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Materials 2017, 10(5), 547; doi:10.3390/ma10050547

Characterizing Hypervelocity Impact (HVI)-Induced Pitting Damage Using Active Guided Ultrasonic Waves: From Linear to Nonlinear

1
Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632, Singapore
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
3
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
4
School of Automation, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dirk Lehmhus
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)

Abstract

Hypervelocity impact (HVI), ubiquitous in low Earth orbit with an impacting velocity in excess of 1 km/s, poses an immense threat to the safety of orbiting spacecraft. Upon penetration of the outer shielding layer of a typical two-layer shielding system, the shattered projectile, together with the jetted materials of the outer shielding material, subsequently impinge the inner shielding layer, to which pitting damage is introduced. The pitting damage includes numerous craters and cracks disorderedly scattered over a wide region. Targeting the quantitative evaluation of this sort of damage (multitudinous damage within a singular inspection region), a characterization strategy, associating linear with nonlinear features of guided ultrasonic waves, is developed. Linear-wise, changes in the signal features in the time domain (e.g., time-of-flight and energy dissipation) are extracted, for detecting gross damage whose characteristic dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of the probing wave; nonlinear-wise, changes in the signal features in the frequency domain (e.g., second harmonic generation), which are proven to be more sensitive than their linear counterparts to small-scale damage, are explored to characterize HVI-induced pitting damage scattered in the inner layer. A numerical simulation, supplemented with experimental validation, quantitatively reveals the accumulation of nonlinearity of the guided waves when the waves traverse the pitting damage, based on which linear and nonlinear damage indices are proposed. A path-based rapid imaging algorithm, in conjunction with the use of the developed linear and nonlinear indices, is developed, whereby the HVI-induced pitting damage is characterized in images in terms of the probability of occurrence. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypervelocity impact; ultrasonic guided waves; nonlinear; structural health monitoring; space structures hypervelocity impact; ultrasonic guided waves; nonlinear; structural health monitoring; space structures
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, M.; Wang, K.; Lissenden, C.J.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, Q.; Long, R.; Su, Z.; Cui, F. Characterizing Hypervelocity Impact (HVI)-Induced Pitting Damage Using Active Guided Ultrasonic Waves: From Linear to Nonlinear. Materials 2017, 10, 547.

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