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Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11139-11159; doi:10.3390/su70811139

Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

1
CeTAmb LAB—Research laboratory on Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Management in resource-limited Countries, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture, Land, Environment and of Mathematics, University of Brescia, Via Branze 43, Brescia 25123, Italy
2
DICAr—Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 3, Pavia 27100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2401 KB, uploaded 17 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations). In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; Water Safety Plan; drinking water; Senegal; Burkina Faso sustainability; Water Safety Plan; drinking water; Senegal; Burkina Faso
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rondi, L.; Sorlini, S.; Collivignarelli, M.C. Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sustainability 2015, 7, 11139-11159.

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