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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story This paper presents a multi-scale, multi-physics computational framework that models reinforced [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics: A Match Made in Heaven?
Materials 2017, 10(5), 528; doi:10.3390/ma10050528
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Biomaterials and tissue biomechanics have been traditionally separate areas of research with relatively little overlap in terms of methodological approaches. Recent advances in both fields on the one hand and developments in fabrication techniques and design approaches on the other have prepared the
[...] Read more.
Biomaterials and tissue biomechanics have been traditionally separate areas of research with relatively little overlap in terms of methodological approaches. Recent advances in both fields on the one hand and developments in fabrication techniques and design approaches on the other have prepared the ground for joint research efforts by both communities. Additive manufacturing and rational design are examples of the revolutionary fabrication techniques and design methodologies that could facilitate more intimate collaboration between biomaterial scientists and biomechanists. This editorial article highlights the various ways in which the research on tissue biomechanics and biomaterials are related to each other and could benefit from each other’s results and methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 449; doi:10.3390/ma10050449
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle On the Mechanical Properties and Uncertainties of Jute Yarns
Materials 2017, 10(5), 450; doi:10.3390/ma10050450
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Products made from natural materials are eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to supply product developers with reliable information regarding the properties of natural materials. In this study, we consider a widely used natural material called jute, which grows in Bangladesh, India, and China.
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Products made from natural materials are eco-friendly. Therefore, it is important to supply product developers with reliable information regarding the properties of natural materials. In this study, we consider a widely used natural material called jute, which grows in Bangladesh, India, and China. We described the results of tensile tests on jute yarns, as well as the energy absorption patterns leading to yarn failure. We have also used statistical analyses and possibility distributions to quantify the uncertainty associated with the following properties of jute yarn: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and strain to failure. The uncertainty and energy absorption patterns of jute yarns were compared with those of jute fibers. We concluded that in order to ensure the reliability and durability of a product made from jute, it is good practice to examine the material properties of yarns rather than those of fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling
Materials 2017, 10(5), 451; doi:10.3390/ma10050451
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on
[...] Read more.
This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag3Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag3Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag3Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Mechanical Properties and Impact-Induced Initiation Characteristics of Brittle PTFE/Al/W Reactive Materials
Materials 2017, 10(5), 452; doi:10.3390/ma10050452
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Polytetrafluoroethylene/aluminum/tungsten (PTFE/Al/W) reactive materials of three different component mass ratios (73.5/26.5/0, 68.8/24.2/7 and 63.6/22.4/14) were studied in this research. Different from the PTFE/Al/W composites published elsewhere, the materials in our research were fabricated under a much lower sintering temperature and for a much
[...] Read more.
Polytetrafluoroethylene/aluminum/tungsten (PTFE/Al/W) reactive materials of three different component mass ratios (73.5/26.5/0, 68.8/24.2/7 and 63.6/22.4/14) were studied in this research. Different from the PTFE/Al/W composites published elsewhere, the materials in our research were fabricated under a much lower sintering temperature and for a much shorter duration to achieve a brittle property, which aims to provide more sufficient energy release upon impact. Quasi-static compression tests, dynamic compression tests at room and elevated temperatures, and drop weight tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical and impact-induced initiation characteristics of the materials. The materials before and after compression tests were observed by a scanning electron microscope to relate the mesoscale structural characteristics to their macro properties. All the three types of materials fail at very low strains during both quasi-static and dynamic compression. The stress-strain curves for quasi-static tests show obvious deviations while that for the dynamic tests consist of only linear-elastic and failure stages typically. The materials were also found to exhibit thermal softening at elevated temperatures and were strain-rate sensitive during dynamic tests, which were compared using dynamic increase factors (DIFs). Drop-weight test results show that the impact-initiation sensitivity increases with the increase of W content due to the brittle mechanical property. The high-speed video sequences and recovered sample residues of the drop-weight tests show that the reaction is initiated at two opposite positions near the edges of the samples, where the shear force concentrates the most intensively, indicating a shear-induced initiation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Parent Austenite Grains from Martensite Structure Using EBSD in a Wear Resistant Steel
Materials 2017, 10(5), 453; doi:10.3390/ma10050453
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference)
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Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference) steel sample and samples obtained by quenching at different cooling rates with corresponding dilatometry. Subsequently, this study is to correlate the nearest cooling rate by the dilatometer which yields a similar orientation relationship and substructure as the reference sample. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship was used to reconstruct the parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensite boundaries in both reference and dilatometric samples using EBSD crystallographic data. The parent austenite grain boundaries were successfully evaluated from the EBSD data and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. The parent austenite grain boundaries of the reference sample match the sample quenched at 100 °C/s (CR100). Also the martensite substructures and crystallographic textures are similar in these two samples. The results from hardness measurements show that the reference sample exhibits higher hardness than the CR100 sample due to the presence of carbides in the reference sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Thermal Dissipation of Al Heat Sink When Inserting Ceramic Powders by Ultrasonic Mechanical Coating and Armoring
Materials 2017, 10(5), 454; doi:10.3390/ma10050454
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this
[...] Read more.
Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al2O3, SiO2, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations. A promising match has been reached between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. With the adequate insertion of ceramic powders, the temperature of the Al heat sinks can be lowered by 5–11 °C, which is highly favorable for applications requiring cooling components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Modes of Action of Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Polymeric Systems
Materials 2017, 10(5), 455; doi:10.3390/ma10050455
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each
[...] Read more.
Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each respective system and at each respective concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in combination with infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gas to determine the pyrolysis behavior, residue formation and the release of phosphorus species. Forced flaming tests in the cone calorimeter provided insight into burning behavior and macroscopic residue effects. The results were put into relation to the phosphorus content to reveal correlations between phosphorus concentration in the gas phase and flame inhibition performance, as well as phosphorus concentration in the residue and condensed phase activity. Total heat evolved (fire load) and peak heat release rate were calculated based on changes in the effective heat of combustion and residue, and then compared with the measured values to address the modes of action of the flame retardants quantitatively. The quantification of flame inhibition, charring, and the protective layer effect measure the non-linear flame retardancy effects as functions of the phosphorus concentration. Overall, this screening approach using easily preparable polymer systems provides great insight into the effect of phosphorus in different flame retarded polymers, with regard to polymer structure, phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface-Modified TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Anti-Ultraviolet Aging Performance of Foamed Wheat Straw Fiber/Polypropylene Composites
Materials 2017, 10(5), 456; doi:10.3390/ma10050456
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Surface modification and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their roles in thermal, mechanical, and accelerated aging behavior of foamed wheat straw fiber/polypropylene (PP) composites are investigated. To improve the dispersion of nanoparticles and increase the possible interactions between wheat
[...] Read more.
Surface modification and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and their roles in thermal, mechanical, and accelerated aging behavior of foamed wheat straw fiber/polypropylene (PP) composites are investigated. To improve the dispersion of nanoparticles and increase the possible interactions between wheat straw fiber and the PP matrix, the surface of the TiO2 nanoparticles was modified with ethenyltrimethoxy silane (A171), a silane coupling agent. The grafting of A171 on the TiO2 nanoparticles’ surface was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The wheat straw fibers treated with A171 and modified TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectra confirmed that the organic functional groups of A171 were successfully grafted onto the TiO2 nanoparticles and wheat straw fibers, and the modified TiO2 nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the wheat straw fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a higher thermal stability of the wheat straw fiber was obtained with the modified TiO2 nanoparticles. The flexural, tensile, and impact properties were improved. A higher ultraviolet (UV) stability of the samples treated with modified TiO2 nanoparticles was exhibited by the study of the color change and loss in mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 457; doi:10.3390/ma10050457
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation,
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The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD), each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials’ mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT) test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(5), 458; doi:10.3390/ma10050458
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties
[...] Read more.
Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Compliant Bipolar Resistive Switching in SiN-Based Resistive Switching Memory
Materials 2017, 10(5), 459; doi:10.3390/ma10050459
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n+ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device’s Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant
[...] Read more.
Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n+ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device’s Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant concentration (As ion > 1019 cm−3) than the Ni/SiNx/n+ Si device; both unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the higher dopant concentration device owing to a large current overshoot. Conversely, for the device with the lower dopant concentration (As ion < 1018 cm−3), self-rectification and self-compliance were achieved owing to the series resistance of the Si bottom electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Using Coriandrum sativum Leaf Extract and Their Structural-Magnetic Catalytic Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 460; doi:10.3390/ma10050460
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, using Coriandrum sativum L., a leaf-extracted, assisted microwave method (MM) was used to synthesize nickel oxide formation. We synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO) with a crystal size in the range of 15–16 nm by a Coriandrum sativum leaf-assisted microwave method
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In this paper, using Coriandrum sativum L., a leaf-extracted, assisted microwave method (MM) was used to synthesize nickel oxide formation. We synthesized nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO) with a crystal size in the range of 15–16 nm by a Coriandrum sativum leaf-assisted microwave method (LAMM). The synthesized materials show that an X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed the formation of a single phase structure exhibiting a crystallite size in the range of 15–16 nm using Scherrer’s method. The nickel oxide prepared by the MM had a surface area of 60.35 m2/g, pore volume of 0.9427 cm3/g and an average pore diameter of 13.27 Å. Surface morphology was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Catalytic activity (CA) tended toward the oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde. The inexpensive catalyst tested is likely effective as a catalyst due to synergistic interactions between metal oxides with high dispersion. In comparison with other findings, LAMM is easy and eco-friendly. The current study obtained nanocrystalline NiO that was suitable for potential applications in catalysis. The synthesized NiO could potentially be used in therapeutic field due to their competent antibacterial activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials
Materials 2017, 10(5), 461; doi:10.3390/ma10050461
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also
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The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Epoxy Resins Toughened with Surface Modified Epoxidized Natural Rubber Fibers by One-Step Electrospinning
Materials 2017, 10(5), 464; doi:10.3390/ma10050464
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and
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Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and the average diameter of ERFs is 6.2 µm. The increase of ERFs loading from 0 to 20 wt % into the epoxy resin increases the fracture strain significantly from 1.2% to 13% and toughness from 0.3 MPa to 1.9 MPa by a factor of 7. However, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus decrease about 34% from 58 MPa to 34 MPa and from 1.4 GPa to 0.9 GPa, respectively. Due to the crosslinking reactions between oxirane groups of ERFs and amine groups in the resin, surface roughness and the high aspect ratio of ERFs, ERFs result in more effective toughening effect with the minimum loss of tensile properties in epoxy resins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS): A Promising and Reliable Method for Preparing Ti–Al–Si Alloys
Materials 2017, 10(5), 465; doi:10.3390/ma10050465
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark
[...] Read more.
Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark plasma sintering. One of the novel SPS techniques is high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HP SPS), which was tested in this work and applied to a Ti–10Al–20Si intermetallic alloy using a pressure of 6 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1318 K (1045 °C) to 1597 K (1324 °C). The low-porosity consolidated samples consist of Ti5Si3 silicides in an aluminide (TiAl) matrix. The hardness varied between 720 and 892 HV 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro versus In Vivo Phase Instability of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Femoral Heads: A Critical Comparative Assessment
Materials 2017, 10(5), 466; doi:10.3390/ma10050466
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 14 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized
[...] Read more.
A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized in evaluating surface stability and raise a series of important questions: (1) Why do in vitro hydrothermal aging treatments conspicuously fail to model actual results from the in vivo environment? (2) What is the preponderant microscopic phenomenon triggering the accelerated transformation in vivo? (3) Ultimately, what revisions of the current in vitro standard are needed in order to obtain consistent predictions of ZTA transformation kinetics in vivo? Reported in this paper is a new in toto method for visualizing the surface stability of femoral heads. It is based on CAD-assisted Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively assess the phase transformation observed in ZTA retrievals. Using a series of independent analytical probes, an evaluation of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the polymorphic transformation is also provided. An outline is given of the possible ways in which the current hydrothermal simulation standard for artificial joints can be improved in an attempt to reduce the gap between in vitro simulation and reality. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Flame Retardancy of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Sorbitol Based Bioepoxy Composites with Phosphorus-Containing Additives
Materials 2017, 10(5), 467; doi:10.3390/ma10050467
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Carbon fibre reinforced flame-retarded bioepoxy composites were prepared from commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE) cured with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. Samples containing 1, 2, and 3% phosphorus (P) were prepared using additive type flame retardants (FRs) resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP),
[...] Read more.
Carbon fibre reinforced flame-retarded bioepoxy composites were prepared from commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE) cured with cycloaliphatic amine hardener. Samples containing 1, 2, and 3% phosphorus (P) were prepared using additive type flame retardants (FRs) resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and their combinations. The fire performance of the composites was investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 tests, and mass loss calorimetry. The effect of FRs on the glass transition temperature, and storage modulus was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), while the mechanical performance was investigated by tensile, bending, and interlaminar shear measurements, as well as by Charpy impact test. In formulations containing both FRs, the presence of RDP, acting mainly in gas phase, ensured balanced gas and solid-phase mechanism leading to best overall fire performance. APP advantageously compensated the plasticizing (storage modulus and glass transition temperature decreasing) effect of RDP in combined formulations; furthermore, it led to increased tensile strength and Charpy impact energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Thermoelectric Properties of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Nanofiber Mat with a Large Void Fraction
Materials 2017, 10(5), 468; doi:10.3390/ma10050468
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
The thermoelectric properties of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber mat which has higher crystallinity—and thus exhibits larger carrier mobility—than a non-fibrous P3HT film, were investigated. No significant difference was observed in the maximum values of the power factor between the P3HT nanofiber mat and
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The thermoelectric properties of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber mat which has higher crystallinity—and thus exhibits larger carrier mobility—than a non-fibrous P3HT film, were investigated. No significant difference was observed in the maximum values of the power factor between the P3HT nanofiber mat and the P3HT film. However, the thermal conductivity of the nanofiber mat was less than half that of the film despite having almost the same electrical conductivity. This higher thermoelectric property of the nanofiber mat than the film is attributed to the existence of highly effective conducting pathways and a large void fraction, and the result means that the nanofiber mat was a good candidate for use as a thermoelectric material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Study of the Effect of Ba2+ Cations Substitution with Sr2+ Cations on Structural and Optical Properties of Ba2−xSrxZnWO6 Double Perovskite Oxides (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00)
Materials 2017, 10(5), 469; doi:10.3390/ma10050469
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
The effect of Sr2+ substitution on the morphology, crystal structure, and optical properties of double perovskite oxide Ba2−xSrxZnWO6 (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) were investigated. Scanning electronic microscopy demonstrated that all samples have
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The effect of Sr2+ substitution on the morphology, crystal structure, and optical properties of double perovskite oxide Ba2−xSrxZnWO6 (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00) were investigated. Scanning electronic microscopy demonstrated that all samples have similar microstructure morphology but differ in the range of grain sizes. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that these materials crystallize in a (Fm-3m) cubic crystal structure, and also confirmed the tolerance factor. Rietveld analysis revealed that the lattice parameter decreased from 8.11834 to 8.039361 Å when the substitution of Ba2+ with Sr2+ cations increased from zero to 100%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies displayed a symmetric stretching vibration of WO6 octahedra at 825 cm−1, and an anti-symmetric stretching mode of WO6 was observed by FTIR at 620 cm−1. A strong peak at 420 cm−1 was also observed in the Raman spectra and is due to the W–O–W bending vibration modes. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was carried out for the series, and the band gap energy decreased from 3.27 eV for Ba2ZnWO6 to 3.02 and 3.06 eV for Ba1.75Sr0.25ZnWO6 and Ba1.5Sr0.5ZnWO6, respectively. The excitation and emission photoluminescence properties were investigated at room temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part II—Comparison with Experimental Results
Materials 2017, 10(5), 470; doi:10.3390/ma10050470
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account
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Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account the energy accumulation by the solid material, the anisotropic heat conduction, the thermal decomposition of the material, the gas mass flow into the composite, and the internal pressure. Thermophysical properties defined as temperature dependant properties were characterised using existing as well as innovative methodologies in order to use them as inputs into our physical model. The 3D thermochemical model accurately predicts the measured mass loss and observed decomposition front when the carbon fibre/epoxy composite is directly impacted by a propane flame. In short, the model shows its capability to predict the fire behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced composite for fire safety engineering. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions
Materials 2017, 10(5), 471; doi:10.3390/ma10050471
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading
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Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Stress Relaxation Behavior of Polymers Reinforced with Short Elastic Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(5), 472; doi:10.3390/ma10050472
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Although it has been experimentally shown that the addition of short-fibers slows the stress relaxation process in composites, the underlying phenomenon is complex and not well understood. Previous studies have proposed that fibers slow the relaxation process by either hindering the movement of
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Although it has been experimentally shown that the addition of short-fibers slows the stress relaxation process in composites, the underlying phenomenon is complex and not well understood. Previous studies have proposed that fibers slow the relaxation process by either hindering the movement of nearby polymeric chains or by creating additional covalent bonds at the fiber-matrix interface that must be broken before bulk relaxation can occur. In this study, we propose a simplified analytical model that explicitly accounts for the influence of polymer viscoelasticity on shear stress transfer to the fibers. This model adequately explains the effect of fiber addition on the relaxation behavior without the need to postulate structural changes at the fiber-matrix interface. The model predictions were compared to those from Monte Carlo finite-element simulations, and good agreement between the two was observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Partial Crystallization on the Structural and Luminescence Properties of Er3+-Doped Phosphate Glasses
Materials 2017, 10(5), 473; doi:10.3390/ma10050473
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Er-doped phosphate glass ceramics were fabricated by melt-quenching technique followed by a heat treatment. The effect of the crystallization on the structural and luminescence properties of phosphate glasses containing Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO was investigated. The morphological
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Er-doped phosphate glass ceramics were fabricated by melt-quenching technique followed by a heat treatment. The effect of the crystallization on the structural and luminescence properties of phosphate glasses containing Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO was investigated. The morphological and structural properties of the glass ceramics were characterized by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the luminescence spectra and the lifetime values were measured in order to study the influence of the crystallization on the spectroscopic properties of the glasses. The volume ratio between the crystal and the glassy phases increased along with the duration of the heat treatment. The crystallization of the glass ceramics was confirmed by the presence of sharp peaks in the XRD patterns and different crystal phases were identified depending on the glass composition. Sr(PO3)2 crystals were found to precipitate in all the investigated glasses. As evidenced by the spectroscopic properties, the site of the Er3+ ions was not strongly affected by the heat treatment except for the fully crystallized glass ceramic which does not contain Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO. An increase of the lifetime was also observed after the heat treatment of this glass. Therefore, we suspect that the Er3+ ions are incorporated in the precipitated crystals only in this glass ceramic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Multiferroic Properties of YMnO3 Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Along with Low-Temperature Solid-State Reaction
Materials 2017, 10(5), 474; doi:10.3390/ma10050474
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, phase-pure YMnO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity YMnO3 ceramics
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Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, phase-pure YMnO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity YMnO3 ceramics can be prepared by SPS at 1000 °C for 5 minutes with annealing at 800 °C for 2 h. The relative density of the sample is as high as 97%, which is much higher than those of the samples sintered by other methods. The present dielectric and magnetic properties are much better than those of the samples fabricated by conventional methods and SPS with ball-milling precursors, and the ferroelectric loops at room temperature can be detected. These findings indicate that the YMnO3 ceramics prepared by the low temperature solid reaction method and SPS possess excellent dielectric lossy ferroelectric properties at room temperature, and magnetic properties at low temperature (10 K), making them suitable for potential multiferroic applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation, Characterization and Application of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Recognition of Sulpiride
Materials 2017, 10(5), 475; doi:10.3390/ma10050475
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
A novel molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) was prepared by bulk polymerization using sulpiride as the template molecule, itaconic acid (ITA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. The formation of the MIP was determined as the molar ratio
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A novel molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) was prepared by bulk polymerization using sulpiride as the template molecule, itaconic acid (ITA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. The formation of the MIP was determined as the molar ratio of sulpiride-ITA-EGDMA of 1:4:15 by single-factor experiments. The MIP showed good adsorption property with imprinting factor α of 5.36 and maximum adsorption capacity of 61.13 μmol/g, and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and surface area analysis. With the structural analogs (amisulpride, tiapride, lidocaine and cisapride) and small molecules containing a mono-functional group (p-toluenesulfonamide, formamide and 1-methylpyrrolidine) as substrates, static adsorption, kinetic adsorption, and rebinding experiments were also performed to investigate the selective adsorption ability, kinetic characteristic, and recognition mechanism of the MIP. A serial study suggested that the highly selective recognition ability of the MIP mainly depended on binding sites provided by N-functional groups of amide and amine. Moreover, the MIP as solid-phase extractant was successfully applied to extraction of sulpiride from the mixed solution (consisted of p-toluenesulfonamide, sulfamethoxazole, sulfanilamide, p-nitroaniline, acetanilide and trimethoprim) and serum sample, and extraction recoveries ranged from 81.57% to 86.63%. The tentative tests of drug release in stimulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) demonstrated that the tablet with the MIP–sulpiride could obviously inhibit sulpiride release rate. Thus, ITA-based MIP is an efficient and promising alternative to solid-phase adsorbent for extraction of sulpiride and removal of interferences in biosample analysis, and could be used as a potential carrier for controlled drug release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Drug Delivery and Biomedical Consideration)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Thermochromic Properties of Cr-Doped Al2O3 for a Reversible Thermochromic Sensor
Materials 2017, 10(5), 476; doi:10.3390/ma10050476
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
An inorganic thermochromic material based on Cr-doped Al2O3 is synthesized using a solid-state method. The crystal structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the synthesized material are analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and
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An inorganic thermochromic material based on Cr-doped Al2O3 is synthesized using a solid-state method. The crystal structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the synthesized material are analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The color performances of the synthesized material are analyzed using a UV-VIS spectrometer. Finally, the thermochromism exhibited by the powdered samples at high temperatures is investigated. The material exhibits exceptional thermochromic property, transitioning from pink to gray or green in a temperature range of 25–600 °C. The change in color is reversible and is dependent on the surrounding temperature and chromium concentration; however, it is independent of the exposure time. This novel property of Cr-doped Al2O3 can be potentially employed in reversible thermochromic sensors that could be used not only for warning users of damage due to overheating when the environmental temperature exceeds certain limits, but also for detecting and monitoring the temperature of various devices, such as aeronautical engine components, hotplates, and furnaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rare Earth Element Yttrium Modified Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructure, Degradation Properties and Hardness
Materials 2017, 10(5), 477; doi:10.3390/ma10050477
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser
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The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser rapid melting. The results showed that the degradation rate of AZ61 magnesium alloy was slowed down by adding Y. This was attributed to the reduction of Mg17Al12 phase and the formation of Al2Y phase that has a more active potential, which decreased galvanic corrosion resulting from its coupling with the anodic matrix phase. Meanwhile, the hardness increased as Y contents increased due to the uniform distribution of the Al2Y and Mg17Al12 phases. However, as the Y contents increased further, the formation of excessive Al2Y phase resulted in the increasing of degradation rate and the decreasing of hardness due to its agglomeration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Vibration of a Linear Carbon Chain in Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2017, 10(5), 478; doi:10.3390/ma10050478
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
An explicit solution for the vibration of a carbon chain inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was obtained using continuum modeling of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between them. The effect of the initial tensile force and the amplitude of the carbon chain as
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An explicit solution for the vibration of a carbon chain inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was obtained using continuum modeling of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between them. The effect of the initial tensile force and the amplitude of the carbon chain as well as the radii of the CNTs on the vibration frequency were analyzed in detail, respectively. Our analytical results show that the vibration frequency of the carbon chain in a (5,5) CNT could be around two orders of magnitude higher than that of an independent carbon chain without initial tensile force. For a given CNT radius, the vibration frequency nonlinearly increases with increasing amplitude and initial tensile force. The obtained analytical cohesive energy and vibration frequency are reasonable by comparison of present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. These findings will be a great help towards understanding the vibration property of a nanowire in nanotubes, and designing nanoelectromechanical devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In-Depth Analysis of the Structure and Properties of Two Varieties of Natural Luffa Sponge Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(5), 479; doi:10.3390/ma10050479
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application because of its polyporous structure and light texture. To enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite
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The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application because of its polyporous structure and light texture. To enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, the current study investigates their water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristics and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain and tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards while their structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and fractured surface of fiber bundles. The test results show that the special structure where the phloem tissues degenerate to cavities had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Additionally, the transverse sectional area occupied by fibers in a fiber bundle (SF), wall thickness, ratio of wall to lumen of fiber cell, and crystallinity of cellulose had substantial impact on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Furthermore, the density of fiber bundles of LS ranged within 385.46–468.70 kg/m3, significantly less than that of jute (1360.40 kg/m3) and Arenga engleri (950.20 kg/m3). However, LS fiber bundles demonstrated superior specific modulus than Arenga engleri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Practical Cluster Models for a Layered β-NiOOH Material
Materials 2017, 10(5), 480; doi:10.3390/ma10050480
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
PDF Full-text (1147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to the high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity, stability, and abundance of NiOx materials, they are found to be promising catalysts, competitive with expensive metal oxides such as IrO2 and RuO2. From a theoretical point of view, studies reported
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Due to the high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity, stability, and abundance of NiOx materials, they are found to be promising catalysts, competitive with expensive metal oxides such as IrO2 and RuO2. From a theoretical point of view, studies reported in the literature so far are mostly based on density functional theory using periodic slab models for the bulk and surface of β-NiOOH, one of the active NiOx phases. However, cluster models are a valid method to investigate many aspects about structure, charge carrier transport properties, and OER activity of β-NiOOH. Hence, here we present new cluster models for the surface of β-NiOOH, where the oxygen atoms are bonded to Mg effective core potentials (ECPs) mimicking neighboring atom cores. This cluster embedding procedure is superior to saturating the cluster with hydrogen atoms, and to using other atomic ECPs for β-NiOOH. We find that layered materials such as β-NiOOH are more vulnerable to geometrical rupture and therefore a cluster approach requires additional care in choosing the embedding approach. We evaluated the models by using them to calculate the energy required for water adsorption and deprotonation, which are essential ingredients for OER. Specifically, our results agree with previous slab models that the first deprotonation reaction step requires a large amount of energy. In addition, we find that water and hydroxyl groups have high adsorption energy and therefore the first deprotonation step is limiting the reaction efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Dentine Bonding Systems against E. faecalis–Flow Cytometry Study
Materials 2017, 10(5), 481; doi:10.3390/ma10050481
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS). Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell
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Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS). Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell number, structural (size, shape), and functional parameters (viability, cell cycle). The LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability assay was used to evaluate an antibacterial activity of DBS by assessing physical membrane disruption of bacteria mediated by DBS. Ten commercial DBSs: four total-etching (TE), four self-etching (SE) and two selective enamel etching (SEE) were tested. Both total-etching DBS ExciTE F and OptiBond Solo Plus showed comparatively low antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. The lowest activity of all tested TE systems showed Te-Econom Bond. Among SE DBS, G-ænial Bond (92.24% dead cells) followed by Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (88.02%) and Panavia F 2.0 ED Primer II (86.67%) showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, which was comparable to isopropranol (positive control). In the present study, self-etching DBS exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than tested total-etching adhesives against E. faecalis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Efficiency Droop Phenomenon in GaN-Based Laser Diodes before Lasing
Materials 2017, 10(5), 482; doi:10.3390/ma10050482
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 30 April 2017
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Abstract
Carrier recombination behavior in c-plane GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) is numerically investigated by using the commercial software LASTIP. It is found that efficiency droop phenomenon does exist in GaN-based LDs before lasing, which is confirmed by experimental results. However, the current
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Carrier recombination behavior in c-plane GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) is numerically investigated by using the commercial software LASTIP. It is found that efficiency droop phenomenon does exist in GaN-based LDs before lasing, which is confirmed by experimental results. However, the current density corresponding to the peak efficiency of GaN-based LDs before lasing, Jmax, is nearly 40 A/cm2, which is much lower than that reported by other studies. The reported Jmax, measured from the cavity facet side is modulated by the absorption of quantum wells, which shifts the Jmax to a higher value. In addition, the currents due to various recombinations are calculated. It is found that Auger recombination affects the threshold current greatly, but it only plays a small role at high current injection levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide Bandgap Semiconductors: Growth, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication Enhanced Ferromagnetism in Nanoscale GaN:Mn Wires Grown on GaN Ridges
Materials 2017, 10(5), 483; doi:10.3390/ma10050483
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
The problem of weak magnetism has hindered the application of magnetic semiconductors since their invention, and on the other hand, the magnetic mechanism of GaN-based magnetic semiconductors has been the focus of long-standing debate. In this work, nanoscale GaN:Mn wires were grown on
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The problem of weak magnetism has hindered the application of magnetic semiconductors since their invention, and on the other hand, the magnetic mechanism of GaN-based magnetic semiconductors has been the focus of long-standing debate. In this work, nanoscale GaN:Mn wires were grown on the top of GaN ridges by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer shows that its ferromagnetism is greatly enhanced. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveal an obvious increase of Mn composition in the nanowire part, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS mapping results further indicate the correlation between the abundant stacking faults (SFs) and high Mn doping. When further combined with the micro-Raman results, the magnetism in GaN:Mn might be related not only to Mn concentration, but also to some kinds of built-in defects introduced together with the Mn doping or the SFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Grown by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Growth of CuO Nanorods on Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Synergistic Effect on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate
Materials 2017, 10(5), 484; doi:10.3390/ma10050484
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
Novel graphitic carbon nitride/CuO (g-C3N4/CuO) nanocomposite was synthesized through a facile precipitation method. Due to the strong ion-dipole interaction between copper ions and nitrogen atoms of g-C3N4, CuO nanorods (length 200–300 nm, diameter 5–10 nm)
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Novel graphitic carbon nitride/CuO (g-C3N4/CuO) nanocomposite was synthesized through a facile precipitation method. Due to the strong ion-dipole interaction between copper ions and nitrogen atoms of g-C3N4, CuO nanorods (length 200–300 nm, diameter 5–10 nm) were directly grown on g-C3N4, forming a g-C3N4/CuO nanocomposite, which was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Finally, thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) in the absence and presence of the prepared g-C3N4/CuO nanocomposite was examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The g-C3N4/CuO nanocomposite showed promising catalytic effects for the thermal decomposition of AP. Upon addition of 2 wt % nanocomposite with the best catalytic performance (g-C3N4/20 wt % CuO), the decomposition temperature of AP was decreased by up to 105.5 °C and only one decomposition step was found instead of the two steps commonly reported in other examples, demonstrating the synergistic catalytic activity of the as-synthesized nanocomposite. This study demonstrated a successful example regarding the direct growth of metal oxide on g-C3N4 by ion-dipole interaction between metallic ions, and the lone pair electrons on nitrogen atoms, which could provide a novel strategy for the preparation of g-C3N4-based nanocomposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Performance of Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in Pearlitic Steel Rods: The Role of Residual Stresses Generated by Fatigue Precracking
Materials 2017, 10(5), 485; doi:10.3390/ma10050485
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
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Abstract
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals is an issue of major concern in engineering since this phenomenon causes many catastrophic failures of structural components in aggressive environments. SCC is even more harmful under cathodic conditions promoting the phenomenon known as hydrogen assisted cracking
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Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals is an issue of major concern in engineering since this phenomenon causes many catastrophic failures of structural components in aggressive environments. SCC is even more harmful under cathodic conditions promoting the phenomenon known as hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC), hydrogen assisted fracture (HAF) or hydrogen embrittlement (HE). A common way to assess the susceptibility of a given material to HAC, HAF or HE is to subject a cracked rod to a constant extension rate tension (CERT) test until it fractures in this harsh environment. This paper analyzes the influence of a residual stress field generated by fatigue precracking on the sample’s posterior susceptibility to HAC. To achieve this goal, numerical simulations were carried out of hydrogen diffusion assisted by the stress field. Firstly, a mechanical simulation of the fatigue precracking was developed for revealing the residual stress field after diverse cyclic loading scenarios and posterior stress field evolution during CERT loading. Afterwards, a simulation of hydrogen diffusion assisted by stress was carried out considering the residual stresses after fatigue and the superposed rising stresses caused by CERT loading. Results reveal the key role of the residual stress field after fatigue precracking in the HAC phenomena in cracked steel rods as well as the beneficial effect of compressive residual stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Spectral Properties of Er3+/Tm3+ Co-Doped ZBLAN Glasses and Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(5), 486; doi:10.3390/ma10050486
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
A series of Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped fluoride (ZBLAN) glasses and fibers was prepared and their fluorescence spectra was measured under excitation at 793 nm and 980 nm. Correlation between the self-absorption effect of rare-earth ions and the shift of the emission
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A series of Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped fluoride (ZBLAN) glasses and fibers was prepared and their fluorescence spectra was measured under excitation at 793 nm and 980 nm. Correlation between the self-absorption effect of rare-earth ions and the shift of the emission peak was investigated. With the increasing length of fiber, the emission peaks red-shift when self-absorption occurs at the upper level of emission transition or blue-shift when that occurs at the lower level. As a result of the strong self-absorption effect, Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped fibers mainly yield 1390–1470, 1850–1980, and 2625–2750 nm emissions when excited at 793 nm, and 1480–1580, 1800–1980, and 2625–2750 nm emissions when excited at 980 nm. Further, a broadband emission in the range of 1410–1580 nm covering the S + C communication band was obtained by the dual-pumping scheme of 793 nm and 980 nm. Results suggest that the dual-pumping scheme would be more effective and important for an Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped fiber amplifier working in the S + C communication band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Cationic Block Structure on the Characteristics of Sludge Flocs Formed by Charge Neutralization and Patching
Materials 2017, 10(5), 487; doi:10.3390/ma10050487
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a template copolymer (TPAA) of (3-Acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AATPAC) and acrylamide (AM) was successfully synthesized though ultrasonic-initiated template copolymerization (UTP), using sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as a template. TPAA was characterized by an evident cationic microblock structure which was observed through
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In this study, a template copolymer (TPAA) of (3-Acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AATPAC) and acrylamide (AM) was successfully synthesized though ultrasonic-initiated template copolymerization (UTP), using sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as a template. TPAA was characterized by an evident cationic microblock structure which was observed through the analyses of the reactivity ratio, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H (13C) NMR), and thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC). The introduction of the template could improve the monomer (AATPAC) reactivity ratio and increase the length and amount of AATPAC segments. This novel cationic microblock structure extremely enhanced the ability of charge neutralization, patching, and bridging, thus improving the activated sludge flocculation performance. The experiments of floc formation, breakage, and regrowth revealed that the cationic microblock structure in the copolymer resulted in large and compact flocs, and these flocs had a rapid regrowth when broken. Finally, the larger and more compact flocs contributed to the formation of more channels and voids, and therefore the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reached a minimum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Correlation of Pore Size and Bioactivity of Spray-Pyrolyzed Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses
Materials 2017, 10(5), 488; doi:10.3390/ma10050488
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
SiO2–CaO–P2O5-based mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis in this study. Three commonly used non-ionic tri-block copolymers (L121, P123, and F127) with various lengths of hydrophilic chains were applied as structural templates to achieve different
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SiO2–CaO–P2O5-based mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) were synthesized by spray pyrolysis in this study. Three commonly used non-ionic tri-block copolymers (L121, P123, and F127) with various lengths of hydrophilic chains were applied as structural templates to achieve different pore sizes. A mesoporous structure was observed in each as-prepared specimen, and the results showed that the L121-treated MBG had the largest pore size. The results of bioactivity tests indicated that the growth of hydroxyapatite is related to the pore size of the materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Drug Delivery and Biomedical Consideration)
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Open AccessArticle Gallic Acid as an Oxygen Scavenger in Bio-Based Multilayer Packaging Films
Materials 2017, 10(5), 489; doi:10.3390/ma10050489
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and
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Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and lamination. We investigated the film surface color as well as oxygen absorption at different relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures, and compared the oxygen absorption of OSc powder, monolayer films, and multilayer films. The films were initially brownish-red in color but changed to greenish-black during oxygen absorption under humid conditions. We observed a maximum absorption capacity of 447 mg O2/g GA at 21 °C and 100% RH. The incorporation of GA into a polymer matrix reduced the rate of oxygen absorption compared to the GA powder because the polymer acted as a barrier to oxygen and water vapor diffusion. As expected, the temperature had a significant effect on the initial absorption rate of the multilayer films; the corresponding activation energy was 75.4 kJ/mol. Higher RH significantly increased the oxygen absorption rate. These results demonstrate for the first time the production and the properties of a bio-based multilayer packaging film with GA as the oxygen scavenger. Potential applications include the packaging of food products with high water activity (aw > 0.86). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Polymers for Packaging Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Present SP Tests for Determining the Transition Temperature TSP on “U” Notch Disc Specimens
Materials 2017, 10(5), 490; doi:10.3390/ma10050490
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch.
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The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch. Especially in tough materials, the temperature dependence of SP fracture energy ESP in the transition area is very steep and lies close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. In this case, the determination of SP transition temperature TSP can lead to significant errors in its determination. Efforts to move the transition area of penetration testing closer to the transition area of standardized impact tests led to the proposal of the notched disc specimen 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness with a “U” shaped notch 0.2 mm deep in the axis plane of the disc. The paper summarizes the results obtained to date when determining the transition temperature of SP tests TSP, determined according to CWA 15627 for material of pipes made of P92, P22, and a heat treated 14MoV6-3 steel in the as delivered state. Although the results obtained confirmed the results of other works in that the presence of a notch in a SP disc is insufficient to increase the transition temperature significantly and certainly not to the values obtained by Charpy testing, comparison of the different behaviors of the alloys tested reveals some evidence that the notch reduces the energy for initiation. This implies that the test on a notched disc is more a test of crack growth and would be a useful instrument if included in the forthcoming EU standard for SP testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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Open AccessArticle The Mechanical Behavior of HAVAR Foils Using the Small Punch Technique
Materials 2017, 10(5), 491; doi:10.3390/ma10050491
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Prediction of the mechanical behavior of thin foils (~25 µm) requires special characterization techniques. The current work is focused on the mechanical and microstructural characterization of 25 µm HAVAR alloy foils following annealing, cold rolling, and subsequent heat treatments, using small punch testing
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Prediction of the mechanical behavior of thin foils (~25 µm) requires special characterization techniques. The current work is focused on the mechanical and microstructural characterization of 25 µm HAVAR alloy foils following annealing, cold rolling, and subsequent heat treatments, using small punch testing (SPT), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission-scanning electron microscopy (TEM). The SPT technique revealed that the annealed specimens exhibited the largest maximal load to failure and deformation (more than two-fold), compared to the cold rolled and heat treated conditions. The microscopy observations revealed high dislocation density following cold rolling and subsequent heat treatments. Following annealing, a cubic crystallographic structure (FCC) with equiaxed grains and a limited dislocation population was observed. Following cold rolling and subsequent thermal treatment, a preferred orientation texture (i.e., ‘deformation texture’) was observed with a very high dislocation density. The correlation between the mechanical behavior and the microstructural observations is discussed in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prediction Model for the Carbonation of Post-Repair Materials in Carbonated RC Structures
Materials 2017, 10(5), 492; doi:10.3390/ma10050492
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Concrete carbonation damages the passive film that surrounds reinforcement bars, resulting in their exposure to corrosion. Studies on the prediction of concrete carbonation are thus of great significance. The repair of pre-built reinforced concrete (RC) structures by methods such as remodeling was recently
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Concrete carbonation damages the passive film that surrounds reinforcement bars, resulting in their exposure to corrosion. Studies on the prediction of concrete carbonation are thus of great significance. The repair of pre-built reinforced concrete (RC) structures by methods such as remodeling was recently introduced. While many studies have been conducted on the progress of carbonation in newly constructed buildings and RC structures fitted with new repair materials, the prediction of post-repair carbonation has not been considered. In the present study, accelerated carbonation was carried out to investigate RC structures following surface layer repair, in order to determine the carbonation depth. To validate the obtained results, a second experiment was performed under the same conditions to determine the carbonation depth by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Element Method (FEM). For the accelerated carbonation experiment, FDM and FEM analyses, produced very similar results, thus confirming that the carbonation depth in an RC structure after surface layer repair can be predicted with accuracy. The specimen repaired using inhibiting surface coating (ISC) had the highest carbonation penetration of 19.81, while this value was the lowest for the corrosion inhibiting mortar (IM) with 13.39 mm. In addition, the carbonation depth predicted by using the carbonation prediction formula after repair indicated that that the analytical and experimental values are almost identical if the initial concentration of Ca(OH)2 is assumed to be 52%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part I—Characterisation of Thermophysical Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 494; doi:10.3390/ma10050494
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal
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Thermophysical properties of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite for aircraft structures) were evaluated using different innovative characterisation methods. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Simultaneous Thermal analysis (STA), Laser Flash analysis (LFA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis were used for measuring the thermal decomposition, the specific heat capacity, the anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite, the heats of decomposition and the specific heat capacity of released gases. It permits to get input data to feed a three-dimensional (3D) model given the temperature profile and the mass loss obtained during well-defined fire scenarios (model presented in Part II of this paper). The measurements were optimised to get accurate data. The data also permit to create a public database on an aeronautical carbon fibre/epoxy composite for fire safety engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Photoactive Nanomaterials Inspired by Nature: LTL Zeolite Doped with Laser Dyes as Artificial Light Harvesting Systems
Materials 2017, 10(5), 495; doi:10.3390/ma10050495
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The herein reported work describes the development of hierarchically-organized fluorescent nanomaterials inspired by plant antenna systems. These hybrid materials are based on nanostructured zeolitic materials (LTL zeolite) doped with laser dyes, which implies a synergism between organic and inorganic moieties. The non-interconnected channeled
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The herein reported work describes the development of hierarchically-organized fluorescent nanomaterials inspired by plant antenna systems. These hybrid materials are based on nanostructured zeolitic materials (LTL zeolite) doped with laser dyes, which implies a synergism between organic and inorganic moieties. The non-interconnected channeled structure and pore dimensions (7.1 Å) of the inorganic host are ideal to order and align the allocated fluorophores inside, inferring also high thermal and chemical stability. These artificial antennae harvest a broad range of chromatic radiation and convert it into predominant red-edge or alternatively white-light emission, just choosing the right dye combination and concentration ratio to modulate the efficiency of the ongoing energy transfer hops. A further degree of organization can be achieved by functionalizing the channel entrances of LTL zeolite with specific tailor-made (stopcock) molecules via a covalent linkage. These molecules plug the channels to avoid the leakage of the guest molecules absorbed inside, as well as connect the inner space of the zeolite with the outside thanks to energy transfer processes, making the coupling of the material with external devices easier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Ziegler–Natta Propylene Polymerization Catalysts by Spectroscopic Methods
Materials 2017, 10(5), 496; doi:10.3390/ma10050496
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
Ziegler–Natta polymerization catalysts were characterized by a complex of surface- and bulk-sensitive methods (DRIFTS, XPS, ESR, and XAS = XANES + EXAFS). A diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) study showed the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in different concentrations and absence of
[...] Read more.
Ziegler–Natta polymerization catalysts were characterized by a complex of surface- and bulk-sensitive methods (DRIFTS, XPS, ESR, and XAS = XANES + EXAFS). A diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) study showed the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in different concentrations and absence of strong basic sites in the polymerization catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-spin resonance (ESR), and (X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed the presence of Ti4+, Ti3+, Ti2+, and Ti1+ species in the surface layers and in the bulk of catalysts. The samples under study differ drastically in terms of the number of ESR-visible paramagnetic sites. The EXAFS study shows the presence of a Cl atom as a nearest neighbor of the absorbing Ti atom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of Nylon Harp Strings
Materials 2017, 10(5), 497; doi:10.3390/ma10050497
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
Monofilament nylon strings with a range of diameters, commercially marketed as harp strings, have been tested to establish their long-term mechanical properties. Once a string had settled into a desired stress state, the Young’s modulus was measured by a variety of methods that
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Monofilament nylon strings with a range of diameters, commercially marketed as harp strings, have been tested to establish their long-term mechanical properties. Once a string had settled into a desired stress state, the Young’s modulus was measured by a variety of methods that probe different time-scales. The modulus was found to be a strong function of testing frequency and also a strong function of stress. Strings were also subjected to cyclical variations of temperature, allowing various thermal properties to be measured: the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and the thermal sensitivities of tuning, Young’s modulus and density. The results revealed that the particular strings tested are divided into two groups with very different properties: stress-strain behaviour differing by a factor of two and some parametric sensitivities even having the opposite sign. Within each group, correlation studies allowed simple functional fits to be found to the key properties, which have the potential to be used in automated tuning systems for harp strings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Investigation into the Properties and Microstructure of Cement Mixtures Modified with Cellulose Nanocrystal
Materials 2017, 10(5), 498; doi:10.3390/ma10050498
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper aims to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the hydration, transport behavior, and microstructure of cement mixtures. The addition of CNC delayed hydration at an early age but improved hydration at later ages. A small increase in the electrical
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This paper aims to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the hydration, transport behavior, and microstructure of cement mixtures. The addition of CNC delayed hydration at an early age but improved hydration at later ages. A small increase in the electrical resistivity of the cement mixtures with CNC was observed. Statistical nanoindentation showed a small tendency to a larger volume fraction of high density calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) and a smaller volume fraction of low-density C-S-H in the mixture with CNC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Compression Properties and Electrical Conductivity of In-Situ 20 vol.% Nano-Sized TiCx/Cu Composites with Different Particle Size and Morphology
Materials 2017, 10(5), 499; doi:10.3390/ma10050499
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (22737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiCx/Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiCx/Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σ
[...] Read more.
The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiCx/Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiCx/Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σUCS), yield strength (σ0.2), and electric conductivity, compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of cubic-TiCx/Cu composite increased by 4.37%, 20.7%, and 17.8% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (526 MPa, 183 MPa, and 55.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, IACS). Spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average particle size of ~94 nm exhibited higher ultimate compression strength, yield strength, and electrical conductivity compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with 46 nm in size. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average size of ~94 nm in size increased by 17.8%, 33.9%, and 62.5% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (417 MPa, 121 MPa, and 40.3% IACS) with particle size of 49 nm, respectively. Cubic-shaped TiCx particles with sharp corners and edges led to stress/strain localization, which enhanced the compression strength of the composites. The agglomeration of spherical-TiCx particles with small size led to the compression strength reduction of the composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Thermo-Oxidative Ageing on the Thermal and Dynamical Mechanical Properties of Long Glass Fibre-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Composites Filled with DOPO
Materials 2017, 10(5), 500; doi:10.3390/ma10050500
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time
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In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time at 120 °C were investigated and analysed. The results showed that the mechanical properties decreased in the primary stage of ageing, while embrittlement occurs in the later period, and the crystallinity of PBT decreases first, and then recovers to some extent. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos of the samples indicated that the obvious crack appeared on the sample surface and a deeper, broader crack occurred with a longer ageing time. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) proved the DOPO filler diffused to the sample surface by measuring the content of phosphorus. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves showed that the thermal stabilities of composites increased with longer ageing time, as did the values of the limited oxygen index (LOI). Meanwhile, the results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the glass transition temperature shifted to a higher temperature after ageing due to the effect of crosslinking, and both the crosslinking and degradation of PBT molecular chains act as the main factors in the whole process of thermo-oxidative ageing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calcium Silicate/Chitosan-Coated Electrospun Poly (Lactic Acid) Fibers for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2017, 10(5), 501; doi:10.3390/ma10050501
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
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Abstract
Electrospinning technology allows fabrication of nano- or microfibrous fibers with inorganic and organic matrix and it is widely applied in bone tissue engineering as it allows precise control over the shapes and structures of the fibers. Natural bone has an ordered composition of
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Electrospinning technology allows fabrication of nano- or microfibrous fibers with inorganic and organic matrix and it is widely applied in bone tissue engineering as it allows precise control over the shapes and structures of the fibers. Natural bone has an ordered composition of organic fibers with dispersion of inorganic apatite among them. In this study, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) mats were fabricated with electrospinning and coated with chitosan (CH)/calcium silicate (CS) mixer. The microstructure, chemical component, and contact angle of CS/CH-PLA composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro, various CS/CH-coated PLA mats increased the formation of hydroxyapatite on the specimens’ surface when soaked in cell cultured medium. During culture, several biological characteristics of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on CS/CH-PLA groups were promoted as compared to those on pure PLA mat. Increased secretion levels of Collagen I and fibronectin were observed in calcium silicate-powder content. Furthermore, with comparison to PLA mats without CS/CH, CS10 and CS15 mats markedly enhanced the proliferation of hMSCs and their osteogenesis properties, which was characterized by osteogenic-related gene expression. These results clearly demonstrated that the biodegradable and electroactive CS/CH-PLA composite mats are an ideal and suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Chromium(VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution by Magnetite Coated by a Polymeric Ionic Liquid-Based Adsorbent
Materials 2017, 10(5), 502; doi:10.3390/ma10050502
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
An evaluation of the chromium(VI) adsorption capacity of four magnetite sorbents coated with a polymer phase containing polymethacrylic acid or polyallyl-3-methylimidazolium is presented. Factors that influence the chromium(VI) removal such as solution pH and contact time were investigated in batch experiments and in
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An evaluation of the chromium(VI) adsorption capacity of four magnetite sorbents coated with a polymer phase containing polymethacrylic acid or polyallyl-3-methylimidazolium is presented. Factors that influence the chromium(VI) removal such as solution pH and contact time were investigated in batch experiments and in stirred tank reactor mode. Affinity and rate constants increased with the molar ratio of the imidazolium. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 2.0 due to the contribution of electrostatic interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle A Reagentless Amperometric Formaldehyde-Selective Chemosensor Based on Platinized Gold Electrodes
Materials 2017, 10(5), 503; doi:10.3390/ma10050503
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes
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Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis. Using a low working potential (0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) enabled an essential increase in the chemosensor’s selectivity for the target analyte. The sensitivity of the best chemosensor prototype to formaldehyde is uniquely high (28180 A·M−1·m−2) with a detection limit of 0.05 mM. The chemosensor remained stable over a one-year storage period. The formaldehye-selective chemosensor was tested on samples of commercial preparations. A high correlation was demonstrated between the results obtained by the proposed chemosensor, chemical and enzymatic methods (R = 0.998). The developed formaldehyde-selective amperometric chemosensor is very promising for use in industry and research, as well as for environmental control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Emulsified Asphalt on the Mechanical Property and Microstructure of Cement-Stabilized Gravel under Freezing and Thawing Cycle Conditions
Materials 2017, 10(5), 504; doi:10.3390/ma10050504
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
PDF Full-text (11668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Properties of cement-stabilized gravel modified by emulsified asphalt under freezing and thawing cycle conditions were investigated by adjusting the dosage of cement. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were introduced to analyze the influential mechanism. The results indicate that cement
[...] Read more.
Properties of cement-stabilized gravel modified by emulsified asphalt under freezing and thawing cycle conditions were investigated by adjusting the dosage of cement. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were introduced to analyze the influential mechanism. The results indicate that cement emulsified asphalt stabilized gravel with 5 wt % of cement performed well in both mechanics and frost-resistance. Although the addition of emulsified asphalt would lead to a partial decrease of strength, it can extend the process of strength loss and improve the freezing resistance. The main reason for this is that the permeability can be improved by the filling effects of emulsified asphalt. The frost-heave stress caused by the phase transition of water can also be remitted by emulsified asphalt, the elasticity modulus of which is much lower than the matrix. The generating speed of the micro crack can also be slowed down by emulsified asphalt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler
Materials 2017, 10(5), 505; doi:10.3390/ma10050505
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of
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This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapis alba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303), negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Tuning the Mechanical and Antimicrobial Performance of a Cu-Based Metallic Glass Composite through Cooling Rate Control and Annealing
Materials 2017, 10(5), 506; doi:10.3390/ma10050506
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al7 (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h)
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The influence of cooling rate on the wear and antimicrobial performance of a Cu52Z41Al7 (at. %) bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite was studied and the results compared to those of the annealed sample (850 °C for 48 h) and to pure copper. The aim of this basic research is to explore the potential use of the material in preventing the spread of infections. The cooling rate is controlled by changing the mould diameter (2 mm and 3 mm) upon suction casting and controlling the mould temperature (chiller on and off). For the highest cooling rate conditions CuZr is formed but CuZr2 starts to crystallise as the cooling rate decreases, resulting in an increase in the wear resistance and brittleness, as measured by scratch tests. A decrease in the cooling rate also increases the antimicrobial performance, as shown by different methodologies (European, American and Japanese standards). Annealing leads to the formation of new intermetallic phases (Cu10Zr7 and Cu2ZrAl) resulting in maximum scratch hardness and antimicrobial performance. However, the annealed sample corrodes during the antimicrobial tests (within 1 h of contact with broth). The antibacterial activity of copper was proved to be higher than that of any of the other materials tested but it exhibits very poor wear properties. Cu-rich BMG composites with optimised microstructure would be preferable for some applications where the durability requirements are higher than the antimicrobial needs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Relationships between Waste Cooking Oil Qualities and Rejuvenated Asphalt Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 508; doi:10.3390/ma10050508
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects
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Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of WCO viscosity and acid value on the basic, rheological, and chemical properties of a typical rejuvenated asphalt. Penetration, ring and ball (R and B) softening point, and ductility were tested to evaluate the influence of WCO qualities on basic properties of rejuvenated asphalts. Then, the rheological properties of rejuvenated asphalt were characterized based on rotational viscometer (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test results. Further, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were performed to investigate the effects of WCO qualities on asphalt chemical composition. Finally, grey correlation coefficients were calculated and the relationships between WCO qualities and rejuvenated asphalt properties were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results indicated that WCO qualities influence the rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt significantly, and the WCO with higher qualities (low acid value and viscosity, as defined in this research) tends to achieve better rejuvenation effects. Based on the results of grey correlation analyses, the acid value is, relatively, a better indicator than viscosity in predicting the rejuvenation efficiency of WCO. The rejuvenation thresholds of WCO are varied with the categories of properties of rejuvenated asphalts, and WCO with an acid value of 0.4–0.7 mg KOH/g, or a viscosity of 140–540 mm2/s, can meet all of the performance requirements for asphalt rejuvenation used in this research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Organic Solid-State Tri-Wavelength Lasing from Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal and a Distributed Feedback Laser with a Doped Laser Dye and a Semiconducting Polymer Film
Materials 2017, 10(5), 509; doi:10.3390/ma10050509
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
Organic solid-state tri-wavelength lasing was demonstrated from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) distributed feedback (DFB) laser with semiconducting polymer poly[-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and laser dye [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM) by a one-step holography technique, which centered at 605.5 nm, 611.9 nm, and 671.1 nm. The
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Organic solid-state tri-wavelength lasing was demonstrated from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) distributed feedback (DFB) laser with semiconducting polymer poly[-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and laser dye [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM) by a one-step holography technique, which centered at 605.5 nm, 611.9 nm, and 671.1 nm. The temperature-dependence tuning range for the tri-wavelength dye-doped HPDLC DFB laser was as high as 8 nm. The lasing emission from the 9th order HPDLC DFB laser with MEH-PPV as active medium was also investigated, which showed excellent s-polarization characterization. The diffraction order is 9th and 8th for the dual-wavelength lasing with DCM as the active medium. The results of this work provide a method for constructing the compact and cost-effective all solid-state smart laser systems, which may find application in scientific and applied research where multi-wavelength radiation is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystal-Assisted Advanced Functional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings
Materials 2017, 10(5), 510; doi:10.3390/ma10050510
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement
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The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime–flax–hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime–flax–hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced CO2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon Fibers Grafted with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2017, 10(5), 511; doi:10.3390/ma10050511
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, multiscale composites formed by grafting N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNs) on the surface of polyamide (PAN)-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were investigated and their adsorption performance for CO2 was determined. The spaghetti-like and randomly oriented CNs were homogeneously grown onto
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In this paper, multiscale composites formed by grafting N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNs) on the surface of polyamide (PAN)-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were investigated and their adsorption performance for CO2 was determined. The spaghetti-like and randomly oriented CNs were homogeneously grown onto ACFs. The pre-immersion of cobalt(II) ions for ACFs made the CNs grow above with a large pore size distribution, decreased the oxidation resistance, and exhibited different predominant N-functionalities after chemical vapor deposition processes. Specifically, the CNs grafted on ACFs with or without pre-immersion of cobalt(II) ions were characterized by the pyridine-like structures of six-member rings or pyrrolic/amine moieties, respectively. In addition, the loss of microporosity on the specific surface area and pore volume exceeded the gain from the generation of the defects from CNs. The adsorption capacity of CO2 decreased gradually with increasing temperature, implying that CO2 adsorption was exothermic. The adsorption capacities of CO2 at 25 °C and 1 atm were between 1.53 and 1.92 mmol/g and the Freundlich equation fit the adsorption data well. The isosteric enthalpy of adsorption, implying physical adsorption, indicated that the growth of CNTs on the ACFs benefit CO2 adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Femtosecond Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Poly(fluorene) Derivatives Containing Benzoselenadiazole and Benzothiadiazole
Materials 2017, 10(5), 512; doi:10.3390/ma10050512
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
We have investigated the molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties relationship of two push–pull poly(fluorene) derivatives containing benzoselenadiazole and benzothiadiazole units. For that, we have used the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with a low repetition rate (1 kHz) and an energy per
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We have investigated the molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties relationship of two push–pull poly(fluorene) derivatives containing benzoselenadiazole and benzothiadiazole units. For that, we have used the femtosecond wavelength-tunable Z-scan technique with a low repetition rate (1 kHz) and an energy per pulse on the order of nJ. Our results show that both 2PA spectra present a strong 2PA (around 600 GM (1 GM = 1 × 10−50 cm4·s·photon−1)) band at around 720 nm (transition energy 3.45 eV) ascribed to the strongly 2PA-allowed 1Ag-like → mAg-like transition, characteristic of poly(fluorene) derivatives. Another 2PA band related to the intramolecular charge transfer was also observed at around 900 nm (transition energy 2.75 eV). In both 2PA bands, we found higher 2PA cross-section values for the poly(fluorene) containing benzothiadiazole unit. This outcome was explained through the higher charge redistribution at the excited state caused by the benzothiadiazole group as compared to the benzoselenadiazole and confirmed by means of solvatochromic Stokes shift measurements. To shed more light on these results, we employed the sum-over-states approach within the two-energy level model to estimate the maximum permanent dipole moment change related to the intramolecular charge transfer transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Photon Absorption Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A New Energy-Critical Plane Damage Parameter for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Blades
Materials 2017, 10(5), 513; doi:10.3390/ma10050513
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings
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As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings at high temperatures. In this paper, considering different failure types, a new energy-critical plane damage parameter is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction, and no extra fitted material constants will be needed for practical applications. Moreover, three multiaxial models with maximum damage parameters on the critical plane are evaluated under tension-compression and tension-torsion loadings. Experimental data of GH4169 under proportional and non-proportional fatigue loadings and a case study of a turbine disk-blade contact system are introduced for model validation. Results show that model predictions by Wang-Brown (WB) and Fatemi-Socie (FS) models with maximum damage parameters are conservative and acceptable. For the turbine disk-blade contact system, both of the proposed damage parameters and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) model show reasonably acceptable correlations with its field number of flight cycles. However, life estimations of the turbine blade reveal that the definition of the maximum damage parameter is not reasonable for the WB model but effective for both the FS and SWT models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Life of Materials at High Temperatures)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Biodegradation on the Structure and Properties of Windmill Palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) Fibers Using Different Chemical Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(5), 514; doi:10.3390/ma10050514
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
In this work, windmill palm fiber (WPF), alkali-treated fiber (AF) without hemicellulose and bleached fiber (BF) without lignin were prepared and buried in soil for 30, 60 and 90 days. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity degree, mechanical properties, and residual mass rate
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In this work, windmill palm fiber (WPF), alkali-treated fiber (AF) without hemicellulose and bleached fiber (BF) without lignin were prepared and buried in soil for 30, 60 and 90 days. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystallinity degree, mechanical properties, and residual mass rate of the samples, before and after biodegradation, were investigated. According to the results, soil burial degradation can remove the parenchyma cells and silica-bodies of WPF and deplete droplets containing the lignin of alkali-treated fiber after it has been buried for 30 days (AF30), and degradation of the single fiber cell wall of bleached fiber after it has been buried for 30 days (BF30). Buried in natural soil, lignin has a slower degradation rate than that of hemicellulose. WPF showed no significant differences in tensile strength after burial in soil for 90 days, because of the integrity fiber structure decreased the biodegradation. The most serious decrease, about 43%, in tensile strength occurred in AF after it had been buried for 90 days (BF90). This basic knowledge may be helpful for windmill palm fiber applications, especially for biodegradable composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material
Materials 2017, 10(5), 515; doi:10.3390/ma10050515
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation
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This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Macroporous Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites Prepared via Unidirectional Ice Segregation and Subsequent Freeze-Drying
Materials 2017, 10(5), 516; doi:10.3390/ma10050516
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals
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Calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites have gained much interest in recent years for biomedical purposes. In this paper, three-dimensional calcium phosphate chitosan-based composites with different mineral contents were produced using a green method called ice segregation induced self-assembly (ISISA). In this methodology, ice crystals were used as a template to produce porous structures from an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (Hap) also containing acetic acid (pH = 4.5). For better characterization of the nature of the inorganic matter entrapped within the resulting composite, we performed either oxygen plasma or calcination processes to remove the organic matter. The nature of the phosphate salts was studied by XRD and NMR studies. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was identified as the mineral phase in the composites submitted to oxygen plasma, whereas crystalline Hap was obtained after calcination. SEM microscopy revealed the formation of porous structures (porosity around 80–85%) in the original composites, as well as in the inorganic matrices obtained after calcination, with porous channels of up to 50 µm in diameter in the former case and of up to 20 µm in the latter. The biocompatibility of the composites was assessed using two different cell lines: C2C12GFP premyoblastic cells and MC3T3 preosteoblastic cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On-Line Multi-Damage Scanning Spatial-Wavenumber Filter Based Imaging Method for Aircraft Composite Structure
Materials 2017, 10(5), 519; doi:10.3390/ma10050519
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM
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Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF) based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Firstly, an on-line multi-damage SSWF is established, including the fundamental principle of SSWF for multiple damages based on a linear piezoelectric (PZT) sensor array, and a corresponding wavenumber-time imaging mechanism by using the multi-damage scattering signal. Secondly, through combining the on-line multi-damage SSWF and a PZT 2D cross-shaped array, an image-mapping method is proposed to conduct wavenumber synthesis and convert the two wavenumber-time images obtained by the PZT 2D cross-shaped array to an angle-distance image, from which the multiple damages can be directly recognized and located. In the experimental validation, both simulated multi-damage and real multi-damage introduced by repeated impacts are performed on a composite plate structure. The maximum localization error is less than 2 cm, which shows good performance of the multi-damage imaging method. Compared with the existing spatial-wavenumber filter based damage evaluation methods, the proposed method requires no more than the multi-damage scattering signal and can be performed without depending on any wavenumber modeling or measuring. Besides, this method locates multiple damages by imaging instead of the geometric method, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it can be easily applied to on-line multi-damage monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Discrete Element Method Simulations of the Inter-Particle Contact Parameters for the Mono-Sized Iron Ore Particles
Materials 2017, 10(5), 520; doi:10.3390/ma10050520
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract
Aiming at predicting what happens in reality inside mills, the contact parameters of iron ore particles for discrete element method (DEM) simulations should be determined accurately. To allow the irregular shape to be accurately determined, the sphere clump method was employed in modelling
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Aiming at predicting what happens in reality inside mills, the contact parameters of iron ore particles for discrete element method (DEM) simulations should be determined accurately. To allow the irregular shape to be accurately determined, the sphere clump method was employed in modelling the particle shape. The inter-particle contact parameters were systematically altered whilst the contact parameters between the particle and wall were arbitrarily assumed, in order to purely assess its impact on the angle of repose for the mono-sized iron ore particles. Results show that varying the restitution coefficient over the range considered does not lead to any obvious difference in the angle of repose, but the angle of repose has strong sensitivity to the rolling/static friction coefficient. The impacts of the rolling/static friction coefficient on the angle of repose are interrelated, and increasing the inter-particle rolling/static friction coefficient can evidently increase the angle of repose. However, the impact of the static friction coefficient is more profound than that of the rolling friction coefficient. Finally, a predictive equation is established and a very close agreement between the predicted and simulated angle of repose is attained. This predictive equation can enormously shorten the inter-particle contact parameters calibration time that can help in the implementation of DEM simulations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Space Parts: Powder Feedstock Cross-Contamination and Its Impact on End Products
Materials 2017, 10(5), 522; doi:10.3390/ma10050522
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
This work studies the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by laser powder bed based Additive Manufacturing (AM), for different build orientations. The results showed high scattering of the yield and tensile strength and low fracture elongation. The subsequent fractographic investigation revealed the
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This work studies the tensile properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by laser powder bed based Additive Manufacturing (AM), for different build orientations. The results showed high scattering of the yield and tensile strength and low fracture elongation. The subsequent fractographic investigation revealed the presence of tungsten particles on the fracture surface. Hence, its detection and impact on tensile properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V were investigated. X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) scanning indicated that these inclusions were evenly distributed throughout the samples, however the inclusions area was shown to be larger in the load-bearing plane for the vertical specimens. A microstructural study proved that the mostly spherical tungsten particles were embedded in the fully martensitic Ti-6Al-4V AM material. The particle size distribution, the flowability and the morphology of the powder feedstock were investigated and appeared to be in line with observations from other studies. X-ray CT scanning of the powder however made the high density particles visible, where various techniques, commonly used in the certification of powder feedstock, failed to detect the contaminant. As the detection of cross contamination in the powder feedstock proves to be challenging, the use of only one type of powder per AM equipment is recommended for critical applications such as Space parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Laser Impact Welding of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloys to Crystalline Copper
Materials 2017, 10(5), 523; doi:10.3390/ma10050523
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers’ attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in
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Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers’ attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in industry. In this paper, a new method of welding Fe-based amorphous alloys (GB1K101) to crystalline copper by laser impact welding (LIW) is investigated. A series of experiments was conducted under different laser energies, during which Fe-based amorphous alloys and crystalline copper were welded successfully by LIW. In addition, the microstructure and mechanical properties of welding joints were observed and measured, respectively. The results showed that the surface wave and springback were observed on the flyer plate after LIW. The welding interface was straight or wavy due to different plastic deformation under different laser energies. The welding interface was directly bonded tightly without visible defects. No visible element diffusion and intermetallic phases were found in the welding interface. The Fe-based amorphous alloys retained amorphous structures after LIW under the laser energy of 835 mJ. The nanoindentation hardness across the welding interface showed an increase on both sides of the welding interface. The results of the lap shearing test showed that the fracture position was on the side of copper coil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle High-Strength Konjac Glucomannan/Silver Nanowires Composite Films with Antibacterial Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 524; doi:10.3390/ma10050524
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property
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Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and antimicrobial tests. The results showed that there was a high ratio of Ag NWs uniformly distributed in the composite films, which was vital for mechanical reinforcement and stable antibacterial properties. The enhanced thermal stability and mechanical intensity increased, while the elongation at break was reduced with an increase in the amount of Ag NWs found in the composite films. When the percentage of Ag NWs in the composite films reached 5%, the tensile strength was 148.21 MPa, Young’s modulus was 13.79 GPa and the ultimate strain was 25.28%. Antibacterial tests showed that the KGM films had no antibacterial effect. After the addition of Ag NWs, the composite films had an obvious inhibitory effect on bacteria, with the uniform dispersion of Ag NWs promoting the antibacterial effect to a certain degree. These results indicated that these composite films would have a potential application in the fields of environmentally friendly packaging or medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating
Materials 2017, 10(5), 525; doi:10.3390/ma10050525
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
PDF Full-text (4756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low
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Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Cellulose with Succinic Anhydride in TBAA/DMSO Mixed Solvent under Catalyst-Free Conditions
Materials 2017, 10(5), 526; doi:10.3390/ma10050526
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
PDF Full-text (3235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The
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Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS) value of 1.191 was obtained in a 10 wt% TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent at 60 °C for 60 min, and the molar ratio of SA/AGU was 6/1. The molar ratio of SA/AGU and the TBAA dosage showed a significant influence on the reaction. The succinoylated cellulose was characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, XRD, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR), and SEM. Moreover, the modified cellulose was applied for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and both the DS values of modified cellulose and pH of the heavy metal ion solutions affected the adsorption capacity of succinylated cellulose. The highest capacity for Cu2+ and Cd2+ adsorption was 42.05 mg/g and 49.0 mg/g, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs
Materials 2017, 10(5), 527; doi:10.3390/ma10050527
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but
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This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetocaloric Properties of Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5−xGex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) Compounds
Materials 2017, 10(5), 529; doi:10.3390/ma10050529
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Intermetallic compounds with the overall formula Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5-xGex (x varies from 0 to 0.1) were investigated in order to study their magnetocaloric effect by monitoring the adiabatic temperature change, magnetic entropy change and their
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Intermetallic compounds with the overall formula Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.5As0.5-xGex (x varies from 0 to 0.1) were investigated in order to study their magnetocaloric effect by monitoring the adiabatic temperature change, magnetic entropy change and their relation to structural parameters. It was found that the maximum of magnetocaloric effect was achieved for x = 0.02. Adiabatic temperature change for consolidated powder was equal to 2.75 K for the magnetic field change ΔB = 1.7 T for the sample with x = 0.02. For the pure non-doped sample, this parameter is much lower: ΔTad = 1.7 K @ ΔB = 1.7 T. This result was correlated with the change of structural parameters such as lattice constants and the unit cell volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An All Oxide-Based Imperceptible Thin-Film Transistor with Humidity Sensing Properties
Materials 2017, 10(5), 530; doi:10.3390/ma10050530
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
We have examined the effects of oxygen content and thickness in sputtered InSnO (ITO) electrodes, especially for the application of imperceptible amorphous-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in humidity sensors. The imperceptible a-IGZO TFT with 50-nm ITO electrodes deposited at Ar:O
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We have examined the effects of oxygen content and thickness in sputtered InSnO (ITO) electrodes, especially for the application of imperceptible amorphous-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in humidity sensors. The imperceptible a-IGZO TFT with 50-nm ITO electrodes deposited at Ar:O2 = 29:0.3 exhibited good electrical performances with Vth of −0.23 V, SS of 0.34 V/dec, µFE of 7.86 cm2/V∙s, on/off ratio of 8.8 × 107, and has no degradation for bending stress up to a 3.5-mm curvature. The imperceptible oxide TFT sensors showed the highest sensitivity for the low and wide gate bias of −1~2 V under a wide range of relative humidity (40–90%) at drain voltage 1 V, resulting in low power consumption by the sensors. Exposure to water vapor led to a negative shift in the threshold voltage (or current enhancement), and an increase in relative humidity induced continuous threshold voltage shift. In particular, compared to conventional resistor-type sensors, the imperceptible oxide TFT sensors exhibited extremely high sensitivity from a current amplification of >103. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stretchable and Flexible Electronic Materials & Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Skewed Pipe Shear Connector for Precast Concrete Structures
Materials 2017, 10(5), 531; doi:10.3390/ma10050531
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
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Abstract
Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the
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Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the proposed connectors are placed diagonally between precast concrete segments and a cast-in-place concrete joint part on a girder. Design variables (such as the pipe diameter, length, and insertion angle) have been examined to investigate the connection performance of the proposed connector. The results of our testing indicate that the skewed pipe shear connectors have 50% higher ductility and a 15% higher ratio of maximum load to yield strength as compared to the corresponding parameters of the loop bar. Finite element analysis was used for validation. The resulting validation indicates that, compared to the loop bar, the skewed pipe shear connector has a higher ultimate shear and pull-out resistance. These results indicate that the skewed pipe shear connector demonstrates more idealized behavior than the loop bar in precast concrete structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Static and Fatigue Behavior Investigation of Artificial Notched Steel Reinforcement
Materials 2017, 10(5), 532; doi:10.3390/ma10050532
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
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Abstract
Pitting corrosion is one of the most common forms of localized corrosion. Corrosion pit results in a stress concentration and fatigue cracks usually initiate and propagate from these corrosion pits. Aging structures may fracture when the fatigue crack reaches a critical size. This
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Pitting corrosion is one of the most common forms of localized corrosion. Corrosion pit results in a stress concentration and fatigue cracks usually initiate and propagate from these corrosion pits. Aging structures may fracture when the fatigue crack reaches a critical size. This paper experimentally simulates the effects of pitting morphologies on the static and fatigue behavior of steel bars. Four artificial notch shapes are considered: radial ellipse, axial ellipse, triangle and length-variable triangle. Each shape notch includes six sizes to simulate a variety of pitting corrosion morphologies. The stress-strain curves of steel bars with different notch shape and depth are obtained based on static tensile testing, and the stress concentration coefficients for various conditions are determined. It was determined that the triangular notch has the highest stress concentration coefficient, followed by length-variable triangle, radial ellipse and axial ellipse shaped notches. Subsequently, the effects of notch depth and notch aspect ratios on the fatigue life under three stress levels are investigated by fatigue testing, and the equations for stress range-fatigue life-notch depth are obtained. Several conclusions are drawn based on the proposed study. The established relationships provide an experimental reference for evaluating the fatigue life of concrete bridges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm
Materials 2017, 10(5), 533; doi:10.3390/ma10050533
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW
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The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Shannon’s entropy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Preferred Orientation Contribution to the Anisotropic Normal State Resistivity in Superconducting Melt-Cast Processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ
Materials 2017, 10(5), 534; doi:10.3390/ma10050534
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
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Abstract
We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data
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We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data and literature values for the single crystal resistivity tensor. The example discussed here is a melt-cast processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) polycrystalline tube in which the main texture component is a <010> fiber texture with relatively low texture strength. Experimentally-measured resistivities along the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions of the Bi-2212 tube were compared to calculated values and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Calculations for this example and additional simulations for various texture strengths and single crystal resistivity anisotropies confirm that in the case of highly anisotropic phases such as Bi-2212, even low texture strengths have a significant effect on the anisotropy of the resistivity in polycrystalline samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textures and Anisotropy in Advanced Materials)
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