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Materials 2014, 7(2), 1201-1220; doi:10.3390/ma7021201
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Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

* ,
 and
Received: 30 November 2013; in revised form: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials and Proteins for Bio-Sensing Applications)
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Abstract: In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.
Keywords: azobenzene; boronic acid; glucose sensor; sugar sensor; 15N NMR azobenzene; boronic acid; glucose sensor; sugar sensor; 15N NMR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Egawa, Y.; Miki, R.; Seki, T. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes. Materials 2014, 7, 1201-1220.

AMA Style

Egawa Y, Miki R, Seki T. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes. Materials. 2014; 7(2):1201-1220.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Egawa, Yuya; Miki, Ryotaro; Seki, Toshinobu. 2014. "Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes." Materials 7, no. 2: 1201-1220.


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