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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story SPARC (green)—RUNX2 (red)—DAPI (blue) staining of SAOS-2 cells were incubated for 48 h on polished [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Improvement in Char Strength with an Open Cage Silsesquioxane Flame Retardant
Materials 2017, 10(6), 567; doi:10.3390/ma10060567
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Different characterization techniques were used to study the hydrolysis and condensation reaction kinetics of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) to obtain open cage silsesquioxane oligomers. The formation of hydrogen bonds, which condition the chemical structures of the resulting products, was identified. Improved thermal and fire resistant
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Different characterization techniques were used to study the hydrolysis and condensation reaction kinetics of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) to obtain open cage silsesquioxane oligomers. The formation of hydrogen bonds, which condition the chemical structures of the resulting products, was identified. Improved thermal and fire resistant behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP) composites prepared with aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) and the synthesized oligomer were registered. Opened silsesquioxane structures also showed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the char formed after firing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Collagen-Fibrinogen Lyophilised Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(6), 568; doi:10.3390/ma10060568
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
A significant body of research has considered collagen as a scaffold material for soft tissue regeneration. The main structural component of extra-cellular matrix (ECM), collagen’s advantages over synthetic polymers are numerous. However, for applications where higher stiffness and stability are required, significant cross-linking
[...] Read more.
A significant body of research has considered collagen as a scaffold material for soft tissue regeneration. The main structural component of extra-cellular matrix (ECM), collagen’s advantages over synthetic polymers are numerous. However, for applications where higher stiffness and stability are required, significant cross-linking may affect bioactivity. A carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linking route consumes carboxylate groups that are key to collagen’s essential cell recognition motifs (GxOGER). Fibrinogen was considered as a promising additive as it plays a key role in the process of wound repair and contains RGD integrin binding sites which bind to a variety of cells, growth factors and cytokines. Fibrinogen’s binding sites however, also contain the same carboxylate groups as collagen. We have successfully produced highly interconnected, porous collagen-fibrinogen scaffolds using a lyophilisation technique and micro-computed tomography demonstrated minimal influence of either fibrinogen content or cross-linking concentration on the scaffold structure. The specific biological effect of fibrinogen additions into cross-linked collagen are considered by using films as a model for the struts of bulk scaffolds. By considering various additions of fibrinogen to the collagen film with increasing degrees of cross-linking, this study demonstrates a significant biological advantage with fibrinogen addition across the cross-linking concentrations typically applied to collagen-based scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally-Derived Biomaterials and Biopolymers)
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Open AccessArticle Ageing, Shocks and Wear Mechanisms in ZTA and the Long-Term Performance of Hip Joint Materials
Materials 2017, 10(6), 569; doi:10.3390/ma10060569
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
The surface morphologies and microstructures of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads were analyzed following in vitro tests aiming to simulate in vivo degradation. Three phenomena potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the
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The surface morphologies and microstructures of Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) femoral heads were analyzed following in vitro tests aiming to simulate in vivo degradation. Three phenomena potentially leading to degradation were investigated: shocks, friction and hydrothermal ageing. Shocks due to micro-separation created the main damage with the formation of wear stripes on the femoral head surfaces. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images suggested the release of wear debris of various shapes and sizes through inter- and intra-granular cracks; some debris may have a size lower than 100 nm. A decrease in hardness and Young’s modulus was measured within the wear stripes by nanoindentation technique and was attributed to the presence of surface and sub-surface micro-cracks. Such micro-cracks mechanically triggered the zirconia phase transformation in those worn areas, which in return presumably reduced further crack propagation. In comparison with shocks, friction caused little wear degradation as observed from AFM images by scarce pullout of grains. The long-term resistance of the ZTA composite material against hydrothermal ageing is confirmed by the present observations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowire Networks: From Physical Considerations towards Device Integration
Materials 2017, 10(6), 570; doi:10.3390/ma10060570
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
The past few years have seen a considerable amount of research devoted to nanostructured transparent conducting materials (TCM), which play a pivotal role in many modern devices such as solar cells, flexible light-emitting devices, touch screens, electromagnetic devices, and flexible transparent thin film
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The past few years have seen a considerable amount of research devoted to nanostructured transparent conducting materials (TCM), which play a pivotal role in many modern devices such as solar cells, flexible light-emitting devices, touch screens, electromagnetic devices, and flexible transparent thin film heaters. Currently, the most commonly used TCM for such applications (ITO: Indium Tin oxide) suffers from two major drawbacks: brittleness and indium scarcity. Among emerging transparent electrodes, silver nanowire (AgNW) networks appear to be a promising substitute to ITO since such electrically percolating networks exhibit excellent properties with sheet resistance lower than 10 Ω/sq and optical transparency of 90%, fulfilling the requirements of most applications. In addition, AgNW networks also exhibit very good mechanical flexibility. The fabrication of these electrodes involves low-temperature processing steps and scalable methods, thus making them appropriate for future use as low-cost transparent electrodes in flexible electronic devices. This contribution aims to briefly present the main properties of AgNW based transparent electrodes as well as some considerations relating to their efficient integration in devices. The influence of network density, nanowire sizes, and post treatments on the properties of AgNW networks will also be evaluated. In addition to a general overview of AgNW networks, we focus on two important aspects: (i) network instabilities as well as an efficient Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating which clearly enhances AgNW network stability and (ii) modelling to better understand the physical properties of these networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transparent Conducting Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Bearing Fault Detection Based on Empirical Wavelet Transform and Correlated Kurtosis by Acoustic Emission
Materials 2017, 10(6), 571; doi:10.3390/ma10060571
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Rolling bearings are widely used in rotating equipment. Detection of bearing faults is of great importance to guarantee safe operation of mechanical systems. Acoustic emission (AE), as one of the bearing monitoring technologies, is sensitive to weak signals and performs well in detecting
[...] Read more.
Rolling bearings are widely used in rotating equipment. Detection of bearing faults is of great importance to guarantee safe operation of mechanical systems. Acoustic emission (AE), as one of the bearing monitoring technologies, is sensitive to weak signals and performs well in detecting incipient faults. Therefore, AE is widely used in monitoring the operating status of rolling bearing. This paper utilizes Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) to decompose AE signals into mono-components adaptively followed by calculation of the correlated kurtosis (CK) at certain time intervals of these components. By comparing these CK values, the resonant frequency of the rolling bearing can be determined. Then the fault characteristic frequencies are found by spectrum envelope. Both simulation signal and rolling bearing AE signals are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the new method performs well in identifying bearing fault frequency under strong background noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Coaxial Electrospinning and Characterization of Core-Shell Structured Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced PMMA/PAN Composite Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(6), 572; doi:10.3390/ma10060572
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
A modified coaxial electrospinning process was used to prepare composite nanofibrous mats from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution with the addition of different cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the sheath fluid and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution as the core fluid. This study investigated the conductivity
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A modified coaxial electrospinning process was used to prepare composite nanofibrous mats from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution with the addition of different cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the sheath fluid and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution as the core fluid. This study investigated the conductivity of the as-spun solutions that increased significantly with increasing CNCs addition, which favors forming uniform fibers. This study discussed the effect of different CNCs addition on the morphology, thermal behavior, and the multilevel structure of the coaxial electrospun PMMA + CNCs/PAN composite nanofibers. A morphology analysis of the nanofibrous mats clearly demonstrated that the CNCs facilitated the production of the composite nanofibers with a core-shell structure. The diameter of the composite nanofibers decreased and the uniformity increased with increasing CNCs concentrations in the shell fluid. The composite nanofibrous mats had the maximum thermal decomposition temperature that was substantially higher than electrospun pure PMMA, PAN, as well as the core-shell PMMA/PAN nanocomposite. The BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) formula results showed that the specific surface area of the CNCs reinforced core-shell composite significantly increased with increasing CNCs content. The specific surface area of the composite with 20% CNCs loading rose to 9.62 m2/g from 3.76 m2/g for the control. A dense porous structure was formed on the surface of the electrospun core-shell fibers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cerium Chloride Application Promotes Wound Healing and Cell Proliferation in Human Foreskin Fibroblasts
Materials 2017, 10(6), 573; doi:10.3390/ma10060573
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3) on cell migration and gene expression of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). HFF were exposed to three different CeCl3 solutions (1%, 5% and 10%, w/v %) for three different time
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This study investigated the effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3) on cell migration and gene expression of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). HFF were exposed to three different CeCl3 solutions (1%, 5% and 10%, w/v %) for three different time durations (1, 5 and 10 min). 72 h after exposure to CeCl3, cell viability was assessed by MTT test. A scratch-wounded assay determined the cell migration and the width of the wound, measured at 24 h. Gene expression patterns for cyclins B1, D1 and E1 were analyzed by RT-PCR (p < 0.05, t-test). The viability proliferation increased at 1- and 5-min exposures for all CeCl3 concentrations, in contrast to no treatment (p < 0.05 at 24 h). No influence of CeCl3 was found after 10 min. The scratch assay showed increased cell migration up to 60% at 1 and 5 min after 24 h at 5% and 10%. Cyclin B1, D1 and E1 all showed upregulation, confirming an increase in cell proliferation. This study demonstrates that exposure time and concentration of CeCl3 may have a positive effect on fibroblast viability and migration. Application of CeCl3 may be beneficial as a cell-stimulating agent leading to therapeutic tissue fibrosis or more resistant tissue around teeth, when warranted, during different periodontal therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis
Materials 2017, 10(6), 574; doi:10.3390/ma10060574
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of
[...] Read more.
Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4–8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Re-Evaluation of the Causes of Deformation in 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V Steel for Turbine Rotors and Shafts Based on iso-Thermal Plots of the Wilshire Equation and the Modelling of Batch to Batch Variation
Materials 2017, 10(6), 575; doi:10.3390/ma10060575
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
The aims of this paper were to: (a) demonstrate how iso-thermal plots of the Wilshire equation can be used to identify the correct structure of this equation (which in turn enables a meaningful description of the creep mechanism involved in deformation to be
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The aims of this paper were to: (a) demonstrate how iso-thermal plots of the Wilshire equation can be used to identify the correct structure of this equation (which in turn enables a meaningful description of the creep mechanism involved in deformation to be made); and (b) show how a generalized specification of batch to batch variation could produce less conservative predictions of the time to failure associated with a given degree of risk. Such predictions were obtained using maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of a generalised F distribution. It was found that the original Wilshire-Scharning assumption of a constant activation energy for this materials is incorrect. Consequently, their interpretation of deformation being due only to dislocation creep with deteriorating microstructure at long duration test times appears to be ill founded, with the varying activation energy suggesting instead that deformation is due to grain boundary sliding accommodated by either dislocation and diffusional creep with dominance changing from the lattice to the grain boundaries as the temperature changes. Modelling batch to batch variation as a function of stress also resulted in a 50% extended safe life prediction (corresponding to a 1% chance of failure) at 873 K and 47 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Life of Materials at High Temperatures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications—A Systematic Non-Equilibrium Approach
Materials 2017, 10(6), 576; doi:10.3390/ma10060576
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
We hypothesize that the properties of proton-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications cannot be described unambiguously unless interface effects are taken into account. In order to prove this, we first develop a thermodynamically consistent description of the transport properties in the membranes, both
[...] Read more.
We hypothesize that the properties of proton-exchange membranes for fuel cell applications cannot be described unambiguously unless interface effects are taken into account. In order to prove this, we first develop a thermodynamically consistent description of the transport properties in the membranes, both for a homogeneous membrane and for a homogeneous membrane with two surface layers in contact with the electrodes or holder material. For each subsystem, homogeneous membrane, and the two surface layers, we limit ourselves to four parameters as the system as a whole is considered to be isothermal. We subsequently analyze the experimental results on some standard membranes that have appeared in the literature and analyze these using the two different descriptions. This analysis yields relatively well-defined values for the homogeneous membrane parameters and estimates for those of the surface layers and hence supports our hypothesis. As demonstrated, the method used here allows for a critical evaluation of the literature values. Moreover, it allows optimization of stacked transport systems such as proton-exchange membrane fuel cell units where interfacial layers, such as that between the catalyst and membrane, are taken into account systematically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Constitutive Model for Shotcrete on the Predicted Structural Behavior of the Shotcrete Shell of a Deep Tunnel
Materials 2017, 10(6), 577; doi:10.3390/ma10060577
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the influence of the constitutive model for shotcrete on the predicted displacements and stresses in shotcrete shells of deep tunnels. Previously proposed shotcrete models as well as a new extended damage plasticity model for
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the influence of the constitutive model for shotcrete on the predicted displacements and stresses in shotcrete shells of deep tunnels. Previously proposed shotcrete models as well as a new extended damage plasticity model for shotcrete are evaluated in the context of 2D finite element simulations of the excavation of a stretch of a deep tunnel by means of the New Austrian Tunneling Method. Thereby, the behavior of the surrounding rock mass is described by the commonly used Hoek–Brown model. Differences in predicted evolutions of displacements and stresses in the shotcrete shell, resulting from the different shotcrete models, are discussed and simulation results are compared to available in situ measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic and Structural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite BaFe12O19 from Various Growth Techniques
Materials 2017, 10(6), 578; doi:10.3390/ma10060578
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Barium hexaferrite powder samples with grains in the μm-range were obtained from solid-state sintering, and crystals with sizes up to 5 mm grown from PbO, Na2CO3, and BaB2O4 fluxes, respectively. Carbonate and borate fluxes provide the
[...] Read more.
Barium hexaferrite powder samples with grains in the μm-range were obtained from solid-state sintering, and crystals with sizes up to 5 mm grown from PbO, Na2CO3, and BaB2O4 fluxes, respectively. Carbonate and borate fluxes provide the largest and structurally best crystals at significantly lower growth temperatures of 1533 K compared to flux-free synthesis (1623 K). The maximum synthesis temperature can be further reduced by the application of PbO-containing fluxes (down to 1223 K upon use of 80 at % PbO), however, Pb-substituted crystals Ba1–xPbxFe12O19 with Pb contents in the range of 0.23(2) ≤ x ≤ 0.80(2) form, depending on growth temperature and flux PbO content. The degree of Pb-substitution has only a minor influence on unit cell and magnetic parameters, although the values for Curie temperature, saturation magnetization, as well as the coercivity of these samples are significantly reduced in comparison with those from samples obtained from the other fluxes. Due to the lowest level of impurities, the samples from carbonate flux show superior quality compared to materials obtained using other methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Treatment of Waste Abaca for Natural Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Composite
Materials 2017, 10(6), 579; doi:10.3390/ma10060579
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila
[...] Read more.
The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics and to improve the adhesion with the fly ash-based geopolymer matrix. Definitive screening design of experiment was used to investigate the effect of successive chemical treatment of the fiber on its tensile strength considering the following factors: (1) NaOH pretreatment; (2) soaking time in aluminum salt solution; and (3) final pH of the slurry. The results show that the abaca fiber without alkali pretreatment, soaked for 12 h in Al2(SO4)3 solution and adjusted to pH 6 exhibited the highest tensile strength among the treated fibers. Test results confirmed that the chemical treatment removes the lignin, pectin and hemicellulose, as well as makes the surface rougher with the deposition of aluminum compounds. This improves the interfacial bonding between geopolymer matrix and the abaca fiber, while the geopolymer protects the treated fiber from thermal degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes
Materials 2017, 10(6), 580; doi:10.3390/ma10060580
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active
[...] Read more.
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm−2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessCommunication Alizarin Red S-Confined Layer-By-Layer Films as Redox-Active Coatings on Electrodes for the Voltammetric Determination of L-Dopa
Materials 2017, 10(6), 581; doi:10.3390/ma10060581
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
The preparation of redox-active coatings is a key step in fabricating electrochemical biosensors. To this goal, a variety of coating materials have been used in combination with redox-active compounds. In this study, alizarin red S (ARS) was confined in layer-by-layer (LbL) films composed
[...] Read more.
The preparation of redox-active coatings is a key step in fabricating electrochemical biosensors. To this goal, a variety of coating materials have been used in combination with redox-active compounds. In this study, alizarin red S (ARS) was confined in layer-by-layer (LbL) films composed of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to study the redox properties. A gold (Au) disc electrode coated with PEI/CMC LbL film was immersed in an ARS solution to uptake ARS into the film. ARS was successfully confined in the LbL film through electrostatic interactions. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) of ARS-confined PEI/CMC film-coated electrodes thus prepared exhibited redox waves in the potential range from −0.5 to −0.7 V originating from 9,10-anthraquinone moiety in ARS, demonstrating that ARS preserves its redox activity in the LbL film. An additional oxidation peak appeared around −0.4 V in the CV recorded in the solution containing phenylboronic acid (PBA), due to the formation of a boronate ester of ARS (ARS-PBA) in the film. The oxidation peak current at −0.4 V decreased upon addition of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) to the solution. Thus, the results suggest a potential use of the ARS-confined PEI/CMC films for constructing voltammetric sensors for L-dopa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearings under Variable Conditions Based on Visual Cognition
Materials 2017, 10(6), 582; doi:10.3390/ma10060582
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition.
[...] Read more.
Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP), which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS), we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Photoelectric Properties of Si Doping Superlattice Structure on 6H-SiC(0001)
Materials 2017, 10(6), 583; doi:10.3390/ma10060583
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL) on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001) Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the
[...] Read more.
The energy-band structure and visible photoelectric properties of a p/n-Si doping superlattice structure (DSL) on 6H-SiC were simulated by Silvaco-TCAD. The,n the Si-DSL structures with 40 nm-p-Si/50 nm-n-Si multilayers were successfully prepared on 6H-SiC(0001) Si-face by chemical vapor deposition. TEM characterizations of the p/n-Si DSL confirmed the epitaxial growth of the Si films with preferred orientation and the misfit dislocations with a Burgers vector of 1/3 <21-1> at the p-Si/n-Si interface. The device had an obvious rectifying behavior, and the turn-on voltage was about 1.2 V. Under the visible illumination of 0.6 W/cm2, the device demonstrated a significant photoelectric response with a photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm2. Visible light operation of the Si-DSL/6H-SiC heterostructure was realized for the first time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Constitutive Model for Soft Clays Incorporating Elastic and Plastic Cross-Anisotropy
Materials 2017, 10(6), 584; doi:10.3390/ma10060584
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Natural clays exhibit a significant degree of anisotropy in their fabric, which initially is derived from the shape of the clay platelets, deposition process and one-dimensional consolidation. Various authors have proposed anisotropic elastoplastic models involving an inclined yield surface to reproduce anisotropic behavior
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Natural clays exhibit a significant degree of anisotropy in their fabric, which initially is derived from the shape of the clay platelets, deposition process and one-dimensional consolidation. Various authors have proposed anisotropic elastoplastic models involving an inclined yield surface to reproduce anisotropic behavior of plastic nature. This paper presents a novel constitutive model for soft structured clays that includes anisotropic behavior both of elastic and plastic nature. The new model incorporates stress-dependent cross-anisotropic elastic behavior within the yield surface using three independent elastic parameters because natural clays exhibit cross-anisotropic (or transversely isotropic) behavior after deposition and consolidation. Thus, the model only incorporates an additional variable with a clear physical meaning, namely the ratio between horizontal and vertical stiffnesses, which can be analytically obtained from conventional laboratory tests. The model does not consider evolution of elastic anisotropy, but laboratory results show that large strains are necessary to cause noticeable changes in elastic anisotropic behavior. The model is able to capture initial non-vertical effective stress paths for undrained triaxial tests and to predict deviatoric strains during isotropic loading or unloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Modulation Ratio of Cu/Ni Multilayer Films on the Fretting Damage Behaviour of Ti-811 Titanium Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(6), 585; doi:10.3390/ma10060585
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
To improve the fretting damage (fretting wear and fretting fatigue) resistance of Ti-811 titanium alloy, three Cu/Ni multilayer films with the same modulation period thickness (200 nm) and different modulation ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) were deposited on the surface of the alloy via
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To improve the fretting damage (fretting wear and fretting fatigue) resistance of Ti-811 titanium alloy, three Cu/Ni multilayer films with the same modulation period thickness (200 nm) and different modulation ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) were deposited on the surface of the alloy via ion-assisted magnetron sputtering deposition (IAD). The bonding strength, micro-hardness, and toughness of the films were evaluated, and the effect of the modulation ratio on the room-temperature fretting wear (FW) and fretting fatigue (FF) resistance of the alloy was determined. The results indicated that the IAD technique can be successfully used to prepare Cu/Ni multilayer films, with high bonding strength, low-friction, and good toughness, which yield improved room-temperature FF and FW resistance of the alloy. For the same modulation period (200 nm), the micro-hardness, friction, and FW resistance of the coated alloy increased, decreased, and improved, respectively, with increasing modulation ratio of the Ni-to-Cu layer thickness. However, the FF resistance of the coated alloy increased non-monotonically with the increasing modulation ratio. Among the three Cu/Ni multilayer films, those with a modulation ratio of 1:1 can confer the highest FF resistance to the Ti-811 alloy, owing mainly to their unique combination of good toughness, high strength, and low-friction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Electrical and Ionic Conductivities of Organic Electronic Ion Pump on Acetylcholine Exchange Performance
Materials 2017, 10(6), 586; doi:10.3390/ma10060586
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
By using an easy and effective method of depositing conjugated polymers (PEDOT:PSS) on flexible substrates, a new design for organic bioelectronic devices has been developed. The purpose was to build up a system that mimics the motion of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft
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By using an easy and effective method of depositing conjugated polymers (PEDOT:PSS) on flexible substrates, a new design for organic bioelectronic devices has been developed. The purpose was to build up a system that mimics the motion of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft by obtaining an electrical to chemical signal transport. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman measurements have demonstrated that electrochemical overoxidation region which separates the pristine PEDOT:PSS electrodes and allows ionic conduction has been achieved successfully. The influence of both electrical and ionic conductivities on organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) performances has been studied. The ultimate goal was to achieve the highest equilibrium current density at the lowest applied voltage via enhancing the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and ionic conductivity of electrochemically overoxidized region. The highest equilibrium current density, which corresponds to 4.81 × 1017 number of ions of acetylcholine was about 41 μA cm−2 observed for the OEIP with the electrical conductivities of 54 S cm−1. This was a threshold electrical conductivity beyond which the OEIP performances were not changed much. Once Nafion™ has been applied for enhancing the ionic conductivity, the equilibrium current density increased about ten times and reached up to 408 μA cm−2. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the OEIP performance mainly scales with the ionic conductivity. A straightforward method of producing organic bioelectronics is proposed here may provide a clue for their effortless mass production in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Framework for Fracture in Multiscale Cement-Based Material Structures
Materials 2017, 10(6), 587; doi:10.3390/ma10060587
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Multiscale modeling for cement-based materials, such as concrete, is a relatively young subject, but there are already a number of different approaches to study different aspects of these classical materials. In this paper, the parameter-passing multiscale modeling scheme is established and applied to
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Multiscale modeling for cement-based materials, such as concrete, is a relatively young subject, but there are already a number of different approaches to study different aspects of these classical materials. In this paper, the parameter-passing multiscale modeling scheme is established and applied to address the multiscale modeling problem for the integrated system of cement paste, mortar, and concrete. The block-by-block technique is employed to solve the length scale overlap challenge between the mortar level (0.1–10 mm) and the concrete level (1–40 mm). The microstructures of cement paste are simulated by the HYMOSTRUC3D model, and the material structures of mortar and concrete are simulated by the Anm material model. Afterwards the 3D lattice fracture model is used to evaluate their mechanical performance by simulating a uniaxial tensile test. The simulated output properties at a lower scale are passed to the next higher scale to serve as input local properties. A three-level multiscale lattice fracture analysis is demonstrated, including cement paste at the micrometer scale, mortar at the millimeter scale, and concrete at centimeter scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on Characteristic Variation of the FBG Spectrum with Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate Structures
Materials 2017, 10(6), 588; doi:10.3390/ma10060588
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
In order to monitor the crack tip propagation of aluminum alloy, this study investigates the variation of the spectrum characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), combined with an analysis of the spectrum simulation. The results identify the location of the subordinate peak
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In order to monitor the crack tip propagation of aluminum alloy, this study investigates the variation of the spectrum characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), combined with an analysis of the spectrum simulation. The results identify the location of the subordinate peak as significantly associated with the strain distribution along the grating, corresponding to the different plastic zones ahead of the crack tip with various crack lengths. FBG sensors could observe monotonic and cyclic plastic zones ahead of the crack tip, with the quadratic strain distribution along the grating at the crack tip-FBG distance of 1.2 and 0.7 mm, respectively. FBG sensors could examine the process zones ahead of the crack tip with the cubic strain distribution along the grating at the crack tip-FBG distance of 0.5 mm. The spectrum oscillation occurs as the crack approaches the FBG where the highly heterogeneous strain is distributed. Another idea is to use a finite element method (FEM), together with a T-matrix method, to analyze the reflection intensity spectra of FBG sensors for various crack sizes. The described crack propagation detection system may apply in structural health monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Crack Extension and Possibility of Debonding in Encapsulation-Based Self-Healing Materials
Materials 2017, 10(6), 589; doi:10.3390/ma10060589
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
The breakage of capsules upon crack propagation is crucial for achieving crack healing in encapsulation-based self-healing materials. A mesomechanical model was developed in this study to simulate the process of crack propagation in a matrix and the potential of debonding. The model used
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The breakage of capsules upon crack propagation is crucial for achieving crack healing in encapsulation-based self-healing materials. A mesomechanical model was developed in this study to simulate the process of crack propagation in a matrix and the potential of debonding. The model used the extended finite element method (XFEM) combined with a cohesive zone model (CZM) in a two-dimensional (2D) configuration. The configuration consisted of an infinite matrix with an embedded crack and a capsule nearby, all subjected to a uniaxial remote tensile load. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of geometry, elastic parameters and fracture properties on the fracture response of the system. The results indicated that the effect of the capsule wall on the fracture behavior of the matrix is insignificant for tc/Rc ≤ 0.05. The matrix strength influenced the ultimate crack length, while the Young’s modulus ratio Ec/Em only affected the rate of crack propagation. The potential for capsule breakage or debonding was dependent on the comparative strength between capsule and interface (Sc/Sint), provided the crack could reach the capsule. The critical value of Sc,cr/Sint,cr was obtained using this model for materials design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Advanced Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity Evaluation of High-Temperature Annealed Nanohydroxyapatite in Contact with Fibroblast Cells
Materials 2017, 10(6), 590; doi:10.3390/ma10060590
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Biomaterials are substances manufactured for medical purposes in direct contact with the tissues of organisms. Prior to their use, they are tested to determine their usefulness and safety of application. Hydroxyapatites are used in medicine as a bony complement because of their similarity
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Biomaterials are substances manufactured for medical purposes in direct contact with the tissues of organisms. Prior to their use, they are tested to determine their usefulness and safety of application. Hydroxyapatites are used in medicine as a bony complement because of their similarity to the natural apatite therein. Thanks to their bioactivity, biocompatibility, stability and non-toxicity hydroxyapatite are the most commonly used materials in osteoimplantology. The use of materials at the nanoscale in medicine or biology may carry the risk of undesirable effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of high-temperature annealed nanohydroxyapatites on the L929 murine fibroblasts. Nanohydroxyapatites in powder form were obtained by the wet chemistry method: in the temperature range of 800–1000 °C and used for the study. Based on performed studies evaluating the morphology and fibroblast viability, it was found that nanohydroxyapatites show no cytotoxic effects on the L929 cell line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrathin Six-Band Polarization-Insensitive Perfect Metamaterial Absorber Based on a Cross-Cave Patch Resonator for Terahertz Waves
Materials 2017, 10(6), 591; doi:10.3390/ma10060591
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
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Abstract
A simple design of an ultrathin six-band polarization-insensitive terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA), composed of a metal cross-cave patch resonator (CCPR) placed over a ground plane, was proposed and investigated numerically. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the average absorption peaks are up
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A simple design of an ultrathin six-band polarization-insensitive terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA), composed of a metal cross-cave patch resonator (CCPR) placed over a ground plane, was proposed and investigated numerically. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the average absorption peaks are up to 95% at six resonance frequencies. Owing to the ultra-narrow band resonance absorption of the structure, the designed PMMA also exhibits a higher Q factor (>65). In addition, the absorption properties can be kept stable for both normal incident transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) waves. The physical mechanism behind the observed high-level absorption is illustrated by the electric and power loss density distributions. The perfect absorption originates mainly from the higher-order multipolar plasmon resonance of the structure, which differs sharply from most previous studies of PMMAs. Furthermore, the resonance absorption properties of the PMMA can be modified and adjusted easily by varying the geometric parameters of the unit cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Relative Humidity on the Flowability and Dispersion Performance of Lactose Mixtures
Materials 2017, 10(6), 592; doi:10.3390/ma10060592
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
The flowability and dispersion behavior are two important physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical formulations for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). They are usually affected by the environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). However, very few studies have been focused on the relationship
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The flowability and dispersion behavior are two important physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical formulations for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). They are usually affected by the environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). However, very few studies have been focused on the relationship between the two properties and their dependence on RH during storage. In this research, model pharmaceutical formulations were prepared using mixtures of coarse and fine lactose. The fractions of fines in the mixtures were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. These blends were stored at four different RH levels, 0%, 30%, 58%, and 85%, for 48 h. The FT4 Powder Rheometer was used to evaluate the powder flowability, and the Malvern Spraytec® laser diffraction system was employed to assess the powder dispersion performance. The results indicated that both the flow and dispersion properties of lactose blends deteriorate after being stored at 85% RH, but improved after being conditioned at 58% RH. The fine particle fractions (FPFs) of the blends with 5% and 10% fine fractions and the as-received coarse lactose decreased when they were conditioned at 30% RH. For the blend with 20% fine fraction, a high RH during storage (i.e., 85% RH) affected the dispersion property, but had a limited influence on its flowability, while, for the coarse lactose powder, the different RH conditions affected its flowability, but not the dispersion results. A strong correlation between the powder flowability and its dispersion performance was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Drug Delivery and Biomedical Consideration)
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Open AccessArticle Neutron Diffraction Evaluation of Near Surface Residual Stresses at Welds in 1300 MPa Yield Strength Steel
Materials 2017, 10(6), 593; doi:10.3390/ma10060593
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Evaluation of residual stress in the weld toe region is of critical importance. In this paper, the residual stress distribution both near the surface and in depth around the weld toe was investigated using neutron diffraction, complemented with X-ray diffraction. Measurements were done
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Evaluation of residual stress in the weld toe region is of critical importance. In this paper, the residual stress distribution both near the surface and in depth around the weld toe was investigated using neutron diffraction, complemented with X-ray diffraction. Measurements were done on a 1300 MPa yield strength steel welded using a Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) consumable. Near surface residual stresses, as close as 39 µm below the surface, were measured using neutron diffraction and evaluated by applying a near surface data correction technique. Very steep surface stress gradients within 0.5 mm of the surface were found both at the weld toe and 2 mm into the heat affected zone (HAZ). Neutron results showed that the LTT consumable was capable of inducing near surface compressive residual stresses in all directions at the weld toe. It is concluded that there are very steep stress gradients both transverse to the weld toe line and in the depth direction, at the weld toe in LTT welds. Residual stress in the base material a few millimeters from the weld toe can be very different from the stress at the weld toe. Care must, therefore, be exercised when relating the residual stress to fatigue strength in LTT welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid Prototyping of Slot Die Devices for Roll to Roll Production of EL Fibers
Materials 2017, 10(6), 594; doi:10.3390/ma10060594
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important
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There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important to have precise control over layer deposition to achieve uniform and reliable light emission from these EL fibers. Slot-die coating offers this control and increases the rate of EL fiber production. Here, we report a highly adaptable, cost-effective 3D printing model for developing slot dies used in automatic coating systems. The resulting slot-die coating system enables rapid, reliable production of alternating current powder-based EL (ACPEL) fibers and can be adapted for many material systems. The benefits of this system over dip-coating for roll-to-roll production of EL fibers are demonstrated in this work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel
Materials 2017, 10(6), 595; doi:10.3390/ma10060595
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface
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Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min−1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Hexavalent Chromium Adsorption Characteristics of Aluminum- and Sucrose-Incorporated Tobermorite
Materials 2017, 10(6), 597; doi:10.3390/ma10060597
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Tobermorites were synthesized from the lime-quartz slurries with incorporations of aluminum and sucrose under hydrothermal conditions, and then used for adsorption of Cr(VI). The chemical components, and structural and morphological properties of tobermorite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC),
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Tobermorites were synthesized from the lime-quartz slurries with incorporations of aluminum and sucrose under hydrothermal conditions, and then used for adsorption of Cr(VI). The chemical components, and structural and morphological properties of tobermorite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements. The formation and crystallinity of tobermorite could be largely enhanced by adding 2.3 wt.% aluminum hydroxide or 13.3 wt.% sucrose. Sucrose also played a significantly positive role in increasing the surface area. The adsorption performances for Cr(VI) were tested using a batch method taking into account the effects of pH, the adsorption kinetics, and the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities of the aluminum- and sucrose-incorporated tobermorites reached up to 31.65 mg/g and 28.92 mg/g, respectively. Thus, the synthesized tobermorites showed good adsorption properties for removal of Cr(VI), making this material a promising candidate for efficient bulk wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Behaviour of Fly Ash and Slag Cement Grouts for Micropiles Exposed to a Sulphate Aggressive Medium
Materials 2017, 10(6), 598; doi:10.3390/ma10060598
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Nowadays, one of the most popular ways to get a more sustainable cement industry is using additions as cement replacement. However, there are many civil engineering applications in which the use of sustainable cements is not extended yet, such as special foundations, and
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Nowadays, one of the most popular ways to get a more sustainable cement industry is using additions as cement replacement. However, there are many civil engineering applications in which the use of sustainable cements is not extended yet, such as special foundations, and particularly micropiles, even though the standards do not restrict the cement type to use. These elements are frequently exposed to the sulphates present in soils. The purpose of this research is to study the effects in the very long-term (until 600 days) of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with ordinary Portland cement, fly ash and slag commercial cements, continuing a previous work, in which these effects were studied in the short-term. The microstructure changes have been analysed with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, mercury intrusion porosimetry and the “Wenner” resistivity test. The mass variation and the compressive strength have also been studied. The impedance spectroscopy has been the most sensitive technique for following the sulphate attack process. Considering the results obtained, micropiles grouts with slag and fly ash, exposed to an aggressive medium with high content of sulphates, have shown good behaviour in the very long-term (600 days) compared to grouts made with OPC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Investigations of Si-Ge Alloys in P42/ncm Phase: First-Principles Calculations
Materials 2017, 10(6), 599; doi:10.3390/ma10060599
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
The structural, mechanical, anisotropic, electronic and thermal properties of Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase are investigated in this work. The calculations have been performed with an ultra-soft pseudopotential by
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The structural, mechanical, anisotropic, electronic and thermal properties of Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase are investigated in this work. The calculations have been performed with an ultra-soft pseudopotential by using the generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation in the framework of density functional theory. The achieved results for the lattice constants and band gaps of P42/ncm-Si and P42/ncm-Ge in this research have good accordance with other results. The calculated elastic constants and elastic moduli of the Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase are better than that of the Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/mnm phase. The Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase exhibit varying degrees of mechanical anisotropic properties in Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, and universal anisotropic index. The band structures of the Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase show that they are all indirect band gap semiconductors with band gap of 1.46 eV, 1.25 eV, 1.36 eV and 1.00 eV, respectively. In addition, we also found that the minimum thermal conductivity κmin of the Si, Si0.667Ge0.333, Si0.333Ge0.667 and Ge in P42/ncm phase exhibit different degrees of anisotropic properties in (001), (010), (100) and (01¯0) planes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Structural, Morphological, Optical and Photocatalytic Properties of Y, N-Doped and Codoped TiO2 Thin Films
Materials 2017, 10(6), 600; doi:10.3390/ma10060600
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Pure TiO2, Y-N single-doped and codoped TiO2 powders and thin films deposited on glass beads were successfully prepared using dip-coating and sol-gel methods. The samples were analyzed using grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD), Raman spectroscopy, time resolved luminescence, ground state
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Pure TiO2, Y-N single-doped and codoped TiO2 powders and thin films deposited on glass beads were successfully prepared using dip-coating and sol-gel methods. The samples were analyzed using grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD), Raman spectroscopy, time resolved luminescence, ground state diffuse reflectance absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to the GXRD patterns and micro-Raman spectra, only the anatase form of TiO2 was made evident. Ground state diffuse reflectance absorption studies showed that doping with N or codoping with N and Y led to an increase of the band gap. Laser induced luminescence analysis revealed a decrease in the recombination rate of the photogenerated holes and electrons. The photocatalytic activity of supported catalysts, toward the degradation of toluidine, revealed a meaningful enhancement upon codoping samples at a level of 2% (atomic ratio). The photocatalytic activity of the material and its reactivity can be attributed to a reduced, but significant, direct photoexcitation of the semiconductor by the halogen lamp, together with a charge-transfer-complex mechanism, or with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies by the N dopant atoms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Annual Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel Worldwide. An Integration of ISOCORRAG, ICP/UNECE and MICAT Databases
Materials 2017, 10(6), 601; doi:10.3390/ma10060601
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
In the 1980s, three ambitious international programmes on atmospheric corrosion (ISOCORRAG, ICP/UNECE and MICAT), involving the participation of a total of 38 countries on four continents, Europe, America, Asia and Oceania, were launched. Though each programme has its own particular characteristics, the similarity
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In the 1980s, three ambitious international programmes on atmospheric corrosion (ISOCORRAG, ICP/UNECE and MICAT), involving the participation of a total of 38 countries on four continents, Europe, America, Asia and Oceania, were launched. Though each programme has its own particular characteristics, the similarity of the basic methodologies used makes it possible to integrate the databases obtained in each case. This paper addresses such an integration with the aim of establishing simple universal damage functions (DF) between first year carbon steel corrosion in the different atmospheres and available environmental variables, both meteorological (temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), precipitation (P), and time of wetness (TOW)) and pollution (SO2 and NaCl). In the statistical processing of the data, it has been chosen to differentiate between marine atmospheres and those in which the chloride deposition rate is insignificant (<3 mg/m2.d). In the DF established for non-marine atmospheres a great influence of the SO2 content in the atmosphere was seen, as well as lesser effects by the meteorological parameters of RH and T. Both NaCl and SO2 pollutants, in that order, are seen to be the most influential variables in marine atmospheres, along with a smaller impact of TOW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fundamental and Research Frontier of Atmospheric Corrosion)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bacteria Response to Antibiotics Using Nanoporous Membrane and Graphene Quantum Dot (GQDs)-Based Electrochemical Biosensors
Materials 2017, 10(6), 603; doi:10.3390/ma10060603
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
PDF Full-text (2963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The wide abuse of antibiotics has accelerated bacterial multiresistance, which means there is a need to develop tools for rapid detection and characterization of bacterial response to antibiotics in the management of infections. In the study, an electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous alumina
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The wide abuse of antibiotics has accelerated bacterial multiresistance, which means there is a need to develop tools for rapid detection and characterization of bacterial response to antibiotics in the management of infections. In the study, an electrochemical biosensor based on nanoporous alumina membrane and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed for bacterial response to antibiotics detection. Anti-Salmonella antibody was conjugated with amino-modified GQDs by glutaraldehyde and immobilized on silanized nanoporous alumina membranes for Salmonella bacteria capture. The impedance signals across nanoporous membranes could monitor the capture of bacteria on nanoporous membranes as well as bacterial response to antibiotics. This nanoporous membrane and GQD-based electrochemical biosensor achieved rapid detection of bacterial response to antibiotics within 30 min, and the detection limit could reach the pM level. It was capable of investigating the response of bacteria exposed to antibiotics much more rapidly and conveniently than traditional tools. The capability of studying the dynamic effects of antibiotics on bacteria has potential applications in the field of monitoring disease therapy, detecting comprehensive food safety hazards and even life in hostile environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Solid-State Method Synthesis of SnO2-Decorated g-C3N4 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Gas-Sensing Property to Ethanol
Materials 2017, 10(6), 604; doi:10.3390/ma10060604
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
SnO2/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were synthesized via a facile solid-state method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized composites were characterized by the techniques
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SnO2/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were synthesized via a facile solid-state method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized composites were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 sorption. The results indicated that the composites possessed a two-dimensional (2-D) structure, and the SnO2 nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets. The gas-sensing performance of the samples to ethanol was tested, and the SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite-based sensor exhibited admirable properties. The response value (Ra/Rg) of the SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite with 10 wt % 2-D g-C3N4 content-based sensor to 500 ppm of ethanol was 550 at 300 °C. However, the response value of pure SnO2 was only 320. The high surface area of SnO2/g-C3N4-10 (140 m2·g−1) and the interaction between 2-D g-C3N4 and SnO2 could strongly affect the gas-sensing property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrathin Two-dimensional (2D) Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of Defects in AlGaN Grown on Nanoscale-Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Materials 2017, 10(6), 605; doi:10.3390/ma10060605
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction,
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In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. The screw threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN-on-NPSS can improve to 1–2 × 109 cm−2, which is significantly lower than that of the sample grown on a conventional planar sapphire substrate (7 × 109 cm−2). TEM analysis indicated that these TDs do not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown AlGaN layer, but bend or change directions in the region above the voids within the side faces of the patterned substrates, possibly because of the internal stress-relaxed morphologies of the AlGaN film. Hence, the laterally overgrown AlGaN films were obtained by HVPE, which can serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet III-nitride optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Nanosheets to Improve Physico-Mechanical Properties of Bioactive Calcium Silicate Cements
Materials 2017, 10(6), 606; doi:10.3390/ma10060606
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Bioactive calcium silicate cements are widely used to induce mineralization, to cement prosthetic parts, in the management of tooth perforations, and other areas. Nonetheless, they can present clinical disadvantages, such as long setting time and modest physico-mechanical properties. The objective of this work
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Bioactive calcium silicate cements are widely used to induce mineralization, to cement prosthetic parts, in the management of tooth perforations, and other areas. Nonetheless, they can present clinical disadvantages, such as long setting time and modest physico-mechanical properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of graphene nanosheets (GNS) to improve two bioactive cements. GNS were obtained via reduction of graphite oxide. GNS were mixed (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt %) with Biodentine (BIO) and Endocem Zr (ECZ), and the effects on setting time, hardness, push-out strength, pH profile, cell proliferation, and mineralization were evaluated. Statistics were performed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). GNS has not interfered in the composition of the set cements as confirmed by Raman, FT-IR and XRD. GNS (1 and 3 wt %) shortened the setting time, increased hardness of both materials but decreased significantly the push-out strength of ECZ. pH was not affected but 1 wt % and 7 wt % to ECZ and 5 wt % to BIO increased the mineralization compared to the controls. In summary, GNS may be an alternative to improve the physico-mechanical properties and bioactivity of cements. Nonetheless, the use of GNS may not be advised for all materials when effective bonding is a concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioapplications of Graphene Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Absorption Enhancement in CdTe Thin Films by Microstructuration of the Silicon Substrate
Materials 2017, 10(6), 607; doi:10.3390/ma10060607
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
In this work, the reflectance, optical absorption, and band gap have been determined for CdTe thin films grown on planar and microstructured substrates. The treated surface was prepared by laser ablation of a silicon wafer, forming holes in a periodic arrangement. Thin films
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In this work, the reflectance, optical absorption, and band gap have been determined for CdTe thin films grown on planar and microstructured substrates. The treated surface was prepared by laser ablation of a silicon wafer, forming holes in a periodic arrangement. Thin films were grown by pulsed laser ablation on silicon samples kept at 200 °C inside a vacuum chamber. The presence of CdTe was verified with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicating a nanocrystalline zinc blended structure. The optical absorption of thin films was calculated by using the Fresnel laws and the experimental reflectance spectrum. Results show that reflectance of 245 nm films deposited on modified substrates is reduced by up to a factor of two than the obtained on unchanged silicon and the optical absorption is 16% higher at ~456 nm. Additionally, it was determined that the band gap energy for planar and microstructured films is about 1.44 eV for both cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Co3O4@CoS Core-Shell Nanosheets on Carbon Cloth for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes
Materials 2017, 10(6), 608; doi:10.3390/ma10060608
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
In this work, a two-step electrodeposition strategy is developed for the synthesis of core-shell Co3O4@CoS nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor applications. Porous Co3O4 nanosheet arrays are first directly grown on CC by electrodeposition,
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In this work, a two-step electrodeposition strategy is developed for the synthesis of core-shell Co3O4@CoS nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth (CC) for supercapacitor applications. Porous Co3O4 nanosheet arrays are first directly grown on CC by electrodeposition, followed by the coating of a thin layer of CoS on the surface of Co3O4 nanosheets via the secondary electrodeposition. The morphology control of the ternary composites can be easily achieved by altering the number of cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles of CoS deposition. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results demonstrate that the Co3O4@CoS/CC with 4 CV cycles of CoS deposition possesses the largest specific capacitance 887.5 F·g−1 at a scan rate of 10 mV·s−1 (764.2 F·g−1 at a current density of 1.0 A·g−1), and excellent cycling stability (78.1% capacitance retention) at high current density of 5.0 A·g−1 after 5000 cycles. The porous nanostructures on CC not only provide large accessible surface area for fast ions diffusion, electron transport and efficient utilization of active CoS and Co3O4, but also reduce the internal resistance of electrodes, which leads to superior electrochemical performance of Co3O4@CoS/CC composite at 4 cycles of CoS deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Microarc Oxidation Coating Combined with Surface Pore-Sealing Treatment Enhances Corrosion Fatigue Performance of 7075-T7351 Al Alloy in Different Media
Materials 2017, 10(6), 609; doi:10.3390/ma10060609
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Rotating bending fatigue tests have been performed to evaluate the corrosion fatigue performance and its influence factors of 7075-T7351 Al alloy in different media, namely air and a 5.0 wt % NaCl aqueous solution. All samples were coated by microarc oxidation (MAO) coating
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Rotating bending fatigue tests have been performed to evaluate the corrosion fatigue performance and its influence factors of 7075-T7351 Al alloy in different media, namely air and a 5.0 wt % NaCl aqueous solution. All samples were coated by microarc oxidation (MAO) coating technology; some samples were followed by an epoxy resin pore-sealing treatment. Microscopic analyses of the surfaces and fracture cross-sections of samples were carried out. The results reveal that the sample with a MAO coating of 10 μm thickness and pore-sealing treatment by epoxy resin possesses optimal corrosion fatigue performance in the different media. The MAO coating with a pore-sealing treatment significantly improves the corrosion fatigue limit of 7075-T7351 Al alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Preparation of Porous Sol-Gel Silica with Metal Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr) by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method for Adsorption Chillers
Materials 2017, 10(6), 610; doi:10.3390/ma10060610
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Metal organic framework (MOF) of MIL-101(Cr)-Silica (SiO2) composites with highly mesoporous and uniform dispersions were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by the sol-gel technique. Water vapor adsorption experiments were conducted on the MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2 composites for
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Abstract: Metal organic framework (MOF) of MIL-101(Cr)-Silica (SiO2) composites with highly mesoporous and uniform dispersions were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by the sol-gel technique. Water vapor adsorption experiments were conducted on the MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2 composites for industrial adsorption chiller applications. The effects of MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2 mixing ratios (ranging from 0% to 52%), the surface area and amount of Lewis and Brønsted sites were comprehensively determined through water vapor adsorption experiments and the adsorption mechanism is also explained. The BET and Langmuir results indicate that the adsorption isotherms associated with the various MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2 ratios demonstrated Type I and IV adsorption behavior, due to the mesoporous structure of the MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2. It was observed that the increase in the amount of Lewis and Brønsted sites on the MIL-101(Cr)-SiO2 composites significantly improves the water vapor adsorption efficiency, for greater stability during the water vapor adsorption experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication Method Study of ZnO Nanocoated Cellulose Film and Its Piezoelectric Property
Materials 2017, 10(6), 611; doi:10.3390/ma10060611
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Recently, a cellulose-based composite material with a thin ZnO nanolayer—namely, ZnO nanocoated cellulose film (ZONCE)—was fabricated to increase its piezoelectric charge constant. However, the fabrication method has limitations to its application in mass production. In this paper, a hydrothermal synthesis method suitable for
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Recently, a cellulose-based composite material with a thin ZnO nanolayer—namely, ZnO nanocoated cellulose film (ZONCE)—was fabricated to increase its piezoelectric charge constant. However, the fabrication method has limitations to its application in mass production. In this paper, a hydrothermal synthesis method suitable for the mass production of ZONCE (HZONCE) is proposed. A simple hydrothermal synthesis which includes a hydrothermal reaction is used for the production, and the reaction time is controlled. To improve the piezoelectric charge constant, the hydrothermal reaction is conducted twice. HZONCE fabricated by twice-hydrothermal reaction shows approximately 1.6-times improved piezoelectric charge constant compared to HZONCE fabricated by single hydrothermal reaction. Since the fabricated HZONCE has high transparency, dielectric constant, and piezoelectric constant, the proposed method can be applied for continuous mass production. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Frequency-Stable Ionic-Type Hybrid Gate Dielectrics for High Mobility Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors
Materials 2017, 10(6), 612; doi:10.3390/ma10060612
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate high mobility solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using a high-frequency-stable ionic-type hybrid gate dielectric (HGD). The HGD gate dielectric, a blend of sol-gel aluminum oxide (AlOx) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP), exhibited high dielectric constant (ε~8.15) and
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In this paper, we demonstrate high mobility solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using a high-frequency-stable ionic-type hybrid gate dielectric (HGD). The HGD gate dielectric, a blend of sol-gel aluminum oxide (AlOx) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP), exhibited high dielectric constant (ε~8.15) and high-frequency-stable characteristics (1 MHz). Using the ionic-type HGD as a gate dielectric layer, an minimal electron-double-layer (EDL) can be formed at the gate dielectric/InOx interface, enhancing the field-effect mobility of the TFTs. Particularly, using the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics annealed at 350 °C, InOx TFTs having an average field-effect mobility of 16.1 cm2/Vs were achieved (maximum mobility of 24 cm2/Vs). Furthermore, the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics can be processed at a low temperature of 150 °C, which may enable their applications in low-thermal-budget plastic and elastomeric substrates. In addition, we systematically studied the operational stability of the InOx TFTs using the HGD gate dielectric, and it was observed that the HGD gate dielectric effectively suppressed the negative threshold voltage shift during the negative-illumination-bias stress possibly owing to the recombination of hole carriers injected in the gate dielectric with the negatively charged ionic species in the HGD gate dielectric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor)
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels
Materials 2017, 10(6), 613; doi:10.3390/ma10060613
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According
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Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC) phases ferrite and α’-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α’-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of a New Al2O3/Ce–TZP Ceramic Nanocomposite Dental Implant: A Pilot Study in Dogs.
Materials 2017, 10(6), 614; doi:10.3390/ma10060614
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Although titanium remains as the prevalent material in dental implant manufacturing new zirconia-based materials that overcome the major drawbacks of the standard 3Y–yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) are now emerging. In this study, a new ceramic nanocomposite made of alumina and ceria-stabilized TZP (ZCe-A)
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Although titanium remains as the prevalent material in dental implant manufacturing new zirconia-based materials that overcome the major drawbacks of the standard 3Y–yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) are now emerging. In this study, a new ceramic nanocomposite made of alumina and ceria-stabilized TZP (ZCe-A) has been used to produce dental implants with the mechanic and topographic characteristics of a pilot implant design to evaluate bone and soft tissue integration in a dog model (n = 5). Histological cross-section analysis of the implanted ceramic fixations (n = 15) showed not only perfect biocompatibility, but also a high rate of osseous integration (defined as the percentage of bone to implant contact) and soft tissue attachment. This clinical success, in combination with the superior mechanical properties achieved by this Al2O3/Ce-TZP nanocomposite, may place this material as an improved alternative of traditional 3Y-TZP dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Viscoelastic Multi-Body Simulation and Impact Response Analysis of a Ballasted Railway Track under Cyclic Loading
Materials 2017, 10(6), 615; doi:10.3390/ma10060615
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM) and a finite element method (FEM). In
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Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM) and a finite element method (FEM). In this study, a quadruple discrete element method (QDEM) was developed for dynamic analysis of viscoelastic materials using a simpler algorithm compared to the standard FEM. QDEM easily incorporates the contact algorithm used in DEM. As the first step toward multi-body simulation, the fundamental performance of QDEM was investigated for viscoelastic analysis. The amplitude and frequency of cantilever elastic vibration were nearly equal to those obtained by the standard FEM. A comparison of creep recovery tests with an analytical solution showed good agreement between them. In addition, good correlation between the attenuation degree and the real physical viscosity was confirmed for viscoelastic vibration analysis. Therefore, the high accuracy of QDEM in the fundamental analysis of infinitesimal viscoelastic deformations was verified. Finally, the impact response of a ballast and sleeper under cyclic loading on a railway track was analyzed using QDEM as an application of deformable multi-body dynamics. The results showed that the vibration of the ballasted track was qualitatively in good agreement with the actual measurements. Moreover, the ballast layer with high friction reduced the ballasted track deterioration. This study suggests that QDEM, as an alternative to DEM and FEM, can provide deeper insights into the contact dynamics of a large number of deformable bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Destructive Inspection of Impact Damage in Composite Aircraft Panels by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Statistical Processing
Materials 2017, 10(6), 616; doi:10.3390/ma10060616
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI) from ground service equipment (GSE), such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically
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This paper discusses a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for the detection of damage in composite aircraft structures following high energy wide area blunt impact (HEWABI) from ground service equipment (GSE), such as heavy cargo loaders and other heavy equipment. The test structures typically include skin, co-cured stringers, and C-frames that are bolt-connected onto the skin with shear ties. The inspection exploits the waveguide geometry of these structures by utilizing ultrasonic guided waves and a line scan approach. Both a contact prototype and a non-contact prototype were developed and tested on realistic test panels subjected to impact in the laboratory. The results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves that show excellent probability of detection with low false alarm rates for defects located in the panel skin and stringers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Stability of P-Type BiSbTe Alloys Prepared by Melt Spinning and Rapid Sintering
Materials 2017, 10(6), 617; doi:10.3390/ma10060617
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
P-type BiSbTe alloys have been widely implemented in waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources below 600 K, which may involve assorted environments and conditions, such as long-term service, high-temperature exposure (generally 473–573 K) and mechanical forces. It is important to evaluate the
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P-type BiSbTe alloys have been widely implemented in waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources below 600 K, which may involve assorted environments and conditions, such as long-term service, high-temperature exposure (generally 473–573 K) and mechanical forces. It is important to evaluate the service performance of these materials in order to prevent possible failures in advance and extend the life cycle. In this study, p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone-melting (ZM) ingots were processed by melt spinning and subsequent plasma-activated sintering (MS-PAS), and were then subjected to vacuum-annealing at 473 and 573 K, respectively, for one week. The results show that MS-PAS samples exhibit excellent thermal stability when annealed at 473 K. However, thermal annealing at 573 K for MS-PAS specimens leads to the distinct sublimation of the element Te, which degrades the hole concentration remarkably and results in inferior thermoelectric performance. Furthermore, MS-PAS samples annealed at 473 K demonstrate a slight enhancement in flexural and compressive strengths, probably due to the reduction of residual stress induced during the sintering process. The current work guides the reliable application of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 compounds prepared by the MS-PAS technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites
Materials 2017, 10(6), 618; doi:10.3390/ma10060618
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 28 May 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
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Abstract
Reinforcement of flexible fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites with standard textile fibres is a potential low cost solution to less critical loading applications. The mechanical behaviour of FRPs based on mechanically bonded nonwoven preforms composed of either low or high modulus fibres in
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Reinforcement of flexible fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites with standard textile fibres is a potential low cost solution to less critical loading applications. The mechanical behaviour of FRPs based on mechanically bonded nonwoven preforms composed of either low or high modulus fibres in a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix were compared following compression moulding. Nonwoven preform fibre compositions were selected from lyocell, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA) as well as para-aramid fibres (polyphenylene terephthalamide; PPTA). Reinforcement with standard fibres manifold improved the tensile modulus and strength of the reinforced composites and the relationship between fibre, fabric and composite’s mechanical properties was studied. The linear density of fibres and the punch density, a key process variable used to consolidate the nonwoven preform, were varied to study the influence on resulting FRP mechanical properties. In summary, increasing the strength and degree of consolidation of nonwoven preforms did not translate to an increase in the strength of resulting fibre reinforced TPU-composites. The TPU composite strength was mainly dependent upon constituent fibre stress-strain behaviour and fibre segment orientation distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Cellulose Fibre-Reinforced Biofoam for Structural Applications
Materials 2017, 10(6), 619; doi:10.3390/ma10060619
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable
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Traditionally, polymers and macromolecular components used in the foam industry are mostly derived from petroleum. The current transition to a bio-economy creates demand for the use of more renewable feedstocks. Soybean oil is a vegetable oil, composed mainly of triglycerides, that is suitable material for foam production. In this study, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and variable amounts of cellulose fibres were used in the production of bio-based foam. The developed macroporous bio-based architectures were characterised by several techniques, including porosity measurements, nanoindentation testing, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the introduction of cellulose fibres during the foaming process was necessary to create the three-dimensional polymer foams. Using cellulose fibres has potential as a foam stabiliser because it obstructs the drainage of liquid from the film region in these gas-oil interfaces while simultaneously acting as a reinforcing agent in the polymer foam. The resulting foams possessed a porosity of approximately 56%, and the incorporation of cellulose fibres did not affect thermal behaviour. Scanning electron micrographs showed randomly oriented pores with irregular shapes and non-uniform pore size throughout the samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Experimental Modeling of a Formula Student Carbon Composite Nose Cone
Materials 2017, 10(6), 620; doi:10.3390/ma10060620
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
A numerical impact study is presented on a Formula Student (FS) racing car carbon composite nose cone. The effect of material model and model parameter selection on the numerical deceleration curves is discussed in light of the experimental deceleration data. The models show
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A numerical impact study is presented on a Formula Student (FS) racing car carbon composite nose cone. The effect of material model and model parameter selection on the numerical deceleration curves is discussed in light of the experimental deceleration data. The models show reasonable correlation in terms of the shape of the deceleration-displacement curves but do not match the peak deceleration values with errors greater that 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Motorsport)
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Open AccessArticle Using B4C Nanoparticles to Enhance Thermal and Mechanical Response of Aluminum
Materials 2017, 10(6), 621; doi:10.3390/ma10060621
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
In this work, Al-B4C nanocomposites were produced by microwave sintering and followed by hot extrusion processes. The influence of ceramic reinforcement (B4C) nanoparticles on the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the extruded Al-B4C nanocomposites was
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In this work, Al-B4C nanocomposites were produced by microwave sintering and followed by hot extrusion processes. The influence of ceramic reinforcement (B4C) nanoparticles on the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the extruded Al-B4C nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the density decreased and porosity increased with an increase in B4C content in aluminum matrix. The porosity of the composites increased whereas density decreased with increasing B4C content. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the uniform distribution of B4C nanoparticles in the Al matrix. Mechanical characterization results revealed that hardness, elastic modulus, compression, and tensile strengths increased whereas ductility decreases with increasing B4C content. Al-1.0 vol. % B4C nanocomposite exhibited best hardness (135.56 Hv), Young’s modulus (88.63 GPa), and compression/tensile strength (524.67/194.41 MPa) among the materials investigated. Further, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites gradually decreased with an increase in B4C content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sparse and Dispersion-Based Matching Pursuit for Minimizing the Dispersion Effect Occurring when Using Guided Wave for Pipe Inspection
Materials 2017, 10(6), 622; doi:10.3390/ma10060622
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information
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Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT) purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP) is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP), the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the effectiveness of SDMP for damage detection results from numerical simulations and experiments on steel pipes are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Two Xenograft Materials Used in Sinus Lift Procedures: Material Characterization and In Vivo Behavior
Materials 2017, 10(6), 623; doi:10.3390/ma10060623
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in
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Detailed information about graft material characteristic is crucial to evaluate their clinical outcomes. The present study evaluates the physico-chemical characteristics of two xenografts manufactured on an industrial scale deproteinized at different temperatures (non-sintered and sintered) in accordance with a protocol previously used in sinus lift procedures. It compares how the physico-chemical properties influence the material’s performance in vivo by a histomorphometric study in retrieved bone biopsies following maxillary sinus augmentation in 10 clinical cases. An X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the typical structure of hydroxyapatite (HA) for both materials. Both xenografts were porous and exhibited intraparticle pores. Strong differences were observed in terms of porosity, crystallinity, and calcium/phosphate. Histomorphometric measurements on the bone biopsies showed statistically significant differences. The physic-chemical assessment of both xenografts, made in accordance with the protocol developed on an industrial scale, confirmed that these products present excellent biocompatibilitity, with similar characteristics to natural bone. The sintered HA xenografts exhibited greater osteoconductivity, but were not completely resorbable (30.80 ± 0.88% residual material). The non-sintered HA xenografts induced about 25.92 ± 1.61% of new bone and a high level of degradation after six months of implantation. Differences in the physico-chemical characteristics found between the two HA xenografts determined a different behavior for this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fracture Surface Morphology and Impact Strength of Cellulose/PLA Composites
Materials 2017, 10(6), 624; doi:10.3390/ma10060624
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Polylactide (PLA)-based composite materials reinforced with ball-milled celluloses were manufactured by extrusion blending followed by injection molding. Their surface morphology from impact fracture were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and investigated by calculating their fractal dimensions. Then, linear regression was used to
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Polylactide (PLA)-based composite materials reinforced with ball-milled celluloses were manufactured by extrusion blending followed by injection molding. Their surface morphology from impact fracture were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and investigated by calculating their fractal dimensions. Then, linear regression was used to explore the relationship between fractal dimension and impact strength of the resultant cellulose/PLA composite materials. The results show that filling the ball-milled celluloses into PLA can improve the impact toughness of PLA by a minimum of 38%. It was demonstrated that the fracture pattern of the cellulose/PLA composite materials is different from that of pristine PLA. For the resultant composite materials, the fractal dimension of the impact fractured surfaces increased with increasing filling content and decreasing particle size of the ball-milled cellulose particles. There were highly positive correlations between fractal dimension of the fractured surfaces and impact strength of the cellulose/PLA composites. However, the linearity between fractal dimension and impact strength were different for the different methods, due to their different R-squared values. The approach presented in this work will help to understand the structure–property relationships of composite materials from a new perspective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Structure and Magnetic Properties of Low Purity Fe-Co-Based Metallic Glasses
Materials 2017, 10(6), 625; doi:10.3390/ma10060625
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper is related to the evaluation of the possibility of using ferroalloys for the production of conventional (CMGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as well as determining their magnetic properties. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based CMGs and BMGs prepared from
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This paper is related to the evaluation of the possibility of using ferroalloys for the production of conventional (CMGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as well as determining their magnetic properties. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based CMGs and BMGs prepared from ferroalloys and pure elements, were studied. The CMGs and BMGs were in the form of ribbons and rods, respectively. The thickness of the ribbons were 0.07, 0.12, and 0.27 mm and the diameters of the rods were 1.5 and 2.5 mm. The investigations of the structure of the test specimens were carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and electron microscopy methods (HRTEM—high-resolution transmission electron microscope, SEM—scanning electron microscope). The relationship between the structure and magnetic properties of the Fe36.00Co36.00B19.00Si5Nb4 and Fe35.75Co35.75B18.90Si5Nb4Cu0.6 CMGs and BMGs was determined. The possibility of using new materials, i.e., CMGs and BMGs, prepared on the basis of ferroalloys, lies in the scope of the presently conducted research and allows us to obtain the utility properties, while avoiding high costs associated with the purchase of raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessCommunication Structure-Controllable Synthesis of Multiferroic YFeO3 Nanopowders and Their Optical and Magnetic Properties
Materials 2017, 10(6), 626; doi:10.3390/ma10060626
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Phase-pure hexagonal and orthorhombic YFeO3 nanopowders are synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reaction along with Zr doping. The obtained powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and physical property measurements. The hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a narrower optical band
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Phase-pure hexagonal and orthorhombic YFeO3 nanopowders are synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reaction along with Zr doping. The obtained powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and physical property measurements. The hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a narrower optical band gap in comparison to the orthorhombic one, while the orthorhombic YFeO3 presents better magnetic properties. The formation of hexagonal or orthorhombic phase can be effectively controlled by Zr doping. The temperature range of synthesizing the hexagonal YFeO3 nanopowders is increased by ~200 °C due to Zr doping so that they can be easily synthesized, which possesses a finer particle size and a smaller optical band gap, making it favorable for optical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the SiCl4 Flow Rate on SiBN Deposition Kinetics in SiCl4-BCl3-NH3-H2-Ar Environment
Materials 2017, 10(6), 627; doi:10.3390/ma10060627
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
To improve the thermal and mechanical stability of SiCf/SiC or C/SiC composites with SiBN interphase, SiBN coating was deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using SiCl4-BCl3-NH3-H2-Ar gas system. The effect of
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To improve the thermal and mechanical stability of SiCf/SiC or C/SiC composites with SiBN interphase, SiBN coating was deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) using SiCl4-BCl3-NH3-H2-Ar gas system. The effect of the SiCl4 flow rate on deposition kinetics was investigated. Results show that deposition rate increases at first and then decreases with the increase of the SiCl4 flow rate. The surface of the coating is a uniform cauliflower-like structure at the SiCl4 flow rate of 10 mL/min and 20 mL/min. The surface is covered with small spherical particles when the flow rate is 30 mL/min. The coatings deposited at various SiCl4 flow rates are all X-ray amorphous and contain Si, B, N, and O elements. The main bonding states are B-N, Si-N, and N-O. B element and B-N bonding decrease with the increase of SiCl4 flow rate, while Si element and Si-N bonding increase. The main deposition mechanism refers to two parallel reactions of BCl3+NH3 and SiCl4+NH3. The deposition process is mainly controlled by the reaction of BCl3+NH3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property
Materials 2017, 10(6), 628; doi:10.3390/ma10060628
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post
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Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope
Materials 2017, 10(6), 630; doi:10.3390/ma10060630
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test
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Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope’s tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Structure and Photocatalytic Properties of Mn-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber Composites
Materials 2017, 10(6), 631; doi:10.3390/ma10060631
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Mn-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/TiO2-WACF) was prepared by sol–gel and impregnation method using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source. The structure of Mn/TiO2–WACF was characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption
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Mn-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/TiO2-WACF) was prepared by sol–gel and impregnation method using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source. The structure of Mn/TiO2–WACF was characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption and UV–Vis, and its photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation was investigated. Results show that Mn-doped TiO2 were loaded on the surface of wood-based activated carbon fiber with high-development pore structures. The crystallite sizes of Mn-doped TiO2 in composites were smaller than that of the undoped samples. With an increase of Mn doping content, Ti–O bending vibration intensity of Mn/TiO2–WACF increased and then decreased. Moreover, Ti–O–Ti and Ti–O–Mn absorption peaks increased upon doping of Mn. Mn/TiO2–WACF with low specific surface area, and pore volume was improved at 3.5–6.0 nm of mesopore distributions due to the Mn-doped TiO2 load. In addition, the UV–Vis showed that Mn/TiO2–WACF (photodegradation rate of 96%) has higher photocatalytic activity than the undoped samples for methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Photocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Stability of an Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-Based Alloy Coating in Oil and Gas Wells with the Coexistence of H2S and CO2
Materials 2017, 10(6), 632; doi:10.3390/ma10060632
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
The stability of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-based alloy coating in a H2S/CO2 environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements, weight loss method, and surface characterization. The results showed that both the cathodic and anodic processes of the Ni-based alloy coating were
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The stability of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-based alloy coating in a H2S/CO2 environment was investigated by electrochemical measurements, weight loss method, and surface characterization. The results showed that both the cathodic and anodic processes of the Ni-based alloy coating were simultaneously suppressed, displaying a dramatic decrease of the corrosion current density. The corrosion of the Ni-based alloy coating was controlled by H2S corrosion and showed general corrosion morphology under the test temperatures. The corrosion products, mainly consisting of Ni3S2, NiS, or Ni3S4, had excellent stability in acid solution. The corrosion rate decreased with the rise of temperature, while the adhesive force of the corrosion scale increased. With the rise of temperature, the deposited morphology and composition of corrosion products changed, the NiS content in the corrosion scale increased, and the stability and adhesive strength of the corrosion scale improved. The corrosion scale of the Ni-based alloy coating was stable, compact, had strong adhesion, and caused low weight loss, so the corrosion rates calculated by the weight loss method cannot reveal the actual oxidation rate of the coating. As the corrosion time was prolonged, the Ni-based coating was thinned while the corrosion scale thickened. The corrosion scale was closely combined with the coating, but cannot fully prevent the corrosive reactants from reaching the substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Discharge Current on Phase Transition Properties of High Quality Polycrystalline VO2 Thin Film Fabricated by HiPIMS
Materials 2017, 10(6), 633; doi:10.3390/ma10060633
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 4 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
To fabricate high-quality polycrystalline VO2 thin film with a metal–insulator transition (MIT) temperature less than 50 °C, high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with different discharge currents was employed in this study. The as-deposited VO2 films were characterized by a four-point probe resistivity
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To fabricate high-quality polycrystalline VO2 thin film with a metal–insulator transition (MIT) temperature less than 50 °C, high-power impulse magnetron sputtering with different discharge currents was employed in this study. The as-deposited VO2 films were characterized by a four-point probe resistivity measurement system, visible-near infrared (IR) transmittance spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity results revealed that all the as-deposited films had a high resistance change in the phase transition process, and the MIT temperature decreased with the increased discharge current, where little deterioration in the phase transition properties, such as the resistance and transmittance changes, could be found. Additionally, XRD patterns at various temperatures exhibited that some reverse deformations that existed in the MIT process of the VO2 film, with a large amount of preferred crystalline orientations. The decrease of the MIT temperature with little deterioration on phase transition properties could be attributed to the reduction of the preferred grain orientations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Extractant Immobilization in Alginate Capsules (Matrix- and Mononuclear-Type): Application to Pb(II) Sorption from HCl Solutions
Materials 2017, 10(6), 634; doi:10.3390/ma10060634
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
The decontamination of dilute industrial effluents is a critical challenge for decreasing the environmental impact of mining and metallurgical activities. As an alternative to conventional processes, new extractant impregnated resins (EIRs) have been synthesized by the immobilization of Cyanex 301 and Cyanex 302
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The decontamination of dilute industrial effluents is a critical challenge for decreasing the environmental impact of mining and metallurgical activities. As an alternative to conventional processes, new extractant impregnated resins (EIRs) have been synthesized by the immobilization of Cyanex 301 and Cyanex 302 in alginate capsules using two different procedures (matrix-type immobilization vs. mononuclear encapsulation). These materials have been tested for Pb(II) sorption from acidic solutions. The Langmuir equation fitted well the sorption isotherms and the maximum sorption capacities vary between 24 and 80 mg·g−1 at pH 1, depending on the type and loading of the extractant in the EIR. Uptake kinetics were controlled by the resistance to intraparticle diffusion; though both the Crank equation (intraparticle diffusion) and pseudo-second order rate equation equally fitted uptake profiles. The amount of extractant immobilized in mononuclear capsules is lower than in matrix-type beads; this leads to lower sorption capacities but slightly better mass transfer properties. The balance between the advantages and drawbacks of the different systems makes more promising matrix-type capsules. The desorption of Pb(II) is possible using 1 M HNO3 solutions: metal ions were completely desorbed. However, the probable oxidation of the extractants (conversion to oxidized forms more sensitive to pH) reduces the sorption efficiency when they are re-used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Empirical Methods for Testing Granular Materials in Analogue Modelling
Materials 2017, 10(6), 635; doi:10.3390/ma10060635
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
The behaviour of a granular material is mainly dependent on its frictional properties, angle of internal friction, and cohesion, which, together with material density, are the key factors to be considered during the scaling procedure of analogue models. The frictional properties of a
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The behaviour of a granular material is mainly dependent on its frictional properties, angle of internal friction, and cohesion, which, together with material density, are the key factors to be considered during the scaling procedure of analogue models. The frictional properties of a granular material are usually investigated by means of technical instruments such as a Hubbert-type apparatus and ring shear testers, which allow for investigating the response of the tested material to a wide range of applied stresses. Here we explore the possibility to determine material properties by means of different empirical methods applied to mixtures of quartz and K-feldspar sand. Empirical methods exhibit the great advantage of measuring the properties of a certain analogue material under the experimental conditions, which are strongly sensitive to the handling techniques. Finally, the results obtained from the empirical methods have been compared with ring shear tests carried out on the same materials, which show a satisfactory agreement with those determined empirically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granular Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Recovery of Silver Using Adsorption Gels Prepared from Microalgal Residue Immobilized with Functional Groups Containing Sulfur or Nitrogen
Materials 2017, 10(6), 636; doi:10.3390/ma10060636
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
Although biodiesel oil extracted from microalgae attracts much attention as one of the most promising green energies, its high production cost is a big problem, impeding its extensive use. In order to lower the production cost, the effective use of microalgal residue after
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Although biodiesel oil extracted from microalgae attracts much attention as one of the most promising green energies, its high production cost is a big problem, impeding its extensive use. In order to lower the production cost, the effective use of microalgal residue after extracting biofuel was investigated as a feed material of functional materials. In the present work, a new adsorbent for silver(I) was prepared by immobilizing functional groups of polyethylene-polyamine or dithiooxamide, which exhibita high affinity for soft Lewis acids such as silver(I) ions. Their adsorption behaviors for silver(I) were investigated from aqueous nitrate and acidothiourea media. The effects of the concentrations of nitrate and thiourea, as well as of sulfuric acid, were qualitatively interpreted. From the study of adsorption isotherms on these gels, they were found to exhibita higher adsorption capacity than the majority of those reported to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Light Transmission Ability of Reinforcing Glass Fibers Used in Polymer Composites
Materials 2017, 10(6), 637; doi:10.3390/ma10060637
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
This goal of our research was to show that E-glass fiber bundles used for reinforcing composites can be enabled to transmit light in a common resin without any special preparation (without removing the sizing). The power of the transmitted light was measured and
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This goal of our research was to show that E-glass fiber bundles used for reinforcing composites can be enabled to transmit light in a common resin without any special preparation (without removing the sizing). The power of the transmitted light was measured and the attenuation coefficient, which characterizes the fiber bundle, was determined. Although the attenuation coefficient depends on temperature and the wavelength of the light, it is independent of the power of incident light, the quality of coupling, and the length of the specimen. The refractive index of commercially available transparent resins was measured and it was proved that a resin with a refractive index lower than that of the fiber can be used to make a composite whose fibers are capable of transmitting light. The effects of temperature, compression of the fibers, and the shape of fiber ends on the power of transmitted light were examined. The measurement of emitted light can provide information about the health of the fibers. This can be the basis of a simple health monitoring system in the case of general-purpose composite structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Imaging during Compression of Plastic Bonded Explosives for Damage Modeling
Materials 2017, 10(6), 638; doi:10.3390/ma10060638
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain
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The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems. The binders were hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) cured with a commercial blend of acrylic monomers/oligomers. The binder density is approximately half of the HMX, allowing for excellent contrast using in situ X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The samples were imaged during unaxial compression using micro-scale CT in an interrupted in situ modality. The rigidity of the binder was observed to significantly influence fracture, crystal-binder delamination, and flow. Additionally, 2D slices from the segmented 3D images were meshed for finite element simulation of the mesoscale response. At low stiffness, the binder and crystal do not delaminate and the crystals move with the material flow; at high stiffness, marked delamination is noted between the crystals and the binder, leading to very different mechanical properties. Initial model results exhibit qualitatively similar delamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Bacterial Nanocellulose Production and Structure Using the Low pH Resistant Strain Komagataeibacter Medellinensis
Materials 2017, 10(6), 639; doi:10.3390/ma10060639
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
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Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganism of different genera. Recently, new producer species have been discovered, which require identification of the most important variables affecting cellulose production. In this work, the influence of different carbon sources in BC
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Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer obtained by fermentation with microorganism of different genera. Recently, new producer species have been discovered, which require identification of the most important variables affecting cellulose production. In this work, the influence of different carbon sources in BC production by a novel low pH-resistant strain Komagataeibacter medellinensis was established. The Hestrin-Schramm culture medium was used as a reference and was compared to other media comprising glucose, fructose, and sucrose, used as carbon sources at three concentrations (1, 2, and 3% w/v). The BC yield and dynamics of carbon consumption were determined at given fermentation times during cellulose production. While the carbon source did not influence the BC structural characteristics, different production levels were determined: glucose > sucrose > fructose. These results highlight considerations to improve BC industrial production and to establish the BC property space for applications in different fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Controlled Cooling in Bimodal Scaffold Fabrication Using Polymers with Different Melting Temperatures
Materials 2017, 10(6), 640; doi:10.3390/ma10060640
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
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Abstract
The combination of different materials and capabilities to manufacture at several scales open new possibilities in scaffold design for bone regeneration. This work is focused on bimodal scaffolds that combine polylactic acid (PLA) melt extruded strands with polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun fibers. This type
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The combination of different materials and capabilities to manufacture at several scales open new possibilities in scaffold design for bone regeneration. This work is focused on bimodal scaffolds that combine polylactic acid (PLA) melt extruded strands with polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun fibers. This type of bimodal scaffold offers better mechanical properties, compared to the use of PCL for the extruded strands, and provides potential a means for controlled drug and/or growth factor delivery through the electrospun fibers. The technologies of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and electrospinning were combined to create 3D bimodal constructs. The system uses a controlled cooling system allowing the combination of polymers with different melting temperatures to generate integrated scaffold architecture. The thermoplastic polymers used in the FDM process enhance the mechanical properties of the bimodal scaffold and control the pore structure. Integrated layers of electrospun microfibers induce an increase of the surface area for cell culture purposes, as well as potential in situ controlled drug and/or growth factor delivery. The proposed bimodal scaffolds (PLA extruded strands and PCL electrospun fibers) show appropriate morphology and better mechanical properties when compared to the use of PCL extruded strands. On average, bimodal scaffolds with overall dimensions of 30 × 30 × 2.4 mm3 (strand diameter of 0.5 mm, strand stepover of 2.5 mm, pore size of 2 mm, and layer height of 0.3 mm) showed scaffold stiffness of 23.73 MPa and compression strength of 3.85 MPa. A cytotoxicity assay based human fibroblasts showed viability of the scaffold materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication A Novel Electro-Thermal Laminated Ceramic with Carbon-Based Layer
Materials 2017, 10(6), 641; doi:10.3390/ma10060641
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
A novel electro-thermal laminated ceramic composed of ceramic tile, carbon-based layer, dielectric layer, and foaming ceramic layer was designed and prepared by tape casting. The surface temperature achieved at an applied voltage of 10 V by the laminated ceramics was 40.3 °C when
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A novel electro-thermal laminated ceramic composed of ceramic tile, carbon-based layer, dielectric layer, and foaming ceramic layer was designed and prepared by tape casting. The surface temperature achieved at an applied voltage of 10 V by the laminated ceramics was 40.3 °C when the thickness of carbon-based suspension was 1.0 mm and the adhesive strength between ceramic tile and carbon-based layer was 1.02 ± 0.06 MPa. In addition, the thermal aging results at 100 °C up to 192 h confirmed the high thermal stability and reliability of the electro-thermal laminated ceramics. The development of this laminated ceramic with excellent electro-thermal properties and safety provides a new individual heating device which is highly expected to be widely applied in the field of indoor heat supply. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge
Materials 2017, 10(6), 642; doi:10.3390/ma10060642
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
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Abstract
In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons
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In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Caries Effects of Dental Adhesives Containing Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylates with Different Chain Lengths
Materials 2017, 10(6), 643; doi:10.3390/ma10060643
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with different alkyl chain lengths (CL) on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with different alkyl chain lengths (CL) on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and 16 and incorporated into adhesives. Micro-tensile bond strength and surface charge density were used to measure the physical properties of the adhesives. The proportion change in three-species biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii was tested using the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lactic acid assay, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, exopolysaccharide staining, live/dead staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transverse microradiography (TMR) were performed to study the anti-biofilm and anti-demineralization effects of the dental adhesives. The results showed that incorporating QAMs with different alkyl chain lengths into the adhesives had no obvious effect on the dentin bond strength. The adhesives containing QAMs with a longer alkyl chain developed healthier biofilms. The surface charge density, anti-biofilm, and anti-demineralization effects of the adhesives increased with a CL of the QAMs from 3 to 12, but decreased slightly with a CL from 12 to 16. In conclusion, adhesives containing QAMs with a tailored chain length are promising for preventing secondary caries in an “ecological way”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Implant Stability of Biological Hydroxyapatites Used in Dentistry
Materials 2017, 10(6), 644; doi:10.3390/ma10060644
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first six months of healing by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement
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The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first six months of healing by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement and healing sites. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 10 patients in a split-mouth design using a bobine HA (BBM) as a control and porcine HA (PBM). Six months after sinus lifting, 60 implants were placed in the posterior maxilla. The ISQ was recorded on the day of surgery from RFA at T1 (baseline), T2 (three months), and T3 (six months). Statistically significant differences were found in the ISQ values during the evaluation period. The ISQ (baseline) was 63.8 ± 2.97 for BBM and 62.6 ± 2.11 for PBM. The ISQ (T2) was ~73.5 ± 4.21 and 67 ± 4.99, respectively. The ISQ (T3) was ~74.65 ± 2.93 and 72.9 ± 2.63, respectively. All of the used HAs provide osseointegration and statistical increases in the ISQ at baseline, T2 and T3 (follow-up), respectively. The BBM, sintered at high temperature with high crystallinity and low porosity, presented higher stability, which demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of a bone substitute material clearly influence implant stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Anderson Insulators in Self-Assembled Gold Nanoparticles Thin Films: Single Electron Hopping between Charge Puddles Originated from Disorder
Materials 2017, 10(6), 645; doi:10.3390/ma10060645
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
The Anderson insulating states in Au nanoparticle assembly are identified and studied under the application of magnetic fields and gate voltages. When the inter-nanoparticle tunneling resistance is smaller than the quantum resistance, the system showing zero Mott gap can be insulating at very
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The Anderson insulating states in Au nanoparticle assembly are identified and studied under the application of magnetic fields and gate voltages. When the inter-nanoparticle tunneling resistance is smaller than the quantum resistance, the system showing zero Mott gap can be insulating at very low temperature. In contrast to Mott insulators, Anderson insulators exhibit great negative magnetoresistance, inferring charge delocalization in a strong magnetic field. When probed by the electrodes spaced by ~200 nm, they also exhibit interesting gate-modulated current similar to the multi-dot single electron transistors. These results reveal the formation of charge puddles due to the interplay of disorder and quantum interference at low temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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