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Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29233-29249; doi:10.3390/s151129233

An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

1
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, University of Valladolid, Valladolid 47011, Spain
2
Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, University of Valladolid, Valladolid 47011, Spain
3
Department of Electronic Technology, Engineers School, University of Valladolid, Valladolid 47011, Spain
4
Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, Valladolid 47011, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1391 KB, uploaded 19 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM) modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo). The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS) evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately. View Full-Text
Keywords: LbL; EQCM; phthalocyanine; must; grapes; electronic tongue LbL; EQCM; phthalocyanine; must; grapes; electronic tongue
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Hernandez, C.; Medina-Plaza, C.; Garcia-Cabezon, C.; Martin-Pedrosa, F.; del Valle, I.; de Saja, J.A.; Rodríguez-Méndez, M.L. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts. Sensors 2015, 15, 29233-29249.

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