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Nutrients 2014, 6(9), 3641-3652; doi:10.3390/nu6093641

Vitamin E Concentrations in Adults with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Department of Nutrition, Public Health School, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP-01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Epidemiology, Public Health School, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP-01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Medicine, Center for Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, CEP-13565-905 São Carlos, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E Nutrition and Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [216 KB, uploaded 15 September 2014]


HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpha-tocopherol; vitamin E; micronutrients; HIV; HAART alpha-tocopherol; vitamin E; micronutrients; HIV; HAART
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaio, D.J.I.; Rondó, P.H.C.; Luzia, L.A.; Souza, J.M.P.; Firmino, A.V.; Santos, S.S. Vitamin E Concentrations in Adults with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3641-3652.

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