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Special Issue "Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Michael Zinigrad

Materials Research Center, Head, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mathematical modeling and simulation of high temperature processes (welding, build-up processes, casting); mechanical alloying; electrochemical processes; ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
Guest Editor
Dr. Konstantin Borodianskiy

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Materials Research Center, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Interests: casting of non-ferrous alloys; metallurgy of welding processes; metals strengthening; mechanical alloying; X-ray diffraction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallurgical processes have played a highly scientific and industrial role in materials technology since the beginning of last century. One of the most important and complicated problems in this field is obtaining materials with the required chemical composition, structure and properties.

One solution to this problem depends on progress in computer technology, modeling of real industrial processes for which there were previously unknown solutions, or these methods were so tedious that they proved to be unsuitable for practical application. The development of modeling methods for predicting the chemical composition and microstructure of the weld and cast metal, opens up the possibility of optimizing the metallurgical process in the design stage by selecting the initial materials as well as technological parameters that would ensure the materials’ required properties.

Another solution depends on the development of combined novel technologies where traditional metallurgy joins up with advanced techniques such as nanoscience. During the last decade there were more and more works dedicated to the interaction between metallic materials and nano-compounds for obtaining materials with enhanced mechanical, physical and chemical properties.

The scope of the forthcoming Special Issue will focus on recent innovative and pioneering works in the field of metallurgical processes of welding, joining and casting. Topics include, without being limited to:

  • Ferrous and non-ferrous welding processes
  • Advanced methods of metal joining
  • Mathematical modeling of welding and build-up processes
  • Casting of advanced materials
  • Alloying and modification of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys

We invite our colleagues to submit a manuscript which can be in the form of a full paper, communication or a review to this Special Issue.

Prof. Michael Zinigrad
Dr. Konstantin Borodianskiy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Welding
  • Soldering
  • Brazing
  • Casting
  • Modeling
  • Metallurgy
  • Alloying
  • Modification
  • Advanced metals properties

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Explosive Welding of Tungsten Foil to Copper
Materials 2017, 10(9), 984; doi:10.3390/ma10090984
Received: 28 May 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
This work verifies that the W foil could be successfully welded on Cu through conventional explosive welding, without any cracks. The microstructure was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The W/Cu interface exhibited a wavy morphology,
[...] Read more.
This work verifies that the W foil could be successfully welded on Cu through conventional explosive welding, without any cracks. The microstructure was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The W/Cu interface exhibited a wavy morphology, and no intermetallic or transition layer was observed. The wavy interface formation, as well as the distributions of temperature, pressure and plastic strain at the interface were studied through numerical simulation with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The welding mechanism of W/Cu was analyzed according to the numerical results and experimental observation, which was in accordance with the indentation mechanism proposed by Bahrani. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2017, 10(7), 786; doi:10.3390/ma10070786
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process,
[...] Read more.
One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi7Fe1 casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals’ microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al10SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al2O3 precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Low-Frequency Vibration and Modification on Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si Casting Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(5), 560; doi:10.3390/ma10050560
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However,
[...] Read more.
One of the major aims of the modern materials foundry industry is the achievement of advanced mechanical properties of metals, especially of light non-ferrous alloys such as aluminum. Usually an alloying process is applied to obtain the required properties of aluminum alloys. However, the presented work describes an alternative approach through the application of vibration treatment, modification by ultrafine powder and a combination of these two methods. Microstructural studies followed by image analysis revealed the refinement of α-Al grains with an increase in the Si network area around them. As evidence, the improvement of the mechanical properties of Al casting alloy was detected. It was found that the alloys subjected to the vibration treatment displayed an increase in tensile and yield strengths by 20% and 10%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Microstructural Evolution of Vacuum Brazed 1Cr18Ni9Ti Using Various Filler Metals
Materials 2017, 10(4), 385; doi:10.3390/ma10040385
Received: 22 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the
[...] Read more.
The microstructures and weldability of a brazed joint of 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel with BNi-2, BNi82CrSiBFe and BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metals in vacuum were investigated. It can be observed that an interdiffusion region existed between the filler metal and the base metal for the brazed joint of Ni-based filler metals. The width of the interdiffusion region was about 10 μm, and the microstructure of the brazed joint of BNi-2 filler metal was dense and free of obvious defects. In the case of the brazed joint of BMn50NiCuCrCo filler metal, there were pits, pores and crack defects in the brazing joint due to insufficient wettability of the filler metal. Crack defects can also be observed in the brazed joint of BNi82CrSiBFe filler metal. Compared with BMn50NiCuCrCo and BNi82CrSiBFe filler metals, BNi-2 filler metal is the best material for 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel vacuum brazing because of its distinct weldability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Solidification Behavior on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Superalloy Investment Casting
Materials 2017, 10(3), 250; doi:10.3390/ma10030250
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm,
[...] Read more.
The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of the Laves phase increases from 0.3% to 1.2%, from 11.7 μm to 23.4 μm, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of carbides increase from 0.3% to 0.5%, from 8.1 μm to 9.9 μm, respectively. In addition, the volume fraction of microporosity increases from 0.3% to 2.7%. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength is reduced from 1125.5 MPa to 820.9 MPa, the elongation from 13.3% to 7.7%, and the quality index from 1294.2 MPa to 954.0 MPa, respectively. A typical brittle fracture is observed on the tensile fracture. As the cooling rate decreases, the microstructures become coarser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Welding Energy on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic-Welded Copper Joints
Materials 2017, 10(2), 193; doi:10.3390/ma10020193
Received: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld
[...] Read more.
The effects of welding energy on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of ultrasonic-welded pure copper plates were investigated. Complex dynamic recrystallization and grain growth occurred inside the weld zone during ultrasonic welding. At a low welding energy, a thin band of straight weld interfaces was observed and had an ultra-fine grain structure. With an increase in welding energy, the weld interface progressively changed from flat to sinusoidal, and eventually turned into a convoluted wavy pattern, bearing similarities to shear instabilities, as observed in fluid dynamics. The lap shear load of the joints initially increased and then remained stable as the welding energy increased. The tensile characteristics of the joints significantly depended on the development of plastic deformation at the interface. The influence of the microstructure on the hardness was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Creep Rupture of the Simulated HAZ of T92 Steel Compared to that of a T91 Steel
Materials 2017, 10(2), 139; doi:10.3390/ma10020139
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
PDF Full-text (14269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased thermal efficiency of fossil power plants calls for the development of advanced creep-resistant alloy steels like T92. In this study, microstructures found in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a T92 steel weld were simulated to evaluate their creep-rupture-life at elevated temperatures.
[...] Read more.
The increased thermal efficiency of fossil power plants calls for the development of advanced creep-resistant alloy steels like T92. In this study, microstructures found in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a T92 steel weld were simulated to evaluate their creep-rupture-life at elevated temperatures. An infrared heating system was used to heat the samples to 860 °C (around AC1), 900 °C (slightly below AC3), and 940 °C (moderately above AC3) for one minute, before cooling to room temperature. The simulated specimens were then subjected to a conventional post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 750 °C for two hours, where both the 900 °C and 940 °C simulated specimens had fine grain sizes. In the as-treated condition, the 900 °C simulated specimen consisted of fine lath martensite, ferrite subgrains, and undissolved carbides, while residual carbides and fresh martensite were found in the 940 °C simulated specimen. The results of short-term creep tests indicated that the creep resistance of the 900 °C and 940 °C simulated specimens was poorer than that of the 860 °C simulated specimens and the base metal. Moreover, simulated T92 steel samples had higher creep strength than the T91 counterpart specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Refining Mechanism of Super Gravity on the Solidification Structure of Al-Cu Alloys
Materials 2016, 9(12), 1001; doi:10.3390/ma9121001
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is far less study of the refining effect of super gravity fields on solidification structures of metals than of the effects of electrical currents, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Moreover, the refining mechanisms of super gravity are far from clear. This study applied
[...] Read more.
There is far less study of the refining effect of super gravity fields on solidification structures of metals than of the effects of electrical currents, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Moreover, the refining mechanisms of super gravity are far from clear. This study applied a super gravity field to Al-Cu alloys to investigate its effect on refining their structures and the mechanism of interaction. The experimental results showed that the solidification structure of Al-Cu alloys can be greatly refined by a super gravity field. The major refining effect was mainly achieved when super gravity was applied at the initial solidification stage; only slight refinement could be obtained towards the end of solidification. No refinement was obtained by the super gravity treatment on pure liquid or solid stages. The effectiveness of super gravity results from its promoting the multiplication of crystal nuclei, which we call “Heavy Crystal Rain”, thereby greatly strengthening the migration of crystal nuclei within the alloy. Increasing the solute Cu content can increase nucleation density and restrict the growth of crystals, which further increases the refining effect of super gravity. Within this paper, we also discuss the motile behavior of crystals in a field of super gravity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Evaluating the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Foundry Alloys through Reference Castings—A Review
Materials 2017, 10(9), 1011; doi:10.3390/ma10091011
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
PDF Full-text (4052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and
[...] Read more.
The tensile properties of an alloy can be exploited if detrimental defects and imperfections of the casting are minimized and the microstructural characteristics are optimized through several strategies that involve die design, process management and metal treatments. This paper presents an analysis and comparison of the salient characteristics of the reference dies proposed in the literature, both in the field of pressure and gravity die-casting. The specimens produced with these reference dies, called separately poured specimens, are effective tools for the evaluation and comparison of the tensile and physical behaviors of Al-Si casting alloys. Some of the findings of the present paper have been recently developed in the frame of the European StaCast project whose results are complemented here with some more recent outcomes and a comprehensive analysis and discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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