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Materials 2014, 7(2), 980-1016; doi:10.3390/ma7020980

Wear Debris Characterization and Corresponding Biological Response: Artificial Hip and Knee Joints

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, Brno 61669, Czech Republic
3
Medical Engineering Research Group, Department of Engineering and the Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 10 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Abstract

Wear debris, of deferent sizes, shapes and quantities, generated in artificial hip and knees is largely confined to the bone and joint interface. This debris interacts with periprosthetic tissue and may cause aseptic loosening. The purpose of this review is to summarize and collate findings of the recent demonstrations on debris characterization and their biological response that influences the occurrence in implant migration. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature is performed, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria addressing mainly debris isolation, characterization, and biologic responses. Results show that debris characterization largely depends on their appropriate and accurate isolation protocol. The particles are found to be non-uniform in size and non-homogeneously distributed into the periprosthetic tissues. In addition, the sizes, shapes, and volumes of the particles are influenced by the types of joints, bearing geometry, material combination, and lubricant. Phagocytosis of wear debris is size dependent; high doses of submicron-sized particles induce significant level of secretion of bone resorbing factors. However, articles on wear debris from engineered surfaces (patterned and coated) are lacking. The findings suggest considering debris morphology as an important parameter to evaluate joint simulator and newly developed implant materials.
Keywords: wear debris; isolation; morphology; biological response; nano-toxicity wear debris; isolation; morphology; biological response; nano-toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nine, M.J.; Choudhury, D.; Hee, A.C.; Mootanah, R.; Osman, N.A.A. Wear Debris Characterization and Corresponding Biological Response: Artificial Hip and Knee Joints. Materials 2014, 7, 980-1016.

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