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Sensors, Volume 15, Issue 11 (November 2015), Pages 27393-29764

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Open AccessArticle UAVs Task and Motion Planning in the Presence of Obstacles and Prioritized Targets
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29734-29764; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129734
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intertwined task assignment and motion planning problem of assigning a team of fixed-winged unmanned aerial vehicles to a set of prioritized targets in an environment with obstacles is addressed. It is assumed that the targets’ locations and initial priorities are determined using
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The intertwined task assignment and motion planning problem of assigning a team of fixed-winged unmanned aerial vehicles to a set of prioritized targets in an environment with obstacles is addressed. It is assumed that the targets’ locations and initial priorities are determined using a network of unattended ground sensors used to detect potential threats at restricted zones. The targets are characterized by a time-varying level of importance, and timing constraints must be fulfilled before a vehicle is allowed to visit a specific target. It is assumed that the vehicles are carrying body-fixed sensors and, thus, are required to approach a designated target while flying straight and level. The fixed-winged aerial vehicles are modeled as Dubins vehicles, i.e., having a constant speed and a minimum turning radius constraint. The investigated integrated problem of task assignment and motion planning is posed in the form of a decision tree, and two search algorithms are proposed: an exhaustive algorithm that improves over run time and provides the minimum cost solution, encoded in the tree, and a greedy algorithm that provides a quick feasible solution. To satisfy the target’s visitation timing constraint, a path elongation motion planning algorithm amidst obstacles is provided. Using simulations, the performance of the algorithms is compared, evaluated and exemplified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV Sensors for Environmental Monitoring) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Modified Rife Algorithm for Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Representations
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29721-29733; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129721
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses
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In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses sparse representations based on weighted eigenvectors (SRBWEV) to deal with the MMV problem. MMV problem can be changed to single measurement vector (SMV) problem by using the linear combination of eigenvectors of array covariance matrix in signal subspace as a new SMV for sparse solution calculation. So the complexity of this proposed algorithm is smaller than other DOA estimation algorithms of MMV. Meanwhile, it can overcome the limitation of the conventional sparsity-based DOA estimation approaches that the unknown directions belong to a predefined discrete angular grid, so it can further improve the DOA estimation accuracy. The modified Rife algorithm for DOA estimation (MRife-DOA) is simulated based on SRBWEV algorithm. In this proposed algorithm, the largest and sub-largest inner products between the measurement vector or its residual and the atoms in the dictionary are utilized to further modify DOA estimation according to the principle of Rife algorithm and the basic idea of coarse-to-fine estimation. Finally, simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and can reduce the DOA estimation error caused by grid effect with lower complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle SSL: Signal Similarity-Based Localization for Ocean Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29702-29720; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129702
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for ocean scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes’ positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches
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Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for ocean scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes’ positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches heavily depend on extra hardware capabilities, while range-free ones often suffer from poor accuracy and low scalability, far from the practical ocean monitoring applications. In response to the above limitations, this paper proposes a novel signal similarity-based localization (SSL) technology, which localizes the nodes’ positions by fully utilizing the similarity of received signal strength and the open-air characteristics of the sea surface. In the localization process, we first estimate the relative distance between neighboring nodes through comparing the similarity of received signal strength and then calculate the relative distance for non-neighboring nodes with the shortest path algorithm. After that, the nodes’ relative relation map of the whole network can be obtained. Given at least three anchors, the physical locations of nodes can be finally determined based on the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technology. The design is evaluated by two types of ocean experiments: a zonal network and a non-regular network using 28 nodes. Results show that the proposed design improves the localization accuracy compared to typical connectivity-based approaches and also confirm its effectiveness for large-scale ocean sensor networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks 2016)
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Open AccessReview Tunable Microfluidic Devices for Hydrodynamic Fractionation of Cells and Beads: A Review
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29685-29701; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129685
Received: 3 September 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adjustable microfluidic devices that have been developed for hydrodynamic-based fractionation of beads and cells are important for fast performance tunability through interaction of mechanical properties of particles in fluid flow and mechanically flexible microstructures. In this review, the research works reported on
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The adjustable microfluidic devices that have been developed for hydrodynamic-based fractionation of beads and cells are important for fast performance tunability through interaction of mechanical properties of particles in fluid flow and mechanically flexible microstructures. In this review, the research works reported on fabrication and testing of the tunable elastomeric microfluidic devices for applications such as separation, filtration, isolation, and trapping of single or bulk of microbeads or cells are discussed. Such microfluidic systems for rapid performance alteration are classified in two groups of bulk deformation of microdevices using external mechanical forces, and local deformation of microstructures using flexible membrane by pneumatic pressure. The main advantage of membrane-based tunable systems has been addressed to be the high capability of integration with other microdevice components. The stretchable devices based on bulk deformation of microstructures have in common advantage of simplicity in design and fabrication process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Fluidic Devices and Bio-MEMS)
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Open AccessArticle The Indoor Localization and Tracking Estimation Method of Mobile Targets in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29661-29684; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129661
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoor localization is a significant research area in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Generally, the nodes of WSNs are deployed in the same plane, i.e., the floor, as the target to be positioned, which causes the sensing signal to be influenced or even blocked
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Indoor localization is a significant research area in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Generally, the nodes of WSNs are deployed in the same plane, i.e., the floor, as the target to be positioned, which causes the sensing signal to be influenced or even blocked by unpredictable obstacles, like furniture. However, a 3D system, like Cricket, can reduce the negative impact of obstacles to the maximum extent and guarantee the sensing signal transmission by using the line of sight (LOS). However, most of the traditional localization methods are not available for the new deployment mode. In this paper, we propose the self-localization of beacons method based on the Cayley–Menger determinant, which can determine the positions of beacons stuck in the ceiling; and differential sensitivity analysis (DSA) is also applied to eliminate measurement errors in measurement data fusion. Then, the calibration of beacons scheme is proposed to further refine the locations of beacons by the mobile robot. According to the robot’s motion model based on dead reckoning, which is the process of determining one’s current position, we employ the H ∞ filter and the strong tracking filter (STF) to calibrate the rough locations, respectively. Lastly, the optimal node selection scheme based on geometric dilution precision (GDOP) is presented here, which is able to pick the group of beacons with the minimum GDOP from all of the beacons. Then, we propose the GDOP-based weighting estimation method (GWEM) to associate redundant information with the position of the target. To verify the proposed methods in the paper, we design and conduct a simulation and an experiment in an indoor setting. Compared to EKF and the H ∞ filter, the adopted STF method can more effectively calibrate the locations of beacons; GWEM can provide centimeter-level precision in 3D environments by using the combination of beacons that minimizes GDOP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Study and Test of a New Bundle-Structure Riser Stress Monitoring Sensor Based on FBG
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29648-29660; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129648
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252
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To meet the requirements of riser safety monitoring in offshore oil fields, a new Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based bundle-structure riser stress monitoring sensor has been developed. In cooperation with many departments, a 49-day marine test in water depths of 1365 m and 1252 m was completed on the “HYSY-981” ocean oil drilling platform. No welding and pasting were used when the sensor was installed on risers. Therefore, the installation is convenient, reliable and harmless to risers. The continuous, reasonable, time-consistent data obtained indicates that the sensor worked normally under water. In all detailed working conditions, the test results show that the sensor can do well in reflecting stresses and bending moments both in and in magnitude. The measured maximum stress is 132.7 MPa, which is below the allowable stress. In drilling and testing conditions, the average riser stress was 86.6 MPa, which is within the range of the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) mechanical simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Harsh Environments)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29635-29647; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129635
Received: 3 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans
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Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Particle Fabrication Using Inkjet Printing onto Hydrophobic Surfaces for Optimization and Calibration of Trace Contraband Detection Sensors
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29618-29634; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129618
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method has been developed to fabricate patterned arrays of micrometer-sized monodisperse solid particles of ammonium nitrate on hydrophobic silicon surfaces using inkjet printing. The method relies on dispensing one or more microdrops of a concentrated aqueous ammonium nitrate solution from a drop-on-demand
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A method has been developed to fabricate patterned arrays of micrometer-sized monodisperse solid particles of ammonium nitrate on hydrophobic silicon surfaces using inkjet printing. The method relies on dispensing one or more microdrops of a concentrated aqueous ammonium nitrate solution from a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printer at specific locations on a silicon substrate rendered hydrophobic by a perfluorodecytrichlorosilane monolayer coating. The deposited liquid droplets form into the shape of a spherical shaped cap; during the evaporation process, a deposited liquid droplet maintains this geometry until it forms a solid micrometer sized particle. Arrays of solid particles are obtained by sequential translation of the printer stage. The use of DOD inkjet printing for fabrication of discrete particle arrays allows for precise control of particle characteristics (mass, diameter and height), as well as the particle number and spatial distribution on the substrate. The final mass of an individual particle is precisely determined by using gravimetric measurement of the average mass of solution ejected per microdrop. The primary application of this method is fabrication of test materials for the evaluation of spatially-resolved optical and mass spectrometry based sensors used for detecting particle residues of contraband materials, such as explosives or narcotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29594-29617; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129594
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (38257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging
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Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Robots)
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Open AccessArticle Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29569-29593; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129569
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (5228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results.
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Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29547-29568; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129547
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum
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Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29535-29546; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129535
Received: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (3042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire
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Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fire Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Lettuce Discoloration Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29511-29534; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129511
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging methods, employing both a single waveband algorithm and multi-spectral algorithms, were developed in order to discrimination between sound and discolored lettuce. Reflectance spectra for sound and discolored lettuce surfaces were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained in the
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Rapid visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging methods, employing both a single waveband algorithm and multi-spectral algorithms, were developed in order to discrimination between sound and discolored lettuce. Reflectance spectra for sound and discolored lettuce surfaces were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between discolored and sound lettuce surfaces were determined using one-way analysis of variance. Multi-spectral imaging algorithms developed using ratio and subtraction functions resulted in enhanced classification accuracy of above 99.9% for discolored and sound areas on both adaxial and abaxial lettuce surfaces. Ratio imaging (RI) and subtraction imaging (SI) algorithms at wavelengths of 552/701 nm and 557–701 nm, respectively, exhibited better classification performances compared to results obtained for all possible two-waveband combinations. These results suggest that hyperspectral reflectance imaging techniques can potentially be used to discriminate between discolored and sound fresh-cut lettuce. Full article
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Open AccessArticle TF4SM: A Framework for Developing Traceability Solutions in Small Manufacturing Companies
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29478-29510; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129478
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems,
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Nowadays, manufacturing processes have become highly complex. Besides, more and more, governmental institutions require companies to implement systems to trace a product’s life (especially for foods, clinical materials or similar items). In this paper, we propose a new framework, based on cyber-physical systems, for developing traceability systems in small manufacturing companies (which because of their size cannot implement other commercial products). We propose a general theoretical framework, study the requirements of these companies in relation to traceability systems, propose a reference architecture based on both previous elements and build the first minimum functional prototype, to compare our solution to a traditional tag-based traceability system. Results show that our system reduces the number of inefficiencies and reaction time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29467-29477; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151129467
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
PDF Full-text (1983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional
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This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Schemes for Biosensors and Biomedical Devices)
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