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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story This paper presents a multi-scale, multi-physics computational framework that models reinforced [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics: A Match Made in Heaven?
Materials 2017, 10(5), 528; doi:10.3390/ma10050528
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Biomaterials and tissue biomechanics have been traditionally separate areas of research with relatively little overlap in terms of methodological approaches. Recent advances in both fields on the one hand and developments in fabrication techniques and design approaches on the other have prepared the
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Biomaterials and tissue biomechanics have been traditionally separate areas of research with relatively little overlap in terms of methodological approaches. Recent advances in both fields on the one hand and developments in fabrication techniques and design approaches on the other have prepared the ground for joint research efforts by both communities. Additive manufacturing and rational design are examples of the revolutionary fabrication techniques and design methodologies that could facilitate more intimate collaboration between biomaterial scientists and biomechanists. This editorial article highlights the various ways in which the research on tissue biomechanics and biomaterials are related to each other and could benefit from each other’s results and methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Thermo-Oxidative Ageing on the Thermal and Dynamical Mechanical Properties of Long Glass Fibre-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Composites Filled with DOPO
Materials 2017, 10(5), 500; doi:10.3390/ma10050500
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time
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In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time at 120 °C were investigated and analysed. The results showed that the mechanical properties decreased in the primary stage of ageing, while embrittlement occurs in the later period, and the crystallinity of PBT decreases first, and then recovers to some extent. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos of the samples indicated that the obvious crack appeared on the sample surface and a deeper, broader crack occurred with a longer ageing time. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) proved the DOPO filler diffused to the sample surface by measuring the content of phosphorus. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves showed that the thermal stabilities of composites increased with longer ageing time, as did the values of the limited oxygen index (LOI). Meanwhile, the results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the glass transition temperature shifted to a higher temperature after ageing due to the effect of crosslinking, and both the crosslinking and degradation of PBT molecular chains act as the main factors in the whole process of thermo-oxidative ageing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calcium Silicate/Chitosan-Coated Electrospun Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibers for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2017, 10(5), 501; doi:10.3390/ma10050501
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Electrospinning technology allows fabrication of nano- or microfibrous fibers with inorganic and organic matrix and it is widely applied in bone tissue engineering as it allows precise control over the shapes and structures of the fibers. Natural bone has an ordered composition of
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Electrospinning technology allows fabrication of nano- or microfibrous fibers with inorganic and organic matrix and it is widely applied in bone tissue engineering as it allows precise control over the shapes and structures of the fibers. Natural bone has an ordered composition of organic fibers with dispersion of inorganic apatite among them. In this study, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) mats were fabricated with electrospinning and coated with chitosan (CH)/calcium silicate (CS) mixer. The microstructure, chemical component, and contact angle of CS/CH-PLA composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro, various CS/CH-coated PLA mats increased the formation of hydroxyapatite on the specimens’ surface when soaked in cell cultured medium. During culture, several biological characteristics of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on CS/CH-PLA groups were promoted as compared to those on pure PLA mat. Increased secretion levels of Collagen I and fibronectin were observed in calcium silicate-powder content. Furthermore, with comparison to PLA mats without CS/CH, CS10 and CS15 mats markedly enhanced the proliferation of hMSCs and their osteogenesis properties, which was characterized by osteogenic-related gene expression. These results clearly demonstrated that the biodegradable and electroactive CS/CH-PLA composite mats are an ideal and suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Chromium(VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Magnetite Coated by a Polymeric Ionic Liquid-Based Adsorbent
Materials 2017, 10(5), 502; doi:10.3390/ma10050502
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
An evaluation of the chromium(VI) adsorption capacity of four magnetite sorbents coated with a polymer phase containing polymethacrylic acid or polyallyl-3-methylimidazolium is presented. Factors that influence the chromium(VI) removal such as solution pH and contact time were investigated in batch experiments and in
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An evaluation of the chromium(VI) adsorption capacity of four magnetite sorbents coated with a polymer phase containing polymethacrylic acid or polyallyl-3-methylimidazolium is presented. Factors that influence the chromium(VI) removal such as solution pH and contact time were investigated in batch experiments and in stirred tank reactor mode. Affinity and rate constants increased with the molar ratio of the imidazolium. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 2.0 due to the contribution of electrostatic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle A Reagentless Amperometric Formaldehyde-Selective Chemosensor Based on Platinized Gold Electrodes
Materials 2017, 10(5), 503; doi:10.3390/ma10050503
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes
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Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis. Using a low working potential (0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) enabled an essential increase in the chemosensor’s selectivity for the target analyte. The sensitivity of the best chemosensor prototype to formaldehyde is uniquely high (28180 A·M−1·m−2) with a detection limit of 0.05 mM. The chemosensor remained stable over a one-year storage period. The formaldehye-selective chemosensor was tested on samples of commercial preparations. A high correlation was demonstrated between the results obtained by the proposed chemosensor, chemical and enzymatic methods (R = 0.998). The developed formaldehyde-selective amperometric chemosensor is very promising for use in industry and research, as well as for environmental control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Emulsified Asphalt on the Mechanical Property and Microstructure of Cement-Stabilized Gravel under Freezing and Thawing Cycle Conditions
Materials 2017, 10(5), 504; doi:10.3390/ma10050504
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Properties of cement-stabilized gravel modified by emulsified asphalt under freezing and thawing cycle conditions were investigated by adjusting the dosage of cement. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were introduced to analyze the influential mechanism. The results indicate that cement
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Properties of cement-stabilized gravel modified by emulsified asphalt under freezing and thawing cycle conditions were investigated by adjusting the dosage of cement. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were introduced to analyze the influential mechanism. The results indicate that cement emulsified asphalt stabilized gravel with 5 wt % of cement performed well in both mechanics and frost-resistance. Although the addition of emulsified asphalt would lead to a partial decrease of strength, it can extend the process of strength loss and improve the freezing resistance. The main reason for this is that the permeability can be improved by the filling effects of emulsified asphalt. The frost-heave stress caused by the phase transition of water can also be remitted by emulsified asphalt, the elasticity modulus of which is much lower than the matrix. The generating speed of the micro crack can also be slowed down by emulsified asphalt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler
Materials 2017, 10(5), 505; doi:10.3390/ma10050505
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of
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This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapis alba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303), negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Tuning the Mechanical and Antimicrobial Performance of a Cu-Based Metallic Glass Composite through Cooling Rate Control and Annealing
Materials 2017, 10(5), 506; doi:10.3390/ma10050506
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al7 (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h)
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The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al7 (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h) and to pure copper. The aim of this basic research is to explore the potential use of the material in preventing the spread of infections. The cooling rate is controlled by changing the mould diameter (2 mm and 3 mm) upon suction casting and controlling the mould temperature (chiller on and off). For the highest cooling rate conditions CuZr is formed but CuZr2 starts to crystallise as the cooling rate decreases, resulting in an increase in the wear resistance and brittleness, as measured by scratch tests. A decrease in the cooling rate also increases the antimicrobial performance, as shown by different methodologies (European, American and Japanese standards). Annealing leads to the formation of new intermetallic phases (Cu10Zr7 and Cu2ZrAl) resulting in maximum scratch hardness and antimicrobial performance. However, the annealed sample corrodes during the antimicrobial tests (within 1 h of contact with broth). The antibacterial activity of copper was proved to be higher than that of any of the other materials tested but it exhibits very poor wear properties. Cu-rich BMG composites with optimised microstructure would be preferable for some applications where the durability requirements are higher than the antimicrobial needs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Relationships between Waste Cooking Oil Qualities and Rejuvenated Asphalt Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 508; doi:10.3390/ma10050508
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects
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Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of WCO viscosity and acid value on the basic, rheological, and chemical properties of a typical rejuvenated asphalt. Penetration, ring and ball (R and B) softening point, and ductility were tested to evaluate the influence of WCO qualities on basic properties of rejuvenated asphalts. Then, the rheological properties of rejuvenated asphalt were characterized based on rotational viscometer (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test results. Further, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were performed to investigate the effects of WCO qualities on asphalt chemical composition. Finally, grey correlation coefficients were calculated and the relationships between WCO qualities and rejuvenated asphalt properties were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results indicated that WCO qualities influence the rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt significantly, and the WCO with higher qualities (low acid value and viscosity, as defined in this research) tends to achieve better rejuvenation effects. Based on the results of grey correlation analyses, the acid value is, relatively, a better indicator than viscosity in predicting the rejuvenation efficiency of WCO. The rejuvenation thresholds of WCO are varied with the categories of properties of rejuvenated asphalts, and WCO with an acid value of 0.4–0.7 mg KOH/g, or a viscosity of 140–540 mm2/s, can meet all of the performance requirements for asphalt rejuvenation used in this research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Organic Solid-State Tri-Wavelength Lasing from Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal and a Distributed Feedback Laser with a Doped Laser Dye and a Semiconducting Polymer Film
Materials 2017, 10(5), 509; doi:10.3390/ma10050509
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
Organic solid-state tri-wavelength lasing was demonstrated from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) distributed feedback (DFB) laser with semiconducting polymer poly[-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and laser dye [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM) by a one-step holography technique, which centered at 605.5 nm, 611.9 nm, and 671.1 nm. The
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Organic solid-state tri-wavelength lasing was demonstrated from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) distributed feedback (DFB) laser with semiconducting polymer poly[-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and laser dye [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM) by a one-step holography technique, which centered at 605.5 nm, 611.9 nm, and 671.1 nm. The temperature-dependence tuning range for the tri-wavelength dye-doped HPDLC DFB laser was as high as 8 nm. The lasing emission from the 9th order HPDLC DFB laser with MEH-PPV as active medium was also investigated, which showed excellent s-polarization characterization. The diffraction order is 9th and 8th for the dual-wavelength lasing with DCM as the active medium. The results of this work provide a method for constructing the compact and cost-effective all solid-state smart laser systems, which may find application in scientific and applied research where multi-wavelength radiation is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystal-Assisted Advanced Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings
Materials 2017, 10(5), 510; doi:10.3390/ma10050510
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement
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The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime–flax–hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime–flax–hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced CO2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibers Grafted with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2017, 10(5), 511; doi:10.3390/ma10050511
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, multiscale composites formed by grafting N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNs) on the surface of polyamide (PAN)-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were investigated and their adsorption performance for CO2 was determined. The spaghetti-like and randomly oriented CNs were homogeneously grown onto
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In this paper, multiscale composites formed by grafting N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNs) on the surface of polyamide (PAN)-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were investigated and their adsorption performance for CO2 was determined. The spaghetti-like and randomly oriented CNs were homogeneously grown onto ACFs. The pre-immersion of cobalt(II) ions for ACFs made the CNs grow above with a large pore size distribution, decreased the oxidation resistance, and exhibited different predominant N-functionalities after chemical vapor deposition processes. Specifically, the CNs grafted on ACFs with or without pre-immersion of cobalt(II) ions were characterized by the pyridine-like structures of six-member rings or pyrrolic/amine moieties, respectively. In addition, the loss of microporosity on the specific surface area and pore volume exceeded the gain from the generation of the defects from CNs. The adsorption capacity of CO2 decreased gradually with increasing temperature, implying that CO2 adsorption was exothermic. The adsorption capacities of CO2 at 25 °C and 1 atm were between 1.53 and 1.92 mmol/g and the Freundlich equation fit the adsorption data well. The isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, implying physical adsorption, indicated that the growth of CNTs on the ACFs benefit CO2 adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Femtosecond Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Poly(fluorene) Derivatives Containing Benzoselenadiazole and Benzothiadiazole
Materials 2017, 10(5), 512; doi:10.3390/ma10050512
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
We have investigated the molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties relationship of two push–pull poly(fluorene) derivatives containing benzoselenadiazole and benzothiadiazole units. For that, we have used the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with a low repetition rate (1 kHz) and an energy per
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We have investigated the molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties relationship of two push–pull poly(fluorene) derivatives containing benzoselenadiazole and benzothiadiazole units. For that, we have used the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with a low repetition rate (1 kHz) and an energy per pulse on the order of nJ. Our results show that both 2PA spectra present a strong 2PA (around 600 GM (1 GM = 1 × 10−50 cm4·s·photon−1)) band at around 720 nm (transition energy 3.45 eV) ascribed to the strongly 2PA-allowed 1Ag-like → mAg-like transition, characteristic of poly(fluorene) derivatives. Another 2PA band related to the intramolecular charge transfer was also observed at around 900 nm (transition energy 2.75 eV). In both 2PA bands, we found higher 2PA cross-section values for the poly(fluorene) containing benzothiadiazole unit. This outcome was explained through the higher charge redistribution at the excited state caused by the benzothiadiazole group as compared to the benzoselenadiazole and confirmed by means of solvatochromic Stokes shift measurements. To shed more light on these results, we employed the sum-over-states approach within the two-energy level model to estimate the maximum permanent dipole moment change related to the intramolecular charge transfer transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Photon Absorption Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A New Energy-Critical Plane Damage Parameter for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Blades
Materials 2017, 10(5), 513; doi:10.3390/ma10050513
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings
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As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings at high temperatures. In this paper, considering different failure types, a new energy-critical plane damage parameter is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction, and no extra fitted material constants will be needed for practical applications. Moreover, three multiaxial models with maximum damage parameters on the critical plane are evaluated under tension-compression and tension-torsion loadings. Experimental data of GH4169 under proportional and non-proportional fatigue loadings and a case study of a turbine disk-blade contact system are introduced for model validation. Results show that model predictions by Wang-Brown (WB) and Fatemi-Socie (FS) models with maximum damage parameters are conservative and acceptable. For the turbine disk-blade contact system, both of the proposed damage parameters and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) model show reasonably acceptable correlations with its field number of flight cycles. However, life estimations of the turbine blade reveal that the definition of the maximum damage parameter is not reasonable for the WB model but effective for both the FS and SWT models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Life of Materials at High Temperatures)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Biodegradation on the Structure and Properties of Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) Fibers Using Different Chemical Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(5), 514; doi:10.3390/ma10050514
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, windmill palm fiber (WPF), alkali-treated fiber (AF) without hemicellulose and bleached fiber (BF) without lignin were prepared and buried in soil for 30, 60 and 90 days. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity degree, mechanical properties, and residual mass rate
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In this work, windmill palm fiber (WPF), alkali-treated fiber (AF) without hemicellulose and bleached fiber (BF) without lignin were prepared and buried in soil for 30, 60 and 90 days. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity degree, mechanical properties, and residual mass rate of the samples, before and after biodegradation, were investigated. According to the results, soil burial degradation can remove the parenchyma cells and silica-bodies of WPF and deplete droplets containing the lignin of alkali-treated fiber after it has been buried for 30 days (AF30), and degradation of the single fiber cell wall of bleached fiber after it has been buried for 30 days (BF30). Buried in natural soil, lignin has a slower degradation rate than that of hemicellulose. WPF showed no significant differences in tensile strength after burial in soil for 90 days, because of the integrity fiber structure decreased the biodegradation. The most serious decrease, about 43%, in tensile strength occurred in AF after it had been buried for 90 days (BF90). This basic knowledge may be helpful for windmill palm fiber applications, especially for biodegradable composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material
Materials 2017, 10(5), 515; doi:10.3390/ma10050515
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation
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This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying
Materials 2017, 10(5), 516; doi:10.3390/ma10050516
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals
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Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals were used as a template to produce porous structures from an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (Hap) also containing acetic acid (pH = 4.5). For better characterization of the nature of the inorganic matter entrapped within the resulting composite, we performed either oxygen plasma or calcination processes to remove the organic matter. The nature of the phosphate salts was studied by XRD and NMR studies. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was identified as the mineral phase in the composites submitted to oxygen plasma, whereas crystalline Hap was obtained after calcination. SEM microscopy revealed the formation of porous structures (porosity around 80–85%) in the original composites, as well as in the inorganic matrices obtained after calcination, with porous channels of up to 50 µm in diameter in the former case and of up to 20 µm in the latter. The biocompatibility of the composites was assessed using two different cell lines: C2C12GFP premyoblastic cells and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On-Line Multi-Damage Scanning Spatial-Wavenumber Filter Based Imaging Method for Aircraft Composite Structure
Materials 2017, 10(5), 519; doi:10.3390/ma10050519
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM
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Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Firstly, an on-line multi-damage SSWF is established, including the fundamental principle of SSWF for multiple damages based on a linear piezoelectric (PZT) sensor array, and a corresponding wavenumber-time imaging mechanism by using the multi-damage scattering signal. Secondly, through combining the on-line multi-damage SSWF and a PZT 2D cross-shaped array, an image-mapping method is proposed to conduct wavenumber synthesis and convert the two wavenumber-time images obtained by the PZT 2D cross-shaped array to an angle-distance image, from which the multiple damages can be directly recognized and located. In the experimental validation, both simulated multi-damage and real multi-damage introduced by repeated impacts are performed on a composite plate structure. The maximum localization error is less than 2 cm, which shows good performance of the multi-damage imaging method. Compared with the existing spatial-wavenumber filter based damage evaluation methods, the proposed method requires no more than the multi-damage scattering signal and can be performed without depending on any wavenumber modeling or measuring. Besides, this method locates multiple damages by imaging instead of the geometric method, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it can be easily applied to on-line multi-damage monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Discrete Element Method Simulations of the Inter-Particle Contact Parameters for the Mono-Sized Iron Ore Particles
Materials 2017, 10(5), 520; doi:10.3390/ma10050520
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Aiming at predicting what happens in reality inside mills, the contact parameters of iron ore particles for discrete element method (DEM) simulations should be determined accurately. To allow the irregular shape to be accurately determined, the sphere clump method was employed in modelling
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Aiming at predicting what happens in reality inside mills, the contact parameters of iron ore particles for discrete element method (DEM) simulations should be determined accurately. To allow the irregular shape to be accurately determined, the sphere clump method was employed in modelling the particle shape. The inter-particle contact parameters were systematically altered whilst the contact parameters between the particle and wall were arbitrarily assumed, in order to purely assess its impact on the angle of repose for the mono-sized iron ore particles. Results show that varying the restitution coefficient over the range considered does not lead to any obvious difference in the angle of repose, but the angle of repose has strong sensitivity to the rolling/static friction coefficient. The impacts of the rolling/static friction coefficient on the angle of repose are interrelated, and increasing the inter-particle rolling/static friction coefficient can evidently increase the angle of repose. However, the impact of the static friction coefficient is more profound than that of the rolling friction coefficient. Finally, a predictive equation is established and a very close agreement between the predicted and simulated angle of repose is attained. This predictive equation can enormously shorten the inter-particle contact parameters calibration time that can help in the implementation of DEM simulations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Space Parts: Powder Feedstock Cross-Contamination and Its Impact on End Products
Materials 2017, 10(5), 522; doi:10.3390/ma10050522
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
This work studies the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by laser powder bed based Additive Manufacturing (AM), for different build orientations. The results showed high scattering of the yield and tensile strength and low fracture elongation. The subsequent fractographic investigation revealed the
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This work studies the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by laser powder bed based Additive Manufacturing (AM), for different build orientations. The results showed high scattering of the yield and tensile strength and low fracture elongation. The subsequent fractographic investigation revealed the presence of tungsten particles on the fracture surface. Hence, its detection and impact on tensile properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V were investigated. X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) scanning indicated that these inclusions were evenly distributed throughout the samples, however the inclusions area was shown to be larger in the load-bearing plane for the vertical specimens. A microstructural study proved that the mostly spherical tungsten particles were embedded in the fully martensitic Ti-6Al-4V AM material. The particle size distribution, the flowability and the morphology of the powder feedstock were investigated and appeared to be in line with observations from other studies. X-ray CT scanning of the powder however made the high density particles visible, where various techniques, commonly used in the certification of powder feedstock, failed to detect the contaminant. As the detection of cross contamination in the powder feedstock proves to be challenging, the use of only one type of powder per AM equipment is recommended for critical applications such as Space parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Laser Impact Welding of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloys to Crystalline Copper
Materials 2017, 10(5), 523; doi:10.3390/ma10050523
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers’ attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in
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Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers’ attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in industry. In this paper, a new method of welding Fe-based amorphous alloys (GB1K101) to crystalline copper by laser impact welding (LIW) is investigated. A series of experiments was conducted under different laser energies, during which Fe-based amorphous alloys and crystalline copper were welded successfully by LIW. In addition, the microstructure and mechanical properties of welding joints were observed and measured, respectively. The results showed that the surface wave and springback were observed on the flyer plate after LIW. The welding interface was straight or wavy due to different plastic deformation under different laser energies. The welding interface was directly bonded tightly without visible defects. No visible element diffusion and intermetallic phases were found in the welding interface. The Fe-based amorphous alloys retained amorphous structures after LIW under the laser energy of 835 mJ. The nanoindentation hardness across the welding interface showed an increase on both sides of the welding interface. The results of the lap shearing test showed that the fracture position was on the side of copper coil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle High-Strength Konjac Glucomannan/Silver Nanowires Composite Films with Antibacterial Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 524; doi:10.3390/ma10050524
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property
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Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and antimicrobial tests. The results showed that there was a high ratio of Ag NWs uniformly distributed in the composite films, which was vital for mechanical reinforcement and stable antibacterial properties. The enhanced thermal stability and mechanical intensity increased, while the elongation at break was reduced with an increase in the amount of Ag NWs found in the composite films. When the percentage of Ag NWs in the composite films reached 5%, the tensile strength was 148.21 MPa, Young’s modulus was 13.79 GPa and the ultimate strain was 25.28%. Antibacterial tests showed that the KGM films had no antibacterial effect. After the addition of Ag NWs, the composite films had an obvious inhibitory effect on bacteria, with the uniform dispersion of Ag NWs promoting the antibacterial effect to a certain degree. These results indicated that these composite films would have a potential application in the fields of environmentally friendly packaging or medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating
Materials 2017, 10(5), 525; doi:10.3390/ma10050525
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low
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Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Cellulose with Succinic Anhydride in TBAA/DMSO Mixed Solvent under Catalyst-Free Conditions
Materials 2017, 10(5), 526; doi:10.3390/ma10050526
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The
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Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS) value of 1.191 was obtained in a 10 wt% TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent at 60 °C for 60 min, and the molar ratio of SA/AGU was 6/1. The molar ratio of SA/AGU and the TBAA dosage showed a significant influence on the reaction. The succinoylated cellulose was characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, XRD, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR), and SEM. Moreover, the modified cellulose was applied for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and both the DS values of modified cellulose and pH of the heavy metal ion solutions affected the adsorption capacity of succinylated cellulose. The highest capacity for Cu2+ and Cd2+ adsorption was 42.05 mg/g and 49.0 mg/g, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs
Materials 2017, 10(5), 527; doi:10.3390/ma10050527
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but
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This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetocaloric Properties of Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5−xGex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) Compounds
Materials 2017, 10(5), 529; doi:10.3390/ma10050529
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Intermetallic compounds with the overall formula Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5-xGex (x varies from 0 to 0.1) were investigated in order to study their magnetocaloric effect by monitoring the adiabatic temperature change, magnetic entropy change and their
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Intermetallic compounds with the overall formula Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5-xGex (x varies from 0 to 0.1) were investigated in order to study their magnetocaloric effect by monitoring the adiabatic temperature change, magnetic entropy change and their relation to structural parameters. It was found that the maximum of magnetocaloric effect was achieved for x = 0.02. Adiabatic temperature change for consolidated powder was equal to 2.75 K for the magnetic field change ΔB = 1.7 T for the sample with x = 0.02. For the pure non-doped sample, this parameter is much lower: ΔTad = 1.7 K @ ΔB = 1.7 T. This result was correlated with the change of structural parameters such as lattice constants and the unit cell volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An All Oxide-Based Imperceptible Thin-Film Transistor with Humidity Sensing Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 530; doi:10.3390/ma10050530
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
We have examined the effects of oxygen content and thickness in sputtered InSnO (ITO) electrodes, especially for the application of imperceptible amorphous-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in humidity sensors. The imperceptible a-IGZO TFT with 50-nm ITO electrodes deposited at Ar:O
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We have examined the effects of oxygen content and thickness in sputtered InSnO (ITO) electrodes, especially for the application of imperceptible amorphous-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in humidity sensors. The imperceptible a-IGZO TFT with 50-nm ITO electrodes deposited at Ar:O2 = 29:0.3 exhibited good electrical performances with Vth of −0.23 V, SS of 0.34 V/dec, µFE of 7.86 cm2/V∙s, on/off ratio of 8.8 × 107, and has no degradation for bending stress up to a 3.5-mm curvature. The imperceptible oxide TFT sensors showed the highest sensitivity for the low and wide gate bias of −1~2 V under a wide range of relative humidity (40–90%) at drain voltage 1 V, resulting in low power consumption by the sensors. Exposure to water vapor led to a negative shift in the threshold voltage (or current enhancement), and an increase in relative humidity induced continuous threshold voltage shift. In particular, compared to conventional resistor-type sensors, the imperceptible oxide TFT sensors exhibited extremely high sensitivity from a current amplification of >103. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stretchable and Flexible Electronic Materials & Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Skewed Pipe Shear Connector for Precast Concrete Structures
Materials 2017, 10(5), 531; doi:10.3390/ma10050531
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the
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Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the proposed connectors are placed diagonally between precast concrete segments and a cast-in-place concrete joint part on a girder. Design variables (such as the pipe diameter, length, and insertion angle) have been examined to investigate the connection performance of the proposed connector. The results of our testing indicate that the skewed pipe shear connectors have 50% higher ductility and a 15% higher ratio of maximum load to yield strength as compared to the corresponding parameters of the loop bar. Finite element analysis was used for validation. The resulting validation indicates that, compared to the loop bar, the skewed pipe shear connector has a higher ultimate shear and pull-out resistance. These results indicate that the skewed pipe shear connector demonstrates more idealized behavior than the loop bar in precast concrete structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Static and Fatigue Behavior Investigation of Artificial Notched Steel Reinforcement
Materials 2017, 10(5), 532; doi:10.3390/ma10050532
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
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Abstract
Pitting corrosion is one of the most common forms of localized corrosion. Corrosion pit results in a stress concentration and fatigue cracks usually initiate and propagate from these corrosion pits. Aging structures may fracture when the fatigue crack reaches a critical size. This
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Pitting corrosion is one of the most common forms of localized corrosion. Corrosion pit results in a stress concentration and fatigue cracks usually initiate and propagate from these corrosion pits. Aging structures may fracture when the fatigue crack reaches a critical size. This paper experimentally simulates the effects of pitting morphologies on the static and fatigue behavior of steel bars. Four artificial notch shapes are considered: radial ellipse, axial ellipse, triangle and length-variable triangle. Each shape notch includes six sizes to simulate a variety of pitting corrosion morphologies. The stress-strain curves of steel bars with different notch shape and depth are obtained based on static tensile testing, and the stress concentration coefficients for various conditions are determined. It was determined that the triangular notch has the highest stress concentration coefficient, followed by length-variable triangle, radial ellipse and axial ellipse shaped notches. Subsequently, the effects of notch depth and notch aspect ratios on the fatigue life under three stress levels are investigated by fatigue testing, and the equations for stress range-fatigue life-notch depth are obtained. Several conclusions are drawn based on the proposed study. The established relationships provide an experimental reference for evaluating the fatigue life of concrete bridges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm
Materials 2017, 10(5), 533; doi:10.3390/ma10050533
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW
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The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Shannon’s entropy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Preferred Orientation Contribution to the Anisotropic Normal State Resistivity in Superconducting Melt-Cast Processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ
Materials 2017, 10(5), 534; doi:10.3390/ma10050534
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data
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We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data and literature values for the single crystal resistivity tensor. The example discussed here is a melt-cast processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) polycrystalline tube in which the main texture component is a <010> fiber texture with relatively low texture strength. Experimentally-measured resistivities along the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions of the Bi-2212 tube were compared to calculated values and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Calculations for this example and additional simulations for various texture strengths and single crystal resistivity anisotropies confirm that in the case of highly anisotropic phases such as Bi-2212, even low texture strengths have a significant effect on the anisotropy of the resistivity in polycrystalline samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textures and Anisotropy in Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Fast Humidity Sensor Based on Li+-Doped SnO2 One-Dimensional Porous Nanofibers
Materials 2017, 10(5), 535; doi:10.3390/ma10050535
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
One-dimensional SnO2- and Li+-doped SnO2 porous nanofibers were easily fabricated via electrospinning and a subsequent calcination procedure for ultrafast humidity sensing. Different Li dopant concentrations were introduced to investigate the dopant’s role in sensing performance. The response properties
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One-dimensional SnO2- and Li+-doped SnO2 porous nanofibers were easily fabricated via electrospinning and a subsequent calcination procedure for ultrafast humidity sensing. Different Li dopant concentrations were introduced to investigate the dopant’s role in sensing performance. The response properties were studied under different relative humidity levels by both statistic and dynamic tests. The best response was obtained with respect to the optimal doping of Li+ into SnO2 porous nanofibers with a maximum 15 times higher response than that of pristine SnO2 porous nanofibers, at a relative humidity level of 85%. Most importantly, the ultrafast response and recovery time within 1 s was also obtained with the 1.0 wt % doping of Li+ into SnO2 porous nanofibers at 5 V and at room temperature, benefiting from the co-contributions of Li-doping and the one-dimensional porous structure. This work provides an effective method of developing ultrafast sensors for practical applications—especially fast breathing sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films
Materials 2017, 10(5), 536; doi:10.3390/ma10050536
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO
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This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications
Materials 2017, 10(5), 537; doi:10.3390/ma10050537
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt.
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Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Size Effect on Mechanical Properties and Texture of Pure Copper Foil by Cold Rolling
Materials 2017, 10(5), 538; doi:10.3390/ma10050538
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
To study the size effect on the properties of copper, tensile tests were performed with pure copper foil (thickness range from 25 μm to 300 μm) by cold rolling. A pronounced size effect was observed at a thickness of 76 μm. The results
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To study the size effect on the properties of copper, tensile tests were performed with pure copper foil (thickness range from 25 μm to 300 μm) by cold rolling. A pronounced size effect was observed at a thickness of 76 μm. The results showed that ultimate strength increased as sample thickness decreased from 300 μm to 100 μm, however, this was decreased as the thickness changed from 76 μm to 25 μm with ultrahigh strain, with the same trend of dislocation density and micro stain. The rolling texture were consisted of copper {112}<111>, brass {011}<211>, and S {123}<634>. These features seemed to be linked to the increase of fraction of surface grain to volume, which led to lower districting on the dislocation slip. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Functionalization of Magnetic Chitosan Particles for the Sorption of U(VI), Cu(II) and Zn(II)—Hydrazide Derivative of Glycine-Grafted Chitosan
Materials 2017, 10(5), 539; doi:10.3390/ma10050539
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new magnetic functionalized derivative of chitosan is synthesized and characterized for the sorption of metal ions (environmental applications and metal valorization). The chemical modification of the glycine derivative of chitosan consists of: activation of the magnetic support with epichlorohydrin, followed by reaction
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A new magnetic functionalized derivative of chitosan is synthesized and characterized for the sorption of metal ions (environmental applications and metal valorization). The chemical modification of the glycine derivative of chitosan consists of: activation of the magnetic support with epichlorohydrin, followed by reaction with either glycine to produce the reference material (i.e., Gly sorbent) or glycine ester hydrochloride, followed by hydrazinolysis to synthesize the hydrazide functionalized sorbent (i.e., HGly sorbent). The materials are characterized by titration, elemental analysis, FTIR analysis (Fourrier-transform infrared spectrometry), TGA analysis (thermogravimetric analysis) and with SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analysis). The sorption performances for U(VI), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are tested in batch systems. The sorption performances are compared for Gly and HGly taking into account the effect of pH, the uptake kinetics (fitted by the pseudo-second order rate equation), and the sorption isotherms (described by the Langmuir and the Sips equations). The sorption capacities of the modified sorbent reach up to 1.14 mmol U g−1, 1.69 mmol Cu g−1, and 0.85 mmol Zn g−1. In multi-metal solutions of equimolar concentration, the chemical modification changes the preferences for given metal ions. Metal ions are desorbed using 0.2 M HCl solutions and the sorbents are re-used for five cycles of sorption/desorption without significant loss in performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogels Synthesized by Electron Beam Irradiation for Heavy Metal Adsorption
Materials 2017, 10(5), 540; doi:10.3390/ma10050540
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Poly(acrylamide co-acrylic acid) hydrogels were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid in aqueous solutions using electron beam irradiation in the dose range of 2.5 kGy to 6 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature. The influence of the absorbed
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Poly(acrylamide co-acrylic acid) hydrogels were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid in aqueous solutions using electron beam irradiation in the dose range of 2.5 kGy to 6 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature. The influence of the absorbed dose, the amount of cross-linker (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) and initiator (potassium persulfate) on the swelling properties and the diffusion coefficient and network parameters of hydrogels were investigated. The structure and morphology of hydrogels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The use of the obtained hydrogels by the removal of Cu2+ and Cr6+ from aqueous solutions was investigated at room temperature. During the adsorption of metal ions on hydrogels, the residual metal ion concentration in the solution was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). It has been established that the use of a relatively small amount of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate for hydrogel preparation has led to the increasing of swelling up to 8500%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immobilization of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Chlorella pyrenoidosa Cells for Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysis
Materials 2017, 10(5), 541; doi:10.3390/ma10050541
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
TiO2 nanoparticles are immobilized on chlorella cells using the hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the prepared chlorella/TiO2 composite are investigated by various methods. The chlorella/TiO2 composite is found to exhibit larger average sizes and
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TiO2 nanoparticles are immobilized on chlorella cells using the hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure, and the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the prepared chlorella/TiO2 composite are investigated by various methods. The chlorella/TiO2 composite is found to exhibit larger average sizes and higher visible-light intensities. The sensitization of the photosynthesis pigment originating from chlorella cells provides the anatase TiO2 with higher photocatalytic activities under the visible-light irradiation. The latter is linked to the highly efficient charge separation of the electron/hole pairs. The results also suggest that the photocatalytic activity of the composite remains substantial after four cycles, suggesting a good stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle SEM-EDX Study of the Degradation Process of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures
Materials 2017, 10(5), 542; doi:10.3390/ma10050542
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process
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Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process of material performance in bone biopsies retrieved six months after maxillary sinus augmentation. Residual biomaterial particles were examined by field scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the composition and degree of degradation of the bone graft substitute material. According to the EDX analysis, the Ca/P ratio significantly lowered in the residual biomaterial (1.08 ± 0.32) compared to the initial composition (2.22 ± 0.08) for the low-temperature sintered group, which also presented high porosity, low crystallinity, low density, a large surface area, poor stability, and a high resorption rate compared to the high-temperature sintered material. This demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of bone substitute material clearly influence the degradation process. Further studies are needed to determine whether the resorption of deproteinized bone particles proceeds slowly enough to allow sufficient time for bone maturation to occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison Study of Machine Learning Based Algorithms for Fatigue Crack Growth Calculation
Materials 2017, 10(5), 543; doi:10.3390/ma10050543
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
The relationships between the fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN)and stress intensity factor range (ΔK) are not always linear even in the Paris region. The stress ratio effects on fatigue crack growth rate are
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The relationships between the fatigue crack growth rate ( d a / d N ) and stress intensity factor range ( Δ K ) are not always linear even in the Paris region. The stress ratio effects on fatigue crack growth rate are diverse in different materials. However, most existing fatigue crack growth models cannot handle these nonlinearities appropriately. The machine learning method provides a flexible approach to the modeling of fatigue crack growth because of its excellent nonlinear approximation and multivariable learning ability. In this paper, a fatigue crack growth calculation method is proposed based on three different machine learning algorithms (MLAs): extreme learning machine (ELM), radial basis function network (RBFN) and genetic algorithms optimized back propagation network (GABP). The MLA based method is validated using testing data of different materials. The three MLAs are compared with each other as well as the classical two-parameter model ( K * approach). The results show that the predictions of MLAs are superior to those of K * approach in accuracy and effectiveness, and the ELM based algorithms show overall the best agreement with the experimental data out of the three MLAs, for its global optimization and extrapolation ability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Artificial Neural Network Modeling and Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI/rGO) Composites
Materials 2017, 10(5), 544; doi:10.3390/ma10050544
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites were synthesized in the present study by chemical deposition method and were then characterized by various methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nZVI/rGO composites prepared were utilized for
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Reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites were synthesized in the present study by chemical deposition method and were then characterized by various methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nZVI/rGO composites prepared were utilized for Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions in batch mode at different initial Cd(II) concentrations, initial pH values, contact times, and operating temperatures. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network hybridized with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used for modeling the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and optimizing the four removal process variables. The average values of prediction errors for the RSM and ANN-GA models were 6.47% and 1.08%. Although both models were proven to be reliable in terms of predicting the removal efficiency of Cd(II), the ANN-GA model was found to be more accurate than the RSM model. In addition, experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. It was found that the Cd(II) adsorption was best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. Examination on thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order model can better describe the kinetics of Cd(II) removal with a good R2 value than the pseudo-first-order model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Graphite Nanoplate Morphology on the Dispersion and Physical Properties of Polycarbonate Based Composites
Materials 2017, 10(5), 545; doi:10.3390/ma10050545
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
The influence of the morphology of industrial graphite nanoplate (GNP) materials on their dispersion in polycarbonate (PC) is studied. Three GNP morphology types were identified, namely lamellar, fragmented or compact structure. The dispersion evolution of all GNP types in PC is similar with
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The influence of the morphology of industrial graphite nanoplate (GNP) materials on their dispersion in polycarbonate (PC) is studied. Three GNP morphology types were identified, namely lamellar, fragmented or compact structure. The dispersion evolution of all GNP types in PC is similar with varying melt temperature, screw speed, or mixing time during melt mixing. Increased shear stress reduces the size of GNP primary structures, whereby the GNP aspect ratio decreases. A significant GNP exfoliation to individual or few graphene layers could not be achieved under the selected melt mixing conditions. The resulting GNP macrodispersion depends on the individual GNP morphology, particle sizes and bulk density and is clearly reflected in the composite’s electrical, thermal, mechanical, and gas barrier properties. Based on a comparison with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB), CNT are recommended in regard to electrical conductivity, whereas, for thermal conductive or gas barrier application, GNP is preferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle The Antifungal Activity of Functionalized Chitin Nanocrystals in Poly (Lactid Acid) Films
Materials 2017, 10(5), 546; doi:10.3390/ma10050546
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
As, in the market, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is the most used polymer as an alternative to conventional plastics, and as functionalized chitin nanocrystals (CHNC) can provide structural and bioactive properties, their combination sounds promising in the preparation of functional nanocomposite films for
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As, in the market, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is the most used polymer as an alternative to conventional plastics, and as functionalized chitin nanocrystals (CHNC) can provide structural and bioactive properties, their combination sounds promising in the preparation of functional nanocomposite films for sustainable packaging. Chitin nanocrystals were successfully modified via acylation using anhydride acetic and dodecanoyl chloride acid to improve their compatibility with the matrix, PLA. The nanocomposite films were prepared by extrusion/compression approach using different concentrations of both sets of functionalized CHNC. This investigation brings forward that both sets of modified CHNC act as functional agents, i.e., they slightly improved the hydrophobic character of the PLA nanocomposite films, and, very importantly, they also enhanced their antifungal activity. Nonetheless, the nanocomposite films prepared with the CHNC modified with dodecanoyl chloride acid presented the best properties. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Characterizing Hypervelocity Impact (HVI)-Induced Pitting Damage Using Active Guided Ultrasonic Waves: From Linear to Nonlinear
Materials 2017, 10(5), 547; doi:10.3390/ma10050547
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Hypervelocity impact (HVI), ubiquitous in low Earth orbit with an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s, poses an immense threat to the safety of orbiting spacecraft. Upon penetration of the outer shielding layer of a typical two-layer shielding system, the shattered projectile,
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Hypervelocity impact (HVI), ubiquitous in low Earth orbit with an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s, poses an immense threat to the safety of orbiting spacecraft. Upon penetration of the outer shielding layer of a typical two-layer shielding system, the shattered projectile, together with the jetted materials of the outer shielding material, subsequently impinge the inner shielding layer, to which pitting damage is introduced. The pitting damage includes numerous craters and cracks disorderedly scattered over a wide region. Targeting the quantitative evaluation of this sort of damage (multitudinous damage within a singular inspection region), a characterization strategy, associating linear with nonlinear features of guided ultrasonic waves, is developed. Linear-wise, changes in the signal features in the time domain (e.g., time-of-flight and energy dissipation) are extracted, for detecting gross damage whose characteristic dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the probing wave; nonlinear-wise, changes in the signal features in the frequency domain (e.g., second harmonic generation), which are proven to be more sensitive than their linear counterparts to small-scale damage, are explored to characterize HVI-induced pitting damage scattered in the inner layer. A numerical simulation, supplemented with experimental validation, quantitatively reveals the accumulation of nonlinearity of the guided waves when the waves traverse the pitting damage, based on which linear and nonlinear damage indices are proposed. A path-based rapid imaging algorithm, in conjunction with the use of the developed linear and nonlinear indices, is developed, whereby the HVI-induced pitting damage is characterized in images in terms of the probability of occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Challenges in Tribology: Wear Assessment Using 3D Optical Scanners
Materials 2017, 10(5), 548; doi:10.3390/ma10050548
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Wear is a significant mechanical and clinical problem. To acquire further knowledge on the tribological phenomena that involve freeform mechanical components or medical prostheses, wear tests are performed on biomedical and industrial materials in order to solve or reduce failures or malfunctions due
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Wear is a significant mechanical and clinical problem. To acquire further knowledge on the tribological phenomena that involve freeform mechanical components or medical prostheses, wear tests are performed on biomedical and industrial materials in order to solve or reduce failures or malfunctions due to material loss. Scientific and technological advances in the field of optical scanning allow the application of innovative devices for wear measurements, leading to improvements that were unimaginable until a few years ago. It is therefore important to develop techniques, based on new instrumentations, for more accurate and reproducible measurements of wear. The aim of this work is to discuss the use of innovative 3D optical scanners and an experimental procedure to detect and evaluate wear, comparing this technique with other wear evaluation methods for industrial components and biomedical devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle DFT Study of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity on Fe−N4-Patched Carbon Nanotubes: The Influence of the Diameter and Length
Materials 2017, 10(5), 549; doi:10.3390/ma10050549
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
The influences of diameter and length of the Fe−N4-patched carbon nanotubes (Fe−N4/CNTs) on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity were investigated by density functional theory method using the BLYP/DZP basis set. The results indicate that the stability of the Fe−N
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The influences of diameter and length of the Fe−N4-patched carbon nanotubes (Fe−N4/CNTs) on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity were investigated by density functional theory method using the BLYP/DZP basis set. The results indicate that the stability of the Fe−N4 catalytic site in Fe−N4/CNTs will be enhanced with a larger tube diameter, but reduced with shorter tube length. A tube with too small a diameter makes a Fe−N4 site unstable in acid medium since Fe−N and C−N bonds must be significantly bent at smaller diameters due to hoop strain. The adsorption energy of the ORR intermediates, especially of the OH group, becomes weaker with the increase of the tube diameter. The OH adsorption energy of Fe−N4/CNT with the largest tube diameter is close to that on Pt(111) surface, indicating that its catalytic property is similar to Pt. Electronic structure analysis shows that the OH adsorption energy is mainly controlled by the energy levels of Fe 3d orbital. The calculation results uncover that Fe−N4/CNTs with larger tube diameters and shorter lengths will exhibit better ORR activity and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 449; doi:10.3390/ma10050449
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle On the Mechanical Properties and Uncertainties of Jute Yarns
Materials 2017, 10(5), 450; doi:10.3390/ma10050450
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
Products made from natural materials are eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to supply product developers with reliable information regarding the properties of natural materials. In this study, we consider a widely used natural material called jute, which grows in Bangladesh, India, and China.
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Products made from natural materials are eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to supply product developers with reliable information regarding the properties of natural materials. In this study, we consider a widely used natural material called jute, which grows in Bangladesh, India, and China. We described the results of tensile tests on jute yarns, as well as the energy absorption patterns leading to yarn failure. We have also used statistical analyses and possibility distributions to quantify the uncertainty associated with the following properties of jute yarn: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and strain to failure. The uncertainty and energy absorption patterns of jute yarns were compared with those of jute fibers. We concluded that in order to ensure the reliability and durability of a product made from jute, it is good practice to examine the material properties of yarns rather than those of fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling
Materials 2017, 10(5), 451; doi:10.3390/ma10050451
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on
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This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag3Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag3Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag3Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Feasibility of Structural Health Monitoring Using the Fundamental Shear Horizontal Guided Wave in a Thin Aluminum Plate
Materials 2017, 10(5), 551; doi:10.3390/ma10050551
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type
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Structural health monitoring (SHM) is emerging as an essential tool for constant monitoring of safety-critical engineering components. Ultrasonic guided waves stand out because of their ability to propagate over long distances and because they can offer good estimates of location, severity, and type of damage. The unique properties of the fundamental shear horizontal guided wave (SH0) mode have recently generated great interest among the SHM community. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of omnidirectional SH0 SHM in a thin aluminum plate using a three-transducer sparse array. Descriptions of the transducer, the finite element model, and the imaging algorithm are presented. The image localization maps show a good agreement between the simulations and experimental results. The SH0 SHM method proposed in this paper is shown to have a high resolution and to be able to locate defects within 5% of the true location. The short input signal as well the non-dispersive nature of SH0 leads to high resolution in the reconstructed images. The defect diameter estimated using the full width at half maximum was 10 mm or twice the size of the true diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Mechanical Properties and Impact-Induced Initiation Characteristics of Brittle PTFE/Al/W Reactive Materials
Materials 2017, 10(5), 452; doi:10.3390/ma10050452
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Polytetrafluoroethylene/aluminum/tungsten (PTFE/Al/W) reactive materials of three different component mass ratios (73.5/26.5/0, 68.8/24.2/7 and 63.6/22.4/14) were studied in this research. Different from the PTFE/Al/W composites published elsewhere, the materials in our research were fabricated under a much lower sintering temperature and for a much
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Polytetrafluoroethylene/aluminum/tungsten (PTFE/Al/W) reactive materials of three different component mass ratios (73.5/26.5/0, 68.8/24.2/7 and 63.6/22.4/14) were studied in this research. Different from the PTFE/Al/W composites published elsewhere, the materials in our research were fabricated under a much lower sintering temperature and for a much shorter duration to achieve a brittle property, which aims to provide more sufficient energy release upon impact. Quasi-static compression tests, dynamic compression tests at room and elevated temperatures, and drop weight tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical and impact-induced initiation characteristics of the materials. The materials before and after compression tests were observed by a scanning electron microscope to relate the mesoscale structural characteristics to their macro properties. All the three types of materials fail at very low strains during both quasi-static and dynamic compression. The stress-strain curves for quasi-static tests show obvious deviations while that for the dynamic tests consist of only linear-elastic and failure stages typically. The materials were also found to exhibit thermal softening at elevated temperatures and were strain-rate sensitive during dynamic tests, which were compared using dynamic increase factors (DIFs). Drop-weight test results show that the impact-initiation sensitivity increases with the increase of W content due to the brittle mechanical property. The high-speed video sequences and recovered sample residues of the drop-weight tests show that the reaction is initiated at two opposite positions near the edges of the samples, where the shear force concentrates the most intensively, indicating a shear-induced initiation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Experiment and Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity for Alumina-Water Nanofluids
Materials 2017, 10(5), 552; doi:10.3390/ma10050552
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al2O3)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al2O3-water nanofluids were prepared respectively
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To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al2O3)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al2O3-water nanofluids were prepared respectively by dispersing different volume fractions (1.31%, 2.72%, 4.25%, and 5.92%) of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30 nm. On this basis, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the above nanofluids were analyzed experimentally under various temperatures ranging from 296 to 313 K. Then a radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3-water nanofluids as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The experimental results showed that both nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature could enhance the thermal conductivity of Al2O3-water nanofluids. However, the viscosity only depended strongly on Al2O3 nanoparticle volume fraction and was increased slightly by changing temperature. In addition, the comparative analysis revealed that the RBF neural network had an excellent ability to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3-water nanofluids with the mean absolute percent errors of 0.5177% and 0.5618%, respectively. This demonstrated that the ANN provided an effective way to predict the thermophysical properties of nanofluids with limited experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Parent Austenite Grains from Martensite Structure Using EBSD in a Wear Resistant Steel
Materials 2017, 10(5), 453; doi:10.3390/ma10050453
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference)
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Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference) steel sample and samples obtained by quenching at different cooling rates with corresponding dilatometry. Subsequently, this study is to correlate the nearest cooling rate by the dilatometer which yields a similar orientation relationship and substructure as the reference sample. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship was used to reconstruct the parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensite boundaries in both reference and dilatometric samples using EBSD crystallographic data. The parent austenite grain boundaries were successfully evaluated from the EBSD data and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. The parent austenite grain boundaries of the reference sample match the sample quenched at 100 °C/s (CR100). Also the martensite substructures and crystallographic textures are similar in these two samples. The results from hardness measurements show that the reference sample exhibits higher hardness than the CR100 sample due to the presence of carbides in the reference sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2−xSbxTe3 Nanowires Grown in Flexible Nanoporous Polycarbonate Templates
Materials 2017, 10(5), 553; doi:10.3390/ma10050553
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
We report the room-temperature growth of vertically aligned ternary Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires of diameter ~200 nm and length ~12 µm, within flexible track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates via a one-step electrodeposition process. Bi2−xSbxTe
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We report the room-temperature growth of vertically aligned ternary Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires of diameter ~200 nm and length ~12 µm, within flexible track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates via a one-step electrodeposition process. Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires with compositions spanning the entire range from pure Bi2Te3 (x = 0) to pure Sb2Te3 (x = 2) were systematically grown within the nanoporous channels of PC templates from a tartaric–nitric acid based electrolyte, at the end of which highly crystalline nanowires of uniform composition were obtained. Compositional analysis showed that the Sb concentration could be tuned by simply varying the electrolyte composition without any need for further annealing of the samples. Thermoelectric properties of the Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires were measured using a standardized bespoke setup while they were still embedded within the flexible PC templates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Thermal Dissipation of Al Heat Sink When Inserting Ceramic Powders by Ultrasonic Mechanical Coating and Armoring
Materials 2017, 10(5), 454; doi:10.3390/ma10050454
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
PDF Full-text (5838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this
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Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al2O3, SiO2, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations. A promising match has been reached between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. With the adequate insertion of ceramic powders, the temperature of the Al heat sinks can be lowered by 5–11 °C, which is highly favorable for applications requiring cooling components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Switching VO2 Single Crystals and Related Phenomena: Sliding Domains and Crack Formation
Materials 2017, 10(5), 554; doi:10.3390/ma10050554
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
VO2 is the prototype material for insulator–metal transition (IMT). Its transition at TIMT = 340 K is fast and consists of a large resistance jump (up to approximately five orders of magnitude), a large change in its optical properties in the
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VO2 is the prototype material for insulator–metal transition (IMT). Its transition at TIMT = 340 K is fast and consists of a large resistance jump (up to approximately five orders of magnitude), a large change in its optical properties in the visible range, and symmetry change from monoclinic to tetragonal (expansion by 1% along the tetragonal c-axis and 0.5% contraction in the perpendicular direction). It is a candidate for potential applications such as smart windows, fast optoelectronic switches, and field-effect transistors. The change in optical properties at the IMT allows distinguishing between the insulating and the metallic phases in the mixed state. Static or dynamic domain patterns in the mixed-state of self-heated single crystals during electric-field induced switching are in strong contrast with the percolative nature of the mixed state in switching VO2 films. The most impressive effect—so far unique to VO2—is the sliding of narrow semiconducting domains within a metallic background in the positive sense of the electric current. Here we show images from videos obtained using optical microscopy for sliding domains along VO2 needles and confirm a relation suggested in the past for their velocity. We also show images for the disturbing damage induced by the structural changes in switching VO2 crystals obtained for only a few current–voltage cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Modes of Action of Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Polymeric Systems
Materials 2017, 10(5), 455; doi:10.3390/ma10050455
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each
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Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each respective system and at each respective concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in combination with infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gas to determine the pyrolysis behavior, residue formation and the release of phosphorus species. Forced flaming tests in the cone calorimeter provided insight into burning behavior and macroscopic residue effects. The results were put into relation to the phosphorus content to reveal correlations between phosphorus concentration in the gas phase and flame inhibition performance, as well as phosphorus concentration in the residue and condensed phase activity. Total heat evolved (fire load) and peak heat release rate were calculated based on changes in the effective heat of combustion and residue, and then compared with the measured values to address the modes of action of the flame retardants quantitatively. The quantification of flame inhibition, charring, and the protective layer effect measure the non-linear flame retardancy effects as functions of the phosphorus concentration. Overall, this screening approach using easily preparable polymer systems provides great insight into the effect of phosphorus in different flame retarded polymers, with regard to polymer structure, phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle On the Morphology of the SDS Film on the Surface of Borosilicate Glass
Materials 2017, 10(5), 555; doi:10.3390/ma10050555
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Surfactant films on solid surfaces have attracted much attention because of their scientific interest and applications, such as surface treatment agent, or for micro- or nano-scale templates for microfluidic devices. In this study, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions with various charged
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Surfactant films on solid surfaces have attracted much attention because of their scientific interest and applications, such as surface treatment agent, or for micro- or nano-scale templates for microfluidic devices. In this study, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions with various charged inorganic salts was spread on a glass substrate and dried to form an SDS thin film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe the micro-structure of the SDS thin film. The effects of inorganic salts on the morphology of the SDS film were observed and discussed. The results of experiments demonstrated that pure SDS film formed patterns of long, parallel, highly-ordered stripes. The existence of the inorganic salt disturbed the structure of the SDS film due to the interaction between the cationic ion and the anionic head groups of SDS. The divalent ion has greater electrostatic interaction with anionic head groups than that of the monovalent ion, and causes a gross change in the morphology of the SDS film. The height of the SDS bilayer measured was consistent with the theoretical value, and the addition of the large-sized monovalent ion would lead to lowering the height of the adsorbed structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IEEE ICASI 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface-Modified TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Anti-Ultraviolet Aging Performance of Foamed Wheat Straw Fiber/Polypropylene Composites
Materials 2017, 10(5), 456; doi:10.3390/ma10050456
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Surface modification and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their roles in thermal, mechanical, and accelerated aging behavior of foamed wheat straw fiber/polypropylene (PP) composites are investigated. To improve the dispersion of nanoparticles and increase the possible interactions between wheat
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Surface modification and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their roles in thermal, mechanical, and accelerated aging behavior of foamed wheat straw fiber/polypropylene (PP) composites are investigated. To improve the dispersion of nanoparticles and increase the possible interactions between wheat straw fiber and the PP matrix, the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles was modified with ethenyltrimethoxy silane (A171), a silane coupling agent. The grafting of A171 on the TiO2 nanoparticles’ surface was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The wheat straw fibers treated with A171 and modified TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectra confirmed that the organic functional groups of A171 were successfully grafted onto the TiO2 nanoparticles and wheat straw fibers, and the modified TiO2 nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the wheat straw fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a higher thermal stability of the wheat straw fiber was obtained with the modified TiO2 nanoparticles. The flexural, tensile, and impact properties were improved. A higher ultraviolet (UV) stability of the samples treated with modified TiO2 nanoparticles was exhibited by the study of the color change and loss in mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys
Materials 2017, 10(5), 556; doi:10.3390/ma10050556
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied,
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The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Alginate and Its Catalytic Activity for Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol and H2O2 Detection
Materials 2017, 10(5), 557; doi:10.3390/ma10050557
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method with alginate sodium as both reductant and stabilizer. Formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized AuNPs showed a localized surface plasmon resonance at approximately 520–560 nm. The AuNPs were
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method with alginate sodium as both reductant and stabilizer. Formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized AuNPs showed a localized surface plasmon resonance at approximately 520–560 nm. The AuNPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the AuNPs were mostly nanometer-sized spherical particles. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis proved the formation of face-centered cubic structure of Au. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol was monitored via spectrophotometry using AuNPs as catalyst, and further a non-enzymatic sensor was fabricated. The results demonstrated that AuNPs presented excellent catalytic activity and provided a sensitive response to H2O2 detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 457; doi:10.3390/ma10050457
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation,
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The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD), each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials’ mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT) test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of CuZnAl Particles on Properties and Microstructure of Sn-58Bi Solder
Materials 2017, 10(5), 558; doi:10.3390/ma10050558
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
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Abstract
With the purpose of improving the properties of the Sn-58Bi lead-free solder, micro-CuZnAl particles ranging from 0 to 0.4 wt % were added into the low temperature eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder. After the experimental testing of micro-CuZnAl particles on the properties and microstructure
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With the purpose of improving the properties of the Sn-58Bi lead-free solder, micro-CuZnAl particles ranging from 0 to 0.4 wt % were added into the low temperature eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder. After the experimental testing of micro-CuZnAl particles on the properties and microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solders, it was found that the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solders was obviously improved with addition of CuZnAl particles. When the addition of CuZnAl particles was 0.2 wt %, the wettability of the Sn-58Bi solder performed best. At the same time, excessive addition of CuZnAl particles led to poor wettability. However, the results showed that CuZnAl particles changed the melting point of the Sn-58Bi solder slightly. The microstructure of the Sn-58Bi solder was refined by adding CuZnAl particles. When the content of CuZnAl addition was between 0.1 and 0.2 wt %, the refinement was great. In addition, the interfacial IMC layer between new composite solder and Cu substrate was thinner than that between the Sn-58Bi solder and Cu substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(5), 458; doi:10.3390/ma10050458
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties
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Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Compliant Bipolar Resistive Switching in SiN-Based Resistive Switching Memory
Materials 2017, 10(5), 459; doi:10.3390/ma10050459
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n+ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device’s Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant
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Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n+ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device’s Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant concentration (As ion > 1019 cm−3) than the Ni/SiNx/n+ Si device; both unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the higher dopant concentration device owing to a large current overshoot. Conversely, for the device with the lower dopant concentration (As ion < 1018 cm−3), self-rectification and self-compliance were achieved owing to the series resistance of the Si bottom electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Unusual Enhancement of Doxorubicin Activity on Co-Delivery with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)
Materials 2017, 10(5), 559; doi:10.3390/ma10050559
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), bearing eight 3-chloroammoniumpropyl substituents, was studied as a potential nanocarrier in co-delivery systems with doxorubicin (DOX). The toxicity of doxorubicin and POSS:DOX complexes at four different molar ratios (1:1; 1:2, 1:4, 1:8) towards microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), breast cancer
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Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), bearing eight 3-chloroammoniumpropyl substituents, was studied as a potential nanocarrier in co-delivery systems with doxorubicin (DOX). The toxicity of doxorubicin and POSS:DOX complexes at four different molar ratios (1:1; 1:2, 1:4, 1:8) towards microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and human cervical cancer endothelial cells (HeLa) was determined. The rate of penetration of the components into the cells, their cellular localization and the hydrodynamic diameter of the complexes was also determined. A cytotoxicity profile of POSS:DOX complexes indicated that the POSS:DOX system at the molar ratio of 1:8 was more effective than free DOX. Confocal images showed that DOX co-delivery with POSS allowed for more effective penetration of doxorubicin through the cell membrane. Taking all the results into account, it can be claimed that the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (T8-POSS) is a promising, complex nanocarrier for doxorubicin delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Using Coriandrum sativum Leaf Extract and Their Structural-Magnetic Catalytic Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 460; doi:10.3390/ma10050460
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, using Coriandrum sativum L., a leaf-extracted, assisted microwave method (MM) was used to synthesize nickel oxide formation. We synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO) with a crystal size in the range of 15–16 nm by a Coriandrum sativum leaf-assisted microwave method
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In this paper, using Coriandrum sativum L., a leaf-extracted, assisted microwave method (MM) was used to synthesize nickel oxide formation. We synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO) with a crystal size in the range of 15–16 nm by a Coriandrum sativum leaf-assisted microwave method (LAMM). The synthesized materials show that an X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed the formation of a single phase structure exhibiting a crystallite size in the range of 15–16 nm using Scherrer’s method. The nickel oxide prepared by the MM had a surface area of 60.35 m2/g, pore volume of 0.9427 cm3/g and an average pore diameter of 13.27 Å. Surface morphology was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Catalytic activity (CA) tended toward the oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde. The inexpensive catalyst tested is likely effective as a catalyst due to synergistic interactions between metal oxides with high dispersion. In comparison with other findings, LAMM is easy and eco-friendly. The current study obtained nanocrystalline NiO that was suitable for potential applications in catalysis. The synthesized NiO could potentially be used in therapeutic field due to their competent antibacterial activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Low-Frequency Vibration and Modification on Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Casting Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 560; doi:10.3390/ma10050560
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However,
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One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However, the presented work describes an alternative approach through the application of vibration treatment, modification by ultrafine powder and a combination of these two methods. Microstructural studies followed by image analysis revealed the refinement of α-Al grains with an increase in the Si network area around them. As evidence, the improvement of the mechanical properties of Al casting alloy was detected. It was found that the alloys subjected to the vibration treatment displayed an increase in tensile and yield strengths by 20% and 10%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials
Materials 2017, 10(5), 461; doi:10.3390/ma10050461
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also
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The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Modelling of Fluidised Geomaterials: The Case of the Aberfan and the Gypsum Tailings Impoundment Flowslides
Materials 2017, 10(5), 562; doi:10.3390/ma10050562
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal goal of the present work is to clarify
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The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal goal of the present work is to clarify the influence of the type of viscous model—pure cohesive versus pure frictional—with the numerical reproduction of two different real flowslides that occurred in 1966: the Aberfan flowslide and the Gypsum tailings impoundment flowslide. In the present work, a depth-integrated model based on the v - p w Biot–Zienkiewicz formulation, enhanced with a diffusion-like equation to account for the pore pressure evolution within the soil mass, is applied to both 1966 cases. For the Aberfan flowslide, a frictional viscous model based on Perzyna viscoplasticity is considered, while a pure cohesive viscous model (Bingham model) is considered for the case of the Gypsum flowslide. The numerical approach followed is the SPH method, which has been enriched by adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node in order to improve the description of the pore water evolution in the propagating mixture. The results obtained by the performed simulations are in agreement with the documentation obtained through the UK National Archive (Aberfan flowslide) and the International Commission of large Dams (Gypsum flowslide). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Hydrogen Exposure on Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of CrxN Coatings Deposited at Different Pressures on IN718
Materials 2017, 10(5), 563; doi:10.3390/ma10050563
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
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Abstract
In the current study, the properties of the CrxN coatings deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive magnetron sputtering are investigated. The influence of working pressure on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the CrxN
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In the current study, the properties of the CrxN coatings deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive magnetron sputtering are investigated. The influence of working pressure on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the CrxN coatings before and after high-temperature hydrogen exposure is studied. The cross-sectional scanning electron micrographs indicate the columnar structure of the coatings, which changes from dense and compact columns to large columns with increasing working pressure. The Cr/N ratio increases from 1.4 to 1.9 with increasing working pressure from 300 to 900 mPa, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a change from mixed hcp-Cr2N and fcc-CrN structure to approximately stoichiometric Cr2N phase. After gas-phase hydrogenation, the coating deposited at 300 mPa exhibits the lowest hydrogen absorption at 600 °C of all investigated coatings. The results indicate that the dense mixed cubic and hexagonal structure is preferential for hydrogen permeation resistance due to the presence of cubic phase with higher packing density in comparison to the hexagonal structure. After hydrogenation, no changes in phase composition were observed; however, a small amount of hydrogen is accumulated in the coatings. An increase of coating hardness and elastic modulus was observed after hydrogen exposure. Tribological tests reveal that hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the friction coefficient up to 20%–30%. The best value of 0.25 was reached for hydrogen exposed CrxN coating deposited at 300 mPa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Epoxy Resins Toughened with Surface Modified Epoxidized Natural Rubber Fibers by One-Step Electrospinning
Materials 2017, 10(5), 464; doi:10.3390/ma10050464
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and
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Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and the average diameter of ERFs is 6.2 µm. The increase of ERFs loading from 0 to 20 wt % into the epoxy resin increases the fracture strain significantly from 1.2% to 13% and toughness from 0.3 MPa to 1.9 MPa by a factor of 7. However, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus decrease about 34% from 58 MPa to 34 MPa and from 1.4 GPa to 0.9 GPa, respectively. Due to the crosslinking reactions between oxirane groups of ERFs and amine groups in the resin, surface roughness and the high aspect ratio of ERFs, ERFs result in more effective toughening effect with the minimum loss of tensile properties in epoxy resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Hemoglobin-Derived Iron and Nitrogen-Rich Carbon Nanolayers for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction
Materials 2017, 10(5), 564; doi:10.3390/ma10050564
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
PDF Full-text (2830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The great challenge of boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts is how to achieve effective exposure and full utilization of nitrogen-rich active sites. To realize the goals of high utilization of active sites and fast electron transport, here we
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The great challenge of boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts is how to achieve effective exposure and full utilization of nitrogen-rich active sites. To realize the goals of high utilization of active sites and fast electron transport, here we report a new strategy for synthesis of an iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanolayers-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes as ORR electrocatalyst (N-C@CNT-Fe) via using partially carbonized hemoglobin as a single-source precursor. The onset and half-wave potentials for ORR of N-C@CNT-Fe are only 45 and 54 mV lower than those on a commercial Pt/C (20 wt.% Pt) catalyst, respectively. Besides, this catalyst prepared in this work has been confirmed to follow a four-electron reaction mechanism in ORR process, and also displays ultra-high electrochemical cycling stability in both acidic and alkaline electrolytes. The enhancement of ORR activity can be not only attributed to full exposure and utilization of active site structures, but also can be resulted from the improvement of electrical conductivity owing to the introduction of CNT support. The analysis of X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy shows that both Fe–N and graphitic-N species may be the ORR active site structures of the prepared catalyst. Our study can provide a valuable idea for effective improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of non-noble-metal ORR catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS): A Promising and Reliable Method for Preparing Ti–Al–Si Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(5), 465; doi:10.3390/ma10050465
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark
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Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark plasma sintering. One of the novel SPS techniques is high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HP SPS), which was tested in this work and applied to a Ti–10Al–20Si intermetallic alloy using a pressure of 6 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1318 K (1045 °C) to 1597 K (1324 °C). The low-porosity consolidated samples consist of Ti5Si3 silicides in an aluminide (TiAl) matrix. The hardness varied between 720 and 892 HV 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle AC Electroluminescent Processes in Pr3+-Activated (Ba0.4Ca0.6)TiO3 Diphase Polycrystals
Materials 2017, 10(5), 565; doi:10.3390/ma10050565
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the properties of alternating current (AC)-driven electroluminescence from (Ba0.4Ca0.6)TiO3:Pr3+ diphase polycrystal-based device. The results of crystal phases and micrographs, and the symmetrical dual emissions in one AC cycle, indicate the spontaneous formation of a
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We investigated the properties of alternating current (AC)-driven electroluminescence from (Ba0.4Ca0.6)TiO3:Pr3+ diphase polycrystal-based device. The results of crystal phases and micrographs, and the symmetrical dual emissions in one AC cycle, indicate the spontaneous formation of a dielectric/phosphor/dielectric sandwich microstructure in (Ba0.4Ca0.6)TiO3:Pr3+. The electroluminescent device emits a red light of 617 nm, which is attributed to the 1D2-3H4 transition of Pr3+ in the phosphor phase. At a fixed AC frequency, the intensity of electroluminescence exhibits a steep enhancement when applying an increased driving electric field that is beyond a threshold. In a fixed driving electric field, the intensity of electroluminescence shows a rapid rise at low frequencies, but reaches saturation at high frequencies. Based on a double-injection model, we discussed systematically the electroluminescent processes in a whole cycle of AC electric field, which matched well with the experimental data. Our investigation is expected to expand our understanding of such a diphase electroluminescent device, thereby promoting their applications in lighting and displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Markedly Enhanced Surface Hydroxyl Groups of TiO2 Nanoparticles with Superior Water-Dispersibility for Photocatalysis
Materials 2017, 10(5), 566; doi:10.3390/ma10050566
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
The benefits of increasing the number of surface hydroxyls on TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are known for environmental and energy applications; however, the roles of the hydroxyl groups have not been characterized and distinguished. Herein, TiO2 NPs with abundant surface hydroxyl groups
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The benefits of increasing the number of surface hydroxyls on TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are known for environmental and energy applications; however, the roles of the hydroxyl groups have not been characterized and distinguished. Herein, TiO2 NPs with abundant surface hydroxyl groups were prepared using commercial titanium dioxide (ST-01) powder pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Through this simple treatment, the pure anatase phase was retained with an average crystallite size of 5 nm and the surface hydroxyl group density was enhanced to 12.0 OH/nm2, estimated by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Especially, this treatment increased the amounts of terminal hydroxyls five- to six-fold, which could raise the isoelectric point and the positive charges on the TiO2 surface in water. The photocatalytic efficiency of the obtained TiO2 NPs was investigated by the photodegradation of sulforhodamine B under visible light irradiation as a function of TiO2 content, pH of solution, and initial dye concentration. The high surface hydroxyl group density of TiO2 NPs can not only enhance water-dispersibility but also promote dye sensitization by generating more hydroxyl radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro versus In Vivo Phase Instability of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Femoral Heads: A Critical Comparative Assessment
Materials 2017, 10(5), 466; doi:10.3390/ma10050466
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized
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A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized in evaluating surface stability and raise a series of important questions: (1) Why do in vitro hydrothermal aging treatments conspicuously fail to model actual results from the in vivo environment? (2) What is the preponderant microscopic phenomenon triggering the accelerated transformation in vivo? (3) Ultimately, what revisions of the current in vitro standard are needed in order to obtain consistent predictions of ZTA transformation kinetics in vivo? Reported in this paper is a new in toto method for visualizing the surface stability of femoral heads. It is based on CAD-assisted Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively assess the phase transformation observed in ZTA retrievals. Using a series of independent analytical probes, an evaluation of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the polymorphic transformation is also provided. An outline is given of the possible ways in which the current hydrothermal simulation standard for artificial joints can be improved in an attempt to reduce the gap between in vitro simulation and reality. Full article
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