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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2015), Pages 9753-11359

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Open AccessArticle Antecedents of Behavioral Intention to Use Mobile Telecommunication Services: Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Technology Acceptance
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11345-11359; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811345
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and user experience have been identified as core determinants of the success of service providers. Accordingly, practitioners and researchers have investigated the effects of service providers’ CSR and user experience on behavioral intention to use a
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The concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and user experience have been identified as core determinants of the success of service providers. Accordingly, practitioners and researchers have investigated the effects of service providers’ CSR and user experience on behavioral intention to use a particular service. Based on the importance of these concepts, the current study integrates subjective dimensions of CSR with the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explore whether the CSR efforts of mobile telecommunication services providers and the service acceptance of their customers have significant effects on behavioral intention to use a service. We apply structural equation modeling and find that two factors from the TAM (i.e., usefulness and ease of use) as well as economic, social, and environmental responsibility are significantly related to customer attitude and satisfaction. Moreover, our results show that there are significantly positive relationships between customer attitude and behavioral intention to use a service, as well as between customer satisfaction and intention. Practical and theoretical implications along with notable limitations of the current study are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Seeing GMOs from a Systems Perspective: The Need for Comparative Cartographies of Agri/Cultures for Sustainability Assessment
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11321-11344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811321
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also
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Over the past twenty years, agricultural biotechnologies have generated chronically unresolved political controversies. The standard tool of risk assessment has proven to be highly limited in its ability to address the panoply of concerns that exist about these hybrid techno/organisms. It has also failed to account for both the conceptual and material networks of relations agricultural biotechnologies require, create and/or perform. This paper takes as a starting point that agricultural biotechnologies cannot be usefully assessed as isolated technological entities but need to be evaluated within the context of the broader socio-ecological system that they embody and engender. The paper then explores, compares and contrasts some of the methodological tools available for advancing this systems-based perspective. The article concludes by outlining a new synthesis approach of comparative cartographies of agri/cultures generated through multi-sited ethnographic case-studies, which is proposed as a way to generate system maps and enable the comparison of genetically modified (GM) food with both conventional and alternative agri-food networks for sustainability assessment. The paper aims to make a unique theoretical and methodological contribution by advancing a systems-based approach to conceptualising and assessing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and proposing a synthesised methodology for mapping networks of relations across different agri/cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Planning the Green Walkable City: Conceptualizing Values and Conflicts for Urban Green Space Strategies in Stockholm
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11306-11320; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811306
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the
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Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the Green Walkable City Programme in Stockholm, a document developed to supplement the comprehensive plan as a strategic backbone for green urban planning. Based on interviews and content analysis, this paper identifies and discusses concerns raised in the development of the planning programme, and addresses the importance of urban green space for citizens’ well-being. The new comprehensive plan has introduced a shift in the attitude towards the urban green space in Stockholm. The need for urban growth is used to justify development of green fields, and a focus on the quality, rather than the quantity, of urban green space is promoted. Despite this progress, the public requests definitions for this quality approach and fears that nature within the city will be “parkified”. Therefore, this paper offers a critical reflection on the role of the Green Walkable City Programme, its situation within the context of Swedish green urban planning, and various areas of concern that have been highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Open AccessArticle The Environmental Sustainability of Nations: Benchmarking the Carbon, Water and Land Footprints against Allocated Planetary Boundaries
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11285-11305; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811285
Received: 18 May 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and
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Growing scientific evidence for the indispensable role of environmental sustainability in sustainable development calls for appropriate frameworks and indicators for environmental sustainability assessment (ESA). In this paper, we operationalize and update the footprint-boundary ESA framework, with a particular focus on its methodological and application extensions to the national level. By using the latest datasets available, the planetary boundaries for carbon emissions, water use and land use are allocated to 28 selected countries in comparison to the corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental sustainability ratio (ESR)—an internationally comparable indicator representing the sustainability gap between contemporary anthropogenic interference and critical capacity thresholds—allows one to map the reserve or transgression of the nation-specific environmental boundaries. While the geographical distribution of the three ESRs varies across nations, in general, the worldwide unsustainability of carbon emissions is largely driven by economic development, while resource endowments play a more central role in explaining national performance on water and land use. The main value added of this paper is to provide concrete evidence of the usefulness of the proposed framework in allocating overall responsibility for environmental sustainability to sub-global scales and in informing policy makers about the need to prevent the planet’s environment from tipping into an undesirable state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation)
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Open AccessArticle The Water Footprint of Data Centers
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11260-11284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811260
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs) proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint
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The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs) proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF) has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end). It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Decision Making Model for Carbon Reduction in Road Construction Projects Using Green Technologies
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11240-11259; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811240
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction
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Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction projects. According to a study on carbon emissions, the carbon emissions generated during the construction stage of road projects account for approximately 76 to 86% of the total carbon emissions, far exceeding the other stages, such as maintenance or demolition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quantitative decision making model that supports the application of green technologies (GTs) to reduce carbon emissions during the construction stage of road construction projects. First, the authors selected environmental soundness, economic feasibility and constructability as the key assessment indices for evaluating 20 GTs. Second, a fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FS/QCA) was used to establish an objective decision-making model for the assessment of both the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the key indices. To support the developed model, an expert survey was performed to assess the applicability of each GT from a practical perspective, which was verified with a case study using two additional GTs. The proposed model is expected to support practitioners in the application of suitable GTs to road projects and reduce carbon emissions, resulting in better decision making during road construction projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon reduction strategies and methods in transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Sustaining a Korean Traditional Rural Landscape in the Context of Cultural Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11213-11239; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811213
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape,
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Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Scaled Experimental Study on Maximum Smoke Temperature along Corridors Subject to Room Fires
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11190-11212; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811190
Received: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract
In room–corridor building geometry, the corridor smoke temperature is of great importance to fire protection engineering as indoor fires occur. Theoretical analysis and a set of reduced-scale model experiments were performed, and a virtual fire model was proposed, to investigate the correlations between
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In room–corridor building geometry, the corridor smoke temperature is of great importance to fire protection engineering as indoor fires occur. Theoretical analysis and a set of reduced-scale model experiments were performed, and a virtual fire model was proposed, to investigate the correlations between the maximum smoke temperature in corridors and the smoke temperature in rooms. The results show that the dimensionless virtual fire heat release rate (HRR) is characterized by quadratic-polynomial of the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms. The dimensionless distance from a virtual fire source to the corridor ceiling varies linearly with the dimensionless smoke temperature in a room. Results of multiple regression indicate that, at the impingement area of virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is only related to the dimensionless virtual fire HRR; in the non-impingement area of a virtual fire, the dimensionless maximum smoke temperature in corridors is a function of the dimensionless virtual fire HRR and dimensionless longitude distance. The viscosity and conduction exhibit an insignificant impact on the maximum temperature in the corridor. Through replacing the parameters of virtual fire with the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms, the correlations between dimensionless maximum temperature in corridors and the dimensionless smoke temperature in fire rooms were proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11160-11189; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811160
Received: 28 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in
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Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry to improve their sustainable activities. The first part of the paper examines the relationship between gamification and sustainability, highlighting the links between these two concepts. The second part identifies success stories of gamification applied in hospitality and tourism and reviews gamification benefits by analysing the relationship between tourism organisations and three main tourism stakeholders: tourists, tourism employees and local community. The analysis is made in connection with the main pillars of sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This study is positioning the role of gamification in the tourism and hospitality industry and further, into the larger context of sustainable development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11139-11159; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811139
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack
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In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Cycle as a Tool to Select Resilient Patterns of Rural Development
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11114-11138; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811114
Received: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of
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Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of this study is to use the adaptive cycle heuristic as a diagnostic tool to study dynamics of change in two agricultural sectors (durum wheat/sheep and goat farming) in the Basilicata region of Southern Italy over the last seventy years. The heuristic was applied through a participatory approach in a community of stakeholders who have conceived, in collaboration with researchers, the Manifesto “Let’s Think Basilicata” as a regional instrument of analysis and a laboratory of ideas and development of proposals. Despite some methodological difficulties, the adaptive cycle heuristic proved useful to describe processes of change in the socio-ecological system and could have enormous potential in shaping policy instruments for rural areas. However, much greater research is needed, both in terms of theory and methodology, before policy impacts on resilience in socio-ecological systems can be fully understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Diurnal Thermal Performance of a Subtropical Extensive Green Roof: The Impacts of Background Weather Parameters
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11098-11113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811098
Received: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most studies explored green-roof thermal effects on a few hot summer days based on short-term monitoring data. Few studies investigated the seasonal and diurnal patterns of thermal performance and associated weather effects. This research aims to address the following two questions: (1) how
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Most studies explored green-roof thermal effects on a few hot summer days based on short-term monitoring data. Few studies investigated the seasonal and diurnal patterns of thermal performance and associated weather effects. This research aims to address the following two questions: (1) how green-roof thermal performance varies with different season and time; and (2) to what extent can thermal performance be predicted by background weather parameters? A retrofitted extensive green roof was established on the top of a railway station in subtropical Hong Kong. Monitoring data covering a two-year period, one year before roof greening and one year after, were collected and analyzed. Results indicated notable seasonal and diurnal patterns of green-roof thermal performance. It exhibited cooling effects in spring, summer and fall, but warming effects in winter. The cooling effects were more pronounced in summer than spring and fall, on sunny days than rainy and cloudy days, and in nighttime than daytime. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and soil moisture could explain 83.6%–86% of the thermal effects’ variation. The multiple-regression models based on the five weather variables established in this study provide an uncomplicated and direct approach to predict the thermal performance of similar extensive green roofs in subtropical areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11068-11097; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811068
Received: 21 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards
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The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11050-11067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811050
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run.
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The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11032-11049; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811032
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO2eq per
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This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO2eq per visit of carbon emissions. The average carbon emission density for each land area is 8.2 t/ha·year and is 245 kg/m²·year for each floor area. It is estimated that the overall carbon emissions reach 321,751 tons annually. The tourism-based farms were clustered into five categories, based on their business characteristics. It was found that high-end vacation leisure farms produce 2.46 times the carbon emissions than natural eco-conservation farms. Carbon emissions were 42% higher than the annual average in July and August. A secondary high season is in February, but it is merely higher than the annual average by 8% because of the mild climate. Two significant models for predicting carbon emissions were constructed by stepwise regression. As agriculture administrative authorities in Taiwan gradually have begun admitting the cultivated lands for multi-purpose usage, tourism-based farms have been increasing drastically. This study provides references for both public authorities and farm managers in exploring the issues with regard to carbon emissions and farm sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11010-11031; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70811010
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1009 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this
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Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP) and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Does Environmental Sustainability Play a Role in the Adoption of Smart Card Technology at Universities in Taiwan: An Integration of TAM and TRA
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10994-11009; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810994
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart cards are able to store and protect relatively large amounts of data. When applied in universities, they can act as multi-purpose, multi-function and smart ID cards. This would avoid the waste of resources and maintain environmental sustainability. This study proposes a model
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Smart cards are able to store and protect relatively large amounts of data. When applied in universities, they can act as multi-purpose, multi-function and smart ID cards. This would avoid the waste of resources and maintain environmental sustainability. This study proposes a model that integrates Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Reasoned Action into a framework incorporating the notion of environmental concern in order to explore the factors that affect students’ behavioral intention to use University Smart Cards. This study employs a quantitative method for primary data collection via a structured questionnaire for university students. The findings indicated that the perceived usefulness and subjective norm of university smart card systems have the most significant predictive power on potential users’ attitudes and intentions of adopting the card. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Green IT System for Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10976-10993; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810976
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
PDF Full-text (1599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon
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Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II) algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon reduction strategies and methods in transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Network Theory Integrated Life Cycle Assessment for an Electric Power System
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10961-10975; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810961
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, we allocate Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electricity transmission to the consumers. As an allocation basis, we introduce energy distance. Energy distance takes the transmission load on the electricity energy system into account in addition to the amount of electricity
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In this study, we allocate Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of electricity transmission to the consumers. As an allocation basis, we introduce energy distance. Energy distance takes the transmission load on the electricity energy system into account in addition to the amount of electricity consumption. As a case study, we estimate regional GHG emissions of electricity transmission loss in Chile. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the total GHG emissions of the Chilean electric power system. The regional GHG emission of transmission loss is calculated from the total GHG emissions. We construct the network model of Chilean electric power grid as an undirected network with 466 nodes and 543 edges holding the topology of the power grid based on the statistical record. We analyze the total annual GHG emissions of the Chilean electricity energy system as 23.07 Mt CO2-eq. and 1.61 Mt CO2-eq. for the transmission loss, respectively. The total energy distance for the electricity transmission accounts for 12,842.10 TWh km based on network analysis. We argue that when the GHG emission of electricity transmission loss is estimated, the electricity transmission load should be separately considered. We propose network theory as a useful complement to LCA analysis for the complex allocation. Energy distance is especially useful on a very large-scale electric power grid such as an intercontinental transmission network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preferences Matter: A Constructive Approach to Incorporating Local Stakeholders’ Preferences in the Sustainability Evaluation of Energy Technologies
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10922-10960; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810922
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research paper aims at developing and applying a constructive weighting methodology for the elicitation of local stakeholders’ preferences regarding a set of sustainability evaluation criteria during the assessment of low-carbon energy technologies. The overall methodology has been applied and tested for the
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This research paper aims at developing and applying a constructive weighting methodology for the elicitation of local stakeholders’ preferences regarding a set of sustainability evaluation criteria during the assessment of low-carbon energy technologies. The overall methodology has been applied and tested for the sustainability evaluation of selected low-carbon energy technologies in Europe from a local stakeholders’ perspective. The researchers applied a constructive weighting methodology based on different Multiple Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques to test the consistency of stakeholders’ preferences. The methodology was piloted based on a small-scale European local stakeholders’ survey within the framework of Covenant CapaCITY, an Intelligent Energy Europe project that supports the development of Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAPs). It became evident that the local stakeholders who participated placed high priorities on aspects such as CO2eq emissions reduction, ecosystem damages reduction, and resilience to climate change during the evaluation of low-carbon energy technologies. Considering the overall energy technologies assessment, wind off-shore, solar PV, hydropower, and wind on-shore achieved the highest scores and better reflected the priorities of local stakeholders considering a large set of multiple sustainability criteria. The high number of criteria led to some inconsistencies of stakeholders’ preferences, confirming the need for consistency checks and/or combining different methods of preference elicitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessReview Making Nature Valuable, Not Profitable: Are Payments for Ecosystem Services Suitable for Degrowth?
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10895-10921; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810895
Received: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growth economy imposes multiple crises on humanity and the natural world. To challenge this economic growth imperative, the degrowth movement emerges as a dissident response. Although within an economic growth perspective, payments for ecosystem services (PES) have also been proposed to attenuate
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The growth economy imposes multiple crises on humanity and the natural world. To challenge this economic growth imperative, the degrowth movement emerges as a dissident response. Although within an economic growth perspective, payments for ecosystem services (PES) have also been proposed to attenuate the negative impacts of capitalism, as a redistributive mechanism that is claimed to deliver equitable conservation and sustainability. Degrowth has notably similar concerns, although it is inclined to argue against PES traditional ideologies and practices, which lead conservation to perceive nature within economic growth and market ideologies, diminishing the relationship between humans and nature. In spite of that, PES are becoming a strong trend in environmental governance. This paper attempts to examine whether PES are, and how they could be suitable for degrowth, through the lens of its main sources. In order to integrate PES and degrowth, it could require a PES reconceptualization. Although we assert that PES are not the most appropriate instrument for conservation, we argue that maybe PES could contribute to degrowth as a transition instrument toward fostering better practices. However, it is important to elucidate how they can be used and under which circumstances they could be appropriate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reforming China’s Pension Scheme for Urban Workers: Liquidity Gap and Policies’ Effects Forecasting
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10876-10894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810876
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study forecasts the liquidity gap in China’s pension scheme for urban workers in the context of an ageing population and the possible effects of recent governmental policies by constructing a basic pension model, including “old people”, “middle people” and “new people” and
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This study forecasts the liquidity gap in China’s pension scheme for urban workers in the context of an ageing population and the possible effects of recent governmental policies by constructing a basic pension model, including “old people”, “middle people” and “new people” and a simulation method. We find, firstly, that China’s liquidity gap of pension will reach its peak of approximately 13.11 trillion yuan in 2038. Subsequently, this gap will gradually decrease with growth in the mortality rate. Secondly, reasonable intervals for the replacement and contribution rates should be set at [0.417, 0.604] and [0.189, 0.262], respectively, to sustain China’s pension system. Thirdly, compared to increasing fiscal subsidies, an income doubling plan, raising the contribution rate, lowering the replacement rate and delaying the retirement age can significantly reduce the liquidity gap, although the policy costs are relatively high. A policy permitting families to have two children will increase the rate of reduction of the liquidity gap, but it cannot effectively narrow the gap at the peak moment. Full article
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Open AccessReview Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10854-10875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810854
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal
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This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle Diversity and Abundance of Soil Animals as Influenced by Long-Term Fertilization in Grey Desert Soil, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10837-10853; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810837
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between soil fauna and different fertilizer management practices is of growing concern. The aim of this research was to investigate the response of soil fauna to fertilization regimes, to explore the relationships among the community of soil animals, soil moisture and
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The relationship between soil fauna and different fertilizer management practices is of growing concern. The aim of this research was to investigate the response of soil fauna to fertilization regimes, to explore the relationships among the community of soil animals, soil moisture and crop yields. The application of organic fertilizers (i.e., sheep manure or crop residues) increased crop yields and promoted the number of individuals and species of soil fauna owing to the exogenous organic matter that fertilizers provided for the survival and development of soil fauna. Furthermore, the treatments that applied sheep manure (i.e., sheep manure only or nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sheep manure plus) were significantly beneficial for increasing crop yields and diversity of soil fauna compared to treatments with crop residues returned (i.e., crop residues returned only or nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and crop residues returned to the field) (p < 0.05) due to the response of soil fauna to diverse exogenous nutrients and the effect of soil fertility. Therefore, the finding that soil fauna abundance is significantly positively correlated with soil moisture and crop yield may mean the effects of fertilizer applications on soil animals were partly masked by the soil moisture and crop yield. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of the Building Envelope: A Novel Multi-Objective Approach for the Optimization of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10809-10836; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810809
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (4584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal
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According to the increasing worldwide attention to energy and the environmental performance of the building sector, building energy demand should be minimized by considering all energy uses. In this regard, the development of building components characterized by proper values of thermal transmittance, thermal capacity, and radiative properties is a key strategy to reduce the annual energy need for the microclimatic control. However, the design of the thermal characteristics of the building envelope is an arduous task, especially in temperate climates where the energy demands for space heating and cooling are balanced. This study presents a novel methodology for optimizing the thermo-physical properties of the building envelope and its coatings, in terms of thermal resistance, capacity, and radiative characteristics of exposed surfaces. A multi-objective approach is adopted in order to optimize energy performance and thermal comfort. The optimization problem is solved by means of a Genetic Algorithm implemented in MATLAB®, which is coupled with EnergyPlus for performing dynamic energy simulations. For demonstration, the methodology is applied to a residential building for two different Mediterranean climates: Naples and Istanbul. The results show that for Naples, because of the higher incidence of cooling demand, cool external coatings imply significant energy savings, whereas the insulation of walls should be high but not excessive (no more than 13–14 cm). The importance of high-reflective coating is clear also in colder Mediterranean climates, like Istanbul, although the optimal thicknesses of thermal insulation are higher (around 16–18 cm). In both climates, the thermal envelope should have a significant mass, obtainable by adopting dense and/or thick masonry layers. Globally, a careful design of the thermal envelope is always necessary in order to achieve high-efficiency buildings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SDI and Markov Chains for Regional Drought Characteristics
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10789-10808; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810789
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, global climate change has altered precipitation patterns, causing uneven spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation that gradually induces precipitation polarization phenomena. Taiwan is located in the subtropical climate zone, with distinct wet and dry seasons, which makes the polarization phenomenon
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In recent years, global climate change has altered precipitation patterns, causing uneven spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation that gradually induces precipitation polarization phenomena. Taiwan is located in the subtropical climate zone, with distinct wet and dry seasons, which makes the polarization phenomenon more obvious; this has also led to a large difference between river flows during the wet and dry seasons, which is significantly influenced by precipitation, resulting in hydrological drought. Therefore, to effectively address the growing issue of water shortages, it is necessary to explore and assess the drought characteristics of river systems. In this study, the drought characteristics of northern Taiwan were studied using the streamflow drought index (SDI) and Markov chains. Analysis results showed that the year 2002 was a turning point for drought severity in both the Lanyang River and Yilan River basins; the severity of rain events in the Lanyang River basin increased after 2002, and the severity of drought events in the Yilan River basin exhibited a gradual upward trend. In the study of drought severity, analysis results from periods of three months (November to January) and six months (November to April) have shown significant drought characteristics. In addition, analysis of drought occurrence probabilities using the method of Markov chains has shown that the occurrence probabilities of drought events are higher in the Lanyang River basin than in the Yilan River basin; particularly for extreme events, the occurrence probability of an extreme drought event is 20.6% during the dry season (November to April) in the Lanyang River basin, and 3.4% in the Yilan River basin. This study shows that for analysis of drought/wet occurrence probabilities, the results obtained for the drought frequency and occurrence probability using short-term data with the method of Markov chains can be used to predict the long-term occurrence probability of drought/wet events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maintenance and Energy Optimization of Lighting Systems for the Improvement of Historic Buildings: A Case Study
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10770-10788; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810770
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (5802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proper lighting is vital to improve, from an artistic point of view, the surface expanse and decorative detailing of architectural heritage buildings considered valuable. When properly lit, monumental buildings can become to onlookers an essential part of the city. Nowadays, for design planners
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Proper lighting is vital to improve, from an artistic point of view, the surface expanse and decorative detailing of architectural heritage buildings considered valuable. When properly lit, monumental buildings can become to onlookers an essential part of the city. Nowadays, for design planners dealing with the improvement of buildings, whose architectural design should be valorized, the real challenge is to combine the lighting artistic requirements with scrupulous economic management in order to limit the energy demand and to respect the environment. For these reasons, this case study examines the lighting of the monumental façade and the cloister of St. Peter in Chains situated in the Faculty of Engineering of Sapienza University of Rome. The present lighting installation, characterized by metal halides, compact fluorescent and halogen lamps, is compared with an alternative scenario presenting LED lamps and scenographic lighting of the monumental façade. Such comparison is based on the evaluation of the lighting levels for different visual tasks and on energy and maintenance issues; the first analysis was performed through the software DIALux Evo 4.0, whereas the second was performed using ecoCALC. This study leads to the conclusion that the lighting levels of the solution presenting LED lamps are better than those of the present solution, and they comply with current standards. Finally, the higher costs of LED lamp installations and the scenographic lighting of the monumental façade are balanced by lower maintenance costs, with a payback period of seven years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Empirical Study Utilizing QFD to Develop an International Marketing Strategy
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10756-10769; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810756
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Customer expectations can be extremely nebulous. This research identifies the demographic segmentations and their respective expectations for the spa market. Interviews were conducted and a subsequent questionnaire was employed to gather the voice of the customer and assess the expectations of spa clientele.
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Customer expectations can be extremely nebulous. This research identifies the demographic segmentations and their respective expectations for the spa market. Interviews were conducted and a subsequent questionnaire was employed to gather the voice of the customer and assess the expectations of spa clientele. All of the data was collected from luxury spas in Hawaii, and consisted of respondents from all over the world. Results of the survey suggest that while men want more tangible benefits of a spa, women prefer the experiential qualities of peace and rejuvenation. Additionally, those of lower to middle income focus on the atmosphere more than wealthier clients, who are looking for more long term spa benefits, such as a more youthful appearance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Human-Environment System Boundaries: A Case Study of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces as a World Heritage Cultural Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10733-10755; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810733
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Any World Heritage Cultural Landscape requires a clear boundary for administration. One of the administrative goals is sustainability. There is no widely identified way to demarcate the boundary of a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. This paper aims to explore a methodology framework to
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Any World Heritage Cultural Landscape requires a clear boundary for administration. One of the administrative goals is sustainability. There is no widely identified way to demarcate the boundary of a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. This paper aims to explore a methodology framework to provide a holistic perspective for demarcating boundaries for a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (HHRT) in Yunnan Province is a new World Heritage Cultural Landscape in China. We use it as a research area to illustrate the methodology framework. The framework of methodology is constructed based on four scales of a human-environment system identified by Anne Buttimer. It is used to describe the level of the sustainability of local economy, social organization, natural environment and people’s understanding of the human-environment. Four types of boundaries were investigated in this area. They are the boundary of Malizhai River Basin, the boundary of local water-allocation organization, the boundary of the economic network and the perceptual boundary of the human-environment system. With a comprehensive perspective, we integrated the four types of boundaries to judge the boundary of the core area of HHRT by three criteria, they are: Environmental sustainability, social justice, and the ability to create a new human-environment system. We conclude that some parts of the boundary of the core area of HHRT do not fit the criteria of sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10709-10732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su70810709
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts,
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Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD) in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel) with increased use of (also purchased) energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average) and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Use of Biomass Energy)
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