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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2015), Pages 9753-11359

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Open AccessArticle Antecedents of Behavioral Intention to Use Mobile Telecommunication Services: Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Technology Acceptance
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11345-11359; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811345
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and user experience have been identified as core determinants of the success of service providers. Accordingly, practitioners and researchers have investigated the effects of service providers’ CSR and user experience on behavioral intention to use a
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The concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and user experience have been identified as core determinants of the success of service providers. Accordingly, practitioners and researchers have investigated the effects of service providers’ CSR and user experience on behavioral intention to use a particular service. Based on the importance of these concepts, the current study integrates subjective dimensions of CSR with the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore whether the CSR efforts of mobile telecommunication services providers and the service acceptance of their customers have significant effects on behavioral intention to use a service. We apply structural equation modeling and find that two factors from the TAM (i.e., usefulness and ease of use) as well as economic, social, and environmental responsibility are significantly related to customer attitude and satisfaction. Moreover, our results show that there are significantly positive relationships between customer attitude and behavioral intention to use a service, as well as between customer satisfaction and intention. Practical and theoretical implications along with notable limitations of the current study are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Seeing GMOs from a Systems Perspective: The Need for Comparative Cartographies of Agri/Cultures for Sustainability Assessment
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11321-11344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811321
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also
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Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also failed to account for both the conceptual and material networks of relations agricultural biotechnologies require, create and/or perform. This paper takes as a starting point that agricultural biotechnologies cannot be usefully assessed as isolated technological entities but need to be evaluated within the context of the broader socio-ecological system that they embody and engender. The paper then explores, compares and contrasts some of the methodological tools available for advancing this systems-based perspective. The article concludes by outlining a new synthesis approach of comparative cartographies of agri/cultures generated through multi-sited ethnographic case-studies, which is proposed as a way to generate system maps and enable the comparison of genetically modified (GM) food with both conventional and alternative agri-food networks for sustainability assessment. The paper aims to make a unique theoretical and methodological contribution by advancing a systems-based approach to conceptualising and assessing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and proposing a synthesised methodology for mapping networks of relations across different agri/cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Planning the Green Walkable City: Conceptualizing Values and Conflicts for Urban Green Space Strategies in Stockholm
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11306-11320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811306
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the
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Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the Green Walkable City Programme in Stockholm, a document developed to supplement the comprehensive plan as a strategic backbone for green urban planning. Based on interviews and content analysis, this paper identifies and discusses concerns raised in the development of the planning programme, and addresses the importance of urban green space for citizens’ well-being. The new comprehensive plan has introduced a shift in the attitude towards the urban green space in Stockholm. The need for urban growth is used to justify development of green fields, and a focus on the quality, rather than the quantity, of urban green space is promoted. Despite this progress, the public requests definitions for this quality approach and fears that nature within the city will be “parkified”. Therefore, this paper offers a critical reflection on the role of the Green Walkable City Programme, its situation within the context of Swedish green urban planning, and various areas of concern that have been highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Open AccessArticle The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11285-11305; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811285
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and
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Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land use are allocated to 28 selected countries in comparison to the corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental sustainability ratio (ESR)—an internationally comparable indicator representing the sustainability gap between contemporary anthropogenic interference and critical capacity thresholds—allows one to map the reserve or transgression of the nation-specific environmental boundaries. While the geographical distribution of the three ESRs varies across nations, in general, the worldwide unsustainability of carbon emissions is largely driven by economic development, while resource endowments play a more central role in explaining national performance on water and land use. The main value added of this paper is to provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of the proposed framework in allocating overall responsibility for environmental sustainability to sub-global scales and in informing policy makers about the need to prevent the planet’s environment from tipping into an undesirable state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation)
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Open AccessArticle The Water Footprint of Data Centers
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11260-11284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811260
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs) proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint
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The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs) proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF) has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end). It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Decision Making Model for Carbon Reduction in Road Construction Projects Using Green Technologies
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11240-11259; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811240
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction
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Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction projects. According to a study on carbon emissions, the carbon emissions generated during the construction stage of road projects account for approximately 76 to 86% of the total carbon emissions, far exceeding the other stages, such as maintenance or demolition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quantitative decision making model that supports the application of green technologies (GTs) to reduce carbon emissions during the construction stage of road construction projects. First, the authors selected environmental soundness, economic feasibility and constructability as the key assessment indices for evaluating 20 GTs. Second, a fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FS/QCA) was used to establish an objective decision-making model for the assessment of both the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the key indices. To support the developed model, an expert survey was performed to assess the applicability of each GT from a practical perspective, which was verified with a case study using two additional GTs. The proposed model is expected to support practitioners in the application of suitable GTs to road projects and reduce carbon emissions, resulting in better decision making during road construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon reduction strategies and methods in transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Sustaining a Korean Traditional Rural Landscape in the Context of Cultural Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11213-11239; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811213
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape,
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Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Scaled Experimental Study on Maximum Smoke Temperature along Corridors Subject to Room Fires
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11190-11212; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811190
Received: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract
In room–corridor building geometry, the corridor smoke temperature is of great importance to fire protection engineering as indoor fires occur. Theoretical analysis and a set of reduced-scale model experiments were performed, and a virtual fire model was proposed, to investigate the correlations between
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In room–corridor building geometry, the corridor smoke temperature is of great importance to fire protection engineering as indoor fires occur. Theoretical analysis and a set of reduced-scale model experiments were performed, and a virtual fire model was proposed, to investigate the correlations between the maximum smoke temperature in corridors and the smoke temperature in rooms. The results show that the dimensionless virtual fire heat release rate (HRR) is characterized by quadratic-polynomial of the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms. The dimensionless distance from a virtual fire source to the corridor ceiling varies linearly with the dimensionless smoke temperature in a room. Results of multiple regression indicate that, at the impingement area of virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is only related to the dimensionless virtual fire HRR; in the non-impingement area of a virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is a function of the dimensionless virtual fire HRR and dimensionless longitude distance. The viscosity and conduction exhibit an insignificant impact on the maximum temperature in the corridor. Through replacing the parameters of virtual fire with the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms, the correlations between dimensionless maximum temperature in corridors and the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms were proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11160-11189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811160
Received: 28 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in
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Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry to improve their sustainable activities. The first part of the paper examines the relationship between gamification and sustainability, highlighting the links between these two concepts. The second part identifies success stories of gamification applied in hospitality and tourism and reviews gamification benefits by analysing the relationship between tourism organisations and three main tourism stakeholders: tourists, tourism employees and local community. The analysis is made in connection with the main pillars of sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This study is positioning the role of gamification in the tourism and hospitality industry and further, into the larger context of sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11139-11159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811139
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack
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In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Cycle as a Tool to Select Resilient Patterns of Rural Development
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11114-11138; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811114
Received: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of
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Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of this study is to use the adaptive cycle heuristic as a diagnostic tool to study dynamics of change in two agricultural sectors (durum wheat/sheep and goat farming) in the Basilicata region of Southern Italy over the last seventy years. The heuristic was applied through a participatory approach in a community of stakeholders who have conceived, in collaboration with researchers, the Manifesto “Let’s Think Basilicata” as a regional instrument of analysis and a laboratory of ideas and development of proposals. Despite some methodological difficulties, the adaptive cycle heuristic proved useful to describe processes of change in the socio-ecological system and could have enormous potential in shaping policy instruments for rural areas. However, much greater research is needed, both in terms of theory and methodology, before policy impacts on resilience in socio-ecological systems can be fully understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Diurnal Thermal Performance of a Subtropical Extensive Green Roof: The Impacts of Background Weather Parameters
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11098-11113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811098
Received: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most studies explored green-roof thermal effects on a few hot summer days based on short-term monitoring data. Few studies investigated the seasonal and diurnal patterns of thermal performance and associated weather effects. This research aims to address the following two questions: (1) how
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Most studies explored green-roof thermal effects on a few hot summer days based on short-term monitoring data. Few studies investigated the seasonal and diurnal patterns of thermal performance and associated weather effects. This research aims to address the following two questions: (1) how green-roof thermal performance varies with different season and time; and (2) to what extent can thermal performance be predicted by background weather parameters? A retrofitted extensive green roof was established on the top of a railway station in subtropical Hong Kong. Monitoring data covering a two-year period, one year before roof greening and one year after, were collected and analyzed. Results indicated notable seasonal and diurnal patterns of green-roof thermal performance. It exhibited cooling effects in spring, summer and fall, but warming effects in winter. The cooling effects were more pronounced in summer than spring and fall, on sunny days than rainy and cloudy days, and in nighttime than daytime. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and soil moisture could explain 83.6%–86% of the thermal effects’ variation. The multiple-regression models based on the five weather variables established in this study provide an uncomplicated and direct approach to predict the thermal performance of similar extensive green roofs in subtropical areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11068-11097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811068
Received: 21 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards
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The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11050-11067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811050
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run.
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The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11032-11049; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811032
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO2eq per
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This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO2eq per visit of carbon emissions. The average carbon emission density for each land area is 8.2 t/ha·year and is 245 kg/m²·year for each floor area. It is estimated that the overall carbon emissions reach 321,751 tons annually. The tourism-based farms were clustered into five categories, based on their business characteristics. It was found that high-end vacation leisure farms produce 2.46 times the carbon emissions than natural eco-conservation farms. Carbon emissions were 42% higher than the annual average in July and August. A secondary high season is in February, but it is merely higher than the annual average by 8% because of the mild climate. Two significant models for predicting carbon emissions were constructed by stepwise regression. As agriculture administrative authorities in Taiwan gradually have begun admitting the cultivated lands for multi-purpose usage, tourism-based farms have been increasing drastically. This study provides references for both public authorities and farm managers in exploring the issues with regard to carbon emissions and farm sustainability. Full article
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