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Materials, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2014), Pages 623-1443

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Open AccessEditorial Materials Best Paper Award 2014
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1441-1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021441
Received: 14 February 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 15 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
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Abstract
Materials instituted an annual award in order to acknowledge outstanding papers in the area of materials science and engineering published in Materials. [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Rapid Freeze-Thaw Cycling on the Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (2SHCC)
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1422-1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021422
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC) for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers—in the conventional
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This paper provides experimental results to investigate the mechanical properties of sustainable strain-hardening cement composite (2SHCC) for infrastructures after freeze-thaw actions. To improve the sustainability of SHCC materials in this study, high energy-consumptive components—silica sand, cement, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers—in the conventional SHCC materials are partially replaced with recycled materials such as recycled sand, fly ash, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, respectively. To investigate the mechanical properties of green SHCC that contains recycled materials, the cement, PVA fiber and silica sand were replaced with 10% fly ash, 25% PET fiber, and 10% recycled aggregate based on preliminary experimental results for the development of 2SHCC material, respectively. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight for 2SHCC material were measured at every 30 cycles of freeze-thaw. The effects of freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of sustainable SHCC are evaluated by conducting compressive tests, four-point flexural tests, direct tensile tests and prism splitting tests after 90, 180, and 300 cycles of rapid freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw testing was conducted according to ASTM C 666 Procedure A. Test results show that after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing actions, the dynamic modulus of elasticity and mass loss of damaged 2SHCC were similar to those of virgin 2SHCC, while the freeze-thaw cycles influence mechanical properties of the 2SHCC material except for compressive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Materials)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Annealing Temperatures on Composition and Strain in SixGe1−x Obtained by Melting Growth of Electrodeposited Ge on Si (100)
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1409-1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021409
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and
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The effects of annealing temperatures on composition and strain in SixGe1−x, obtained by rapid melting growth of electrodeposited Ge on Si (100) substrate were investigated. Here, a rapid melting process was performed at temperatures of 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C for 1 s. All annealed samples show single crystalline structure in (100) orientation. A significant appearance of Si-Ge vibration mode peak at ~400 cm−1 confirms the existence of Si-Ge intermixing due to out-diffusion of Si into Ge region. On a rapid melting process, Ge melts and reaches the thermal equilibrium in short time. Si at Ge/Si interface begins to dissolve once in contact with the molten Ge to produce Si-Ge intermixing. The Si fraction in Si-Ge intermixing was calculated by taking into account the intensity ratio of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge vibration mode peaks and was found to increase with the annealing temperatures. It is found that the strain turns from tensile to compressive as the annealing temperature increases. The Si fraction dependent thermal expansion coefficient of SixGe1−x is a possible cause to generate such strain behavior. The understanding of compositional and strain characteristics is important in Ge/Si heterostructure as these properties seem to give significant effects in device performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1384-1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021384
Received: 15 December 2013 / Revised: 16 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs) containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural) suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques
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Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs) containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural) suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques by selectively addressing spin probes either to the surfactant layer (labeled stearic acid) or the clay surface (labeled catamine). Continuous-wave (CW) EPR studies of the surfactant dynamics allow to define a transition temperature T* which was tentatively assigned to the order-disorder transition of the surfactant layer. CW EPR studies of PCNC showed that completely exfoliated nanoparticles coexist with agglomerates. HYSCORE spectroscopy in PCNCs showed couplings within the probe −assigned with DFT computations− and couplings with nuclei of the environment, 1H and 23Na for the surfactant layer probe, and 29Si, 7Li, 19F and 23Na for the clay surface probe. Analysis of these couplings indicates that the integrity of the surfactant layer is conserved and that there are sizeable ionic regions containing sodium ions directly beyond the surfactant layer. Simulations of the very weak couplings demonstrated that the HYSCORE spectra are sensitive to the composition of the clay and whether or not clay platelets stack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles 2013)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Catalytic Activity of Carbon Nanofibers Anchored Metallophthalocyanine in Decomposing Acid Orange 7
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1370-1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021370
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amine-modified CNFs (AN-CNFs) were first obtained through the Billups reaction from carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and were used as supports of cobalt tetracarboxylphthalocyanine (CoTCPc) for the catalytic oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in the CoTCPc-AN-CNFs/H2O2 system. CNFs, AN-CNFs and CoTCPc-AN-CNFs
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Amine-modified CNFs (AN-CNFs) were first obtained through the Billups reaction from carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and were used as supports of cobalt tetracarboxylphthalocyanine (CoTCPc) for the catalytic oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in the CoTCPc-AN-CNFs/H2O2 system. CNFs, AN-CNFs and CoTCPc-AN-CNFs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The oxidative decoloration of AO7 in the presence of CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs and H2O2 was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectra. The results showed that AO7 was oxidized efficiently in the CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs /H2O2 system. The benzene ring was first introduced between CNFs and MPcs. However, its catalytic efficiency and electronic properties would not weaken. New catalytic mechanism may display in this CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs /H2O2 system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Plant-Mediated Fabrication and Surface Enhanced Raman Property of Flower-Like Au@Pd Nanoparticles
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1360-1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021360
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flower-like nanostructures of an Au core and Pd petals with the average size of 47.8 nm were fabricated through the successive reduction of HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 at room temperature. During the synthesis, Cacumen Platycladi leaf extract served as
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The flower-like nanostructures of an Au core and Pd petals with the average size of 47.8 nm were fabricated through the successive reduction of HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 at room temperature. During the synthesis, Cacumen Platycladi leaf extract served as weak reductant and capping agent. Characterization techniques such as Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction characterizations were employed to confirm that the as-synthesized nanoparticles have the structure of core-shell. The obtained core-shell nanoflowers exhibited good surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic activity with Rhodamine 6G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1342-1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021342
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (3893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support
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Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials 2013)
Open AccessReview Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1318-1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021318
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem
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Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu) based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP) process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Materials 2013)
Open AccessReview Liquid-Crystal-Enabled Active Plasmonics: A Review
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1296-1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021296
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (1303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid crystals are a promising candidate for development of active plasmonics due to their large birefringence, low driving threshold, and versatile driving methods. We review recent progress on the interdisciplinary research field of liquid crystal based plasmonics. The research scope of this field
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Liquid crystals are a promising candidate for development of active plasmonics due to their large birefringence, low driving threshold, and versatile driving methods. We review recent progress on the interdisciplinary research field of liquid crystal based plasmonics. The research scope of this field is to build the next generation of reconfigurable plasmonic devices by combining liquid crystals with plasmonic nanostructures. Various active plasmonic devices, such as switches, modulators, color filters, absorbers, have been demonstrated. This review is structured to cover active plasmonic devices from two aspects: functionalities and driven methods. We hope this review would provide basic knowledge for a new researcher to get familiar with the field, and serve as a reference for experienced researchers to keep up the current research trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1271-1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021271
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at
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Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of the Cu Source on Optical Properties of CuZnO Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spraying
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1261-1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021261
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CuZnO (CZO) films have received considerable attention, owing to their potential applications in semiconductor devices, including gas sensors or solar cells. However, exactly how these films affect the properties of CZO films by using different Cu sources has seldom been investigated. This study
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CuZnO (CZO) films have received considerable attention, owing to their potential applications in semiconductor devices, including gas sensors or solar cells. However, exactly how these films affect the properties of CZO films by using different Cu sources has seldom been investigated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of preparing CZO films by using different Cu sources via a simple ultrasonic spray method, in which copper nitrate and copper acetate were used as copper sources. Optical properties of CZO films prepared by copper nitrate and copper acetate were also investigated, based on transmittance and photoluminescence measurements. Additionally, the composition and the morphology of the films were investigated using the X-ray diffraction analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results of this study demonstrate that the CZO films prepared by using copper acetate exhibit better optical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Energy Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Sample Elevation in Radio Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD) Reactor on Optical Properties and Deposition Rate of Silicon Nitride Thin Films
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1249-1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021249
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 27 January 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we investigate influence of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) process parameters, which include gas flows, pressure and temperature, as well as a way of sample placement in the reactor, on optical properties and deposition rate of
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In this paper we investigate influence of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) process parameters, which include gas flows, pressure and temperature, as well as a way of sample placement in the reactor, on optical properties and deposition rate of silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films. The influence of the process parameters has been determined using Taguchi’s orthogonal tables approach. As a result of elevating samples above the electrode, it has been found that deposition rate strongly increases with distance between sample and the stage electrode, and reaches its maximum 7 mm above the electrode. Moreover, the refractive index of the films follows increase of the thickness. The effect can be observed when the thickness of the film is below 80 nm. It has been also found that when the deposition temperature is reduced down to 200 °C, as required for many temperature-sensitive substrate materials, the influence of the substrate material (Si or oxidized Si) can be neglected from the point of view of the properties of the films. We believe that the obtained results may help in designing novel complex in shape devices, where optical properties and thickness of thin plasma-deposited coatings need to be well defined. Full article
Open AccessReview Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1221-1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021221
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon). These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate
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Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon). These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on) perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles 2013)
Open AccessReview Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1201-1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021201
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic
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In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Proteins for Bio-Sensing Applications)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Al–5Ti–C Master Alloy on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al–20%Si Alloy
Materials 2014, 7(2), 1188-1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7021188
Received: 11 June 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Al–5Ti–C master alloy was prepared and used to modify hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy with Al–5Ti–C master alloy additions (0, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 wt%) were investigated. The results show that, Al–5Ti–C master
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Al–5Ti–C master alloy was prepared and used to modify hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy with Al–5Ti–C master alloy additions (0, 0.4, 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 wt%) were investigated. The results show that, Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 10 min) can significantly refine both eutectic and primary Si of hypereutectic Al–20%Si alloy. The morphology of the primary Si crystals was significantly refined from a coarse polygonal and star-like shape to a fine polyhedral shape and the grain size of the primary Si was refined from roughly 90–120 μm to 20–50 μm. The eutectic Si phases were modified from a coarse platelet-like/needle-like structure to a fine fibrous structure with discrete particles. The Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 30 min) still has a good refinement effect. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation (El) and Brinell hardness (HB) of Al–20%Si alloy modified by the Al–5Ti–C master alloy (0.6 wt%, 10 min) increased by roughly 65%, 70% and 51%, respectively, due to decreasing the size and changing the morphology on the primary and eutectic Si crystals. The change in mechanical properties corresponds to evolution of the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Alloys and Their Applications)
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