronic inflammation underpins the development of many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is inherently a biochemical dysregulation of the redox status of the intracellular environment, which under homeostatic conditions is a reducing environment, whereas inflammation is the biological response to oxidative stress in that the cell initiates the production of proteins, enzymes, and other compounds to restore homeostasis. At the center of the day-to-day biological response to oxidative stress is the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which regulates the transcription of many antioxidant genes that preserve cellular homeostasis and detoxification genes that process and eliminate carcinogens and toxins before they can cause damage. The Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway plays a major role in health resilience and can be made more robust and responsive by certain dietary factors. Transient activation of Nrf2 by dietary electrophilic phytochemicals can upregulate antioxidant and chemopreventive enzymes in the absence of actual oxidative stress inducers. Priming the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway by upregulating these enzymes prior to oxidative stress or xenobiotic encounter increases cellular fitness to respond more robustly to oxidative assaults without activating more intense inflammatory NFκB-mediated responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nrf2; NFκB; Keap1; oxidative stress; glutathione; antioxidant enzymes; phase 2 enzymes; nutrient: gene interactions; phytochemicals; trace minerals; zinc; selenium Nrf2; NFκB; Keap1; oxidative stress; glutathione; antioxidant enzymes; phase 2 enzymes; nutrient: gene interactions; phytochemicals; trace minerals; zinc; selenium
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Stefanson, A.L.; Bakovic, M. Dietary Regulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway: Focus on Plant-Derived Compounds and Trace Minerals. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3777-3801.

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