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Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3929-3941; doi:10.3390/nu6093929

Interactive Effects of Dietary Fat/Carbohydrate Ratio and Body Mass Index on Iron Deficiency Anemia among Taiwanese Women

1
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
2
Institute of Food and Bioresources Technology, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri 10100, Kenya
3
Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, 128 Sec. 2, Academia Rd. Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan
4
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 24 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency: Development, Implications and Treatment)
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Abstract

Whether being overweight or obese is associated with increased risk of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains controversial. We evaluated the dietary intakes and risk for IDA in relation to body mass index (BMI). One thousand two hundred and seventy-four females aged ≥19 years, enrolled in the third Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 2005–2008, were selected. Half of the women were either overweight (24.0%) or obese (25.3%). The overall prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency and IDA among adult women was 19.5%, 8.6% and 6.2%. BMI showed a protective effect on IDA: overweight (odds ratio, OR: 0.365 (0.181–0.736)) and obese (OR: 0.480 (0.259–0.891)) when compared with normal weight. Univariate analysis identified increased IDA risk for overweight/obese women who consumed higher dietary fat but lower carbohydrate (CHO) (OR: 10.119 (1.267–80.79)). No such relationship was found in IDA women with normal weight (OR: 0.375 (0.036–4.022)). Analysis of interaction(s) showed individuals within the highest BMI tertile (T3) had the lowest risk for IDA and the risk increased with increasing tertile groups of fat/CHO ratio; OR 0.381 (0.144–1.008; p = 0.051), 0.370 (0.133–1.026; p = 0.056) and 0.748 (0.314–1.783; p = 0.513); for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. In conclusion, a protective effect of BMI on IDA may be attenuated in women who had increased fat/CHO ratio. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; dietary fat and carbohydrate; overweight and obesity; Taiwanese female iron deficiency anemia; dietary fat and carbohydrate; overweight and obesity; Taiwanese female
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, J.-S.; Chen, Y.-C.; Owaga, E.; Palupi, K.C.; Pan, W.-H.; Bai, C.-H. Interactive Effects of Dietary Fat/Carbohydrate Ratio and Body Mass Index on Iron Deficiency Anemia among Taiwanese Women. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3929-3941.

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