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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2013), Pages 1-1384

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Open AccessArticle Investigation of a Passive Sensor Array for Diagnosis of Loosening of Endoprosthetic Implants
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1-20; doi:10.3390/s130100001
Received: 23 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, imaging methods are used to diagnose loosening of endoprosthetic implants, but fail to achieve 100% accuracy. In this study, a passive sensor array which is based on the interaction between magnetic oscillators inside the implant and an excitation coil outside the patient
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Currently, imaging methods are used to diagnose loosening of endoprosthetic implants, but fail to achieve 100% accuracy. In this study, a passive sensor array which is based on the interaction between magnetic oscillators inside the implant and an excitation coil outside the patient was investigated. The excited oscillators produce sound in the audible range, which varies according to the extent of loosening. By performing several experimental tests, the sensor array was optimized to guarantee reproducible and selective excitation of the sound emission. Variation in the distance between the oscillators demonstrated a definite influence on the quality of the generated sound signal. Furthermore, a numerical design analysis using the boundary element method was generated for consideration of the magnetic field and the selectivity of the oscillators during excitation. The numerical simulation of the coil showed the higher selectivity of a coil with a C-shape compared to a cylindrical coil. Based on these investigations, the passive sensor system reveals the potential for detection of implant loosening. Future aims include the further miniaturization of the oscillators and measurements to determine the sensitivity of the proposed sensor system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany 2012)
Open AccessArticle Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 21-38; doi:10.3390/s130100021
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic
[...] Read more.
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workshop Sensing A Changing World 2012)
Open AccessArticle Fiber Loop Ringdown Sensor for Potential Real-Time Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Structures: An Exploratory Study
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 39-57; doi:10.3390/s130100039
Received: 7 October 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) concrete crack sensor is described for the first time. A bare single mode fiber (SMF), without using other optical components or chemical coatings, etc., was utilized to construct the sensor head, which was driven by a FLRD
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A fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) concrete crack sensor is described for the first time. A bare single mode fiber (SMF), without using other optical components or chemical coatings, etc., was utilized to construct the sensor head, which was driven by a FLRD sensor system. The performance of the sensor was evaluated on concrete bars with dimensions 20 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm, made in our laboratory. Cracks were produced manually and the responses of the sensor were recorded in terms of ringdown times. The sensor demonstrated detection of the surface crack width (SCW) of 0.5 mm, which leads to a theoretical SCW detection limit of 31 μm. The sensor’s response to a cracking event is near real-time (1.5 s). A large dynamic range of crack detection ranging from a few microns (μm) to a few millimeters is expected from this sensor. With the distinct features, such as simplicity, temperature independence, near real-time response, high SCW detection sensitivity, and a large dynamic range, this FLRD crack sensor appears promising for detections of cracks when embedded in concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Flow Cell Design for Effective Biosensing
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 58-70; doi:10.3390/s130100058
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The efficiency of three different biosensor flow cells is reported. All three flow cells featured a central channel that expands in the vicinity of the sensing element to provide the same diameter active region, but the rate of channel expansion and contraction varied
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The efficiency of three different biosensor flow cells is reported. All three flow cells featured a central channel that expands in the vicinity of the sensing element to provide the same diameter active region, but the rate of channel expansion and contraction varied between the designs. For each cell the rate at which the analyte concentration in the sensor chamber responds to a change in the influent analyte concentration was determined numerically using a finite element model and experimentally using a flow-fluorescence technique. Reduced flow cell efficiency with increasing flow rates was observed for all three designs and was related to the increased importance of diffusion relative to advection, with efficiency being limited by the development of regions of recirculating flow (eddies). However, the onset of eddy development occurred at higher flow rates for the design with the most gradual channel expansion, producing a considerably more efficient flow cell across the range of flow rates considered in this study. It is recommended that biosensor flow cells be designed to minimize the tendency towards, and be operated under conditions that prevent the development of flow recirculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Foreign Object Detection by Sub-Terahertz Quasi-Bessel Beam Imaging
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 71-85; doi:10.3390/s130100071
Received: 23 October 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food quality monitoring, particularly foreign object detection, has recently become a critical issue for the food industry. In contrast to X-ray imaging, terahertz imaging can provide a safe and ionizing-radiation-free nondestructive inspection method for foreign object sensing. In this work, a quasi-Bessel beam
[...] Read more.
Food quality monitoring, particularly foreign object detection, has recently become a critical issue for the food industry. In contrast to X-ray imaging, terahertz imaging can provide a safe and ionizing-radiation-free nondestructive inspection method for foreign object sensing. In this work, a quasi-Bessel beam (QBB) known to be nondiffracting was generated by a conical dielectric lens to detect foreign objects in food samples. Using numerical evaluation via the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the beam profiles of a QBB were evaluated and compared with the results obtained via analytical calculation and experimental characterization (knife edge method, point scanning method). The FDTD method enables a more precise estimation of the beam profile. Foreign objects in food samples, namely crickets, were then detected with the QBB, which had a deep focus and a high spatial resolution at 210 GHz. Transmitted images using a Gaussian beam obtained with a conventional lens were compared in the sub-terahertz frequency experimentally with those using a QBB generated using an axicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Protein Concentration Measurement System Using a Flexural Plate-Wave Frequency-Shift Readout Technique
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 86-105; doi:10.3390/s130100086
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A protein concentration measurement system with two-port flexural plate-wave (FPW) biosensors using a frequency-shift readout technique is presented in this paper. The proposed frequency-shift readout method employs a peak detecting scheme to measure the amount of resonant frequency shift. The proposed system is
[...] Read more.
A protein concentration measurement system with two-port flexural plate-wave (FPW) biosensors using a frequency-shift readout technique is presented in this paper. The proposed frequency-shift readout method employs a peak detecting scheme to measure the amount of resonant frequency shift. The proposed system is composed of a linear frequency generator, a pair of peak detectors, two registers, and a subtractor. The frequency sweep range of the linear frequency generator is limited to 2 MHz to 10 MHz according to the characteristics of the FPW biosensors. The proposed frequency-shift readout circuit is carried out on silicon using a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The sensitivity of the peak detectors is measured to be 10 mV. The power consumption of the proposed protein concentration measurement system is 48 mW given a 0.1 MHz system clock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 106-118; doi:10.3390/s130100106
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process
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In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting process is confirmed by SEM analyses. Microstructures and Co-rich precipitations of various Mg-Co alloys are investigated by means of EDS and XRD analyses. The Mg-Co alloys’ mechanical strengths are determined by tensile tests. Magnetic properties of the Mg-Co sensor alloys depending on the cobalt content and the acting mechanical load are measured utilizing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. Within the scope of this work, the influence of the element cobalt on magnesium is investigated in detail and an optimal cobalt concentration is defined based on the performed examinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany 2012)
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Open AccessArticle GPS-Supported Visual SLAM with a Rigorous Sensor Model for a Panoramic Camera in Outdoor Environments
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 119-136; doi:10.3390/s130100119
Received: 19 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic
[...] Read more.
Accurate localization of moving sensors is essential for many fields, such as robot navigation and urban mapping. In this paper, we present a framework for GPS-supported visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Bundle Adjustment (BA-SLAM) using a rigorous sensor model in a panoramic camera. The rigorous model does not cause system errors, thus representing an improvement over the widely used ideal sensor model. The proposed SLAM does not require additional restrictions, such as loop closing, or additional sensors, such as expensive inertial measurement units. In this paper, the problems of the ideal sensor model for a panoramic camera are analysed, and a rigorous sensor model is established. GPS data are then introduced for global optimization and georeferencing. Using the rigorous sensor model with the geometric observation equations of BA, a GPS-supported BA-SLAM approach that combines ray observations and GPS observations is then established. Finally, our method is applied to a set of vehicle-borne panoramic images captured from a campus environment, and several ground control points (GCP) are used to check the localization accuracy. The results demonstrated that our method can reach an accuracy of several centimetres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Probabilistic Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions from X-Ray Images Spanning a Limited Angle
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 137-151; doi:10.3390/s130100137
Received: 21 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An important part of computed tomography is the calculation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from series of X-ray images. Unfortunately, some applications do not provide sufficient X-ray images. Then, the reconstructed objects no longer truly represent the original. Inside of the
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An important part of computed tomography is the calculation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from series of X-ray images. Unfortunately, some applications do not provide sufficient X-ray images. Then, the reconstructed objects no longer truly represent the original. Inside of the volumes, the accuracy seems to vary unpredictably. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to evaluate any reconstruction, voxel by voxel. The evaluation is based on a sophisticated probabilistic handling of the measured X-rays, as well as the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the materials that the object receiving the X-ray examination consists of. For each voxel, the proposed method outputs a numerical value that represents the probability of existence of a predefined material at the position of the voxel while doing X-ray. Such a probabilistic quality measure was lacking so far. In our experiment, false reconstructed areas get detected by their low probability. In exact reconstructed areas, a high probability predominates. Receiver Operating Characteristics not only confirm the reliability of our quality measure but also demonstrate that existing methods are less suitable for evaluating a reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany 2012)
Open AccessArticle Detectability of Absorption and Reduced Scattering Coefficients in Frequency-Domain Measurements Using a Realistic Head Phantom
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 152-164; doi:10.3390/s130100152
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detection limits of the changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were investigated using a frequency-domain near-infrared system in a realistic head phantom. The results were quantified in terms of the maximum detectable depth for different activation volumes in the range of 0.8–20
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Detection limits of the changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were investigated using a frequency-domain near-infrared system in a realistic head phantom. The results were quantified in terms of the maximum detectable depth for different activation volumes in the range of 0.8–20 microliters. The non-linear relation between the maximum detectable depth and the magnitude of changes in the absorption coefficient conform well with the Born approximation to the diffusion equation. The minimal detectable changes in the reduced scattering coefficient measured in terms of the phase signal were found to be approximately twice as large as that of the absorption coefficient using the AC signal for the same volume and at the same depth. The phase delay, which can be used to quantify the fast neuronal optical response in the human brain, showed a linear dependence on the reciprocal of the reduced scattering coefficient, as predicted by the Rytov approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Measurement of Urinary N-Telopeptides and Serum C-Telopeptides from Type I Collagen Using a Lateral Flow-Based Immunoassay
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 165-174; doi:10.3390/s130100165
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measuring bone turnover markers could detect early stages of osteoporosis and early responses to anti-osteoporotic treatments. Currently, commonly used bone turnover markers, N-telopeptides (NTx) and C-telopeptides (CTx), are measured using ELISA tests, which demands time and increases cost. Bone turnover markers need to
[...] Read more.
Measuring bone turnover markers could detect early stages of osteoporosis and early responses to anti-osteoporotic treatments. Currently, commonly used bone turnover markers, N-telopeptides (NTx) and C-telopeptides (CTx), are measured using ELISA tests, which demands time and increases cost. Bone turnover markers need to be measured more easily for general use. Lateral flow-based immunoassay would be an appropriate method for this context. This study was performed to investigate the precision of a newly developed lateral flow-based immunoassay for measuring the urinary NTx and serum CTx, and their correlations with ELISA measurements. Urine NTx and serum CTx concentrations were determined by photoscan of newly developed strips, using a lateral flow-based immunoassay for 36 subjects (mean age 66.2 years, SD 7.5 years; four males and 32 females). Repeated measurement of urinary NTx and serum CTx were performed three times, using this technology for a precision test. The correlation of the lateral flow-based immunoassay with the ELISA measurements was analyzed. Precision of the newly developed lateral flow based immunoassay was 0.974 (ICC, 95% confidence interval, 0.955 to 0.986) and 0.995 (ICC, 95% confidence interval, 0.991 to 0.997) for urinary NTx and serum CTx, respectively. The correlation of lateral flow based immunoassay with ELISA was 0.913 for urinary NTx and 0.872 for serum CTx. These results suggest that measuring the urinary NTx and serum CTx, using a lateral flow-based immunoassay, is a relevant method for point-of-care testing and screening of bone resorption markers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Adaptive PIF Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on GPC
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 175-192; doi:10.3390/s130100175
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), a generalized predictive control (GPC)-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF) controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified
[...] Read more.
To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), a generalized predictive control (GPC)-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF) controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified GPC law supplies the PIF controller with suitable control parameters according to the uncertainties in the operating conditions. Secondly, the speed reference curve for PMSMs is usually required to be continuous and continuously differentiable according to the general servo system design requirements, so the adaptation of the speed reference is discussed in details in this paper. Hence, the performance of the speed control system using a GPC-based PIF controller is improved for tracking some specified signals. The main motivation of this paper is the extension of GPC law to replace the traditional PI or PIF controllers in industrial applications. The efficacy and usefulness of the proposed controller are verified through experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle An Analog Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for a Portable Electronic Nose
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 193-207; doi:10.3390/s130100193
Received: 10 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines an analog circuit comprising a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). This study proposes a low-power and small-area analog MLP circuit to implement in an E-nose as a classifier, such that the E-nose would be relatively small, power-efficient, and portable. The
[...] Read more.
This study examines an analog circuit comprising a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). This study proposes a low-power and small-area analog MLP circuit to implement in an E-nose as a classifier, such that the E-nose would be relatively small, power-efficient, and portable. The analog MLP circuit had only four input neurons, four hidden neurons, and one output neuron. The circuit was designed and fabricated using a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process with a 1.8 V supply. The power consumption was 0.553 mW, and the area was approximately 1.36 × 1.36 mm2. The chip measurements showed that this MLPNN successfully identified the fruit odors of bananas, lemons, and lychees with 91.7% accuracy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 208-220; doi:10.3390/s130100208
Received: 17 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take
[...] Read more.
Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Aeroflex: A Bicycle for Mobile Air Quality Measurements
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 221-240; doi:10.3390/s130100221
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used
[...] Read more.
Fixed air quality stations have limitations when used to assess people's real life exposure to air pollutants. Their spatial coverage is too limited to capture the spatial variability in, e.g., an urban or industrial environment. Complementary mobile air quality measurements can be used as an additional tool to fill this void. In this publication we present the Aeroflex, a bicycle for mobile air quality monitoring. The Aeroflex is equipped with compact air quality measurement devices to monitor ultrafine particle number counts, particulate mass and black carbon concentrations at a high resolution (up to 1 second). Each measurement is automatically linked to its geographical location and time of acquisition using GPS and Internet time. Furthermore, the Aeroflex is equipped with automated data transmission, data pre-processing and data visualization. The Aeroflex is designed with adaptability, reliability and user friendliness in mind. Over the past years, the Aeroflex has been successfully used for high resolution air quality mapping, exposure assessment and hot spot identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workshop Sensing A Changing World 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Tracking by Identification Using Computer Vision and Radio
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 241-273; doi:10.3390/s130100241
Received: 23 October 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a novel system for detection, localization and tracking of multiple people, which fuses a multi-view computer vision approach with a radio-based localization system. The proposed fusion combines the best of both worlds, excellent computer-vision-based localization, and strong identity information provided by
[...] Read more.
We present a novel system for detection, localization and tracking of multiple people, which fuses a multi-view computer vision approach with a radio-based localization system. The proposed fusion combines the best of both worlds, excellent computer-vision-based localization, and strong identity information provided by the radio system, and is therefore able to perform tracking by identification, which makes it impervious to propagated identity switches. We present comprehensive methodology for evaluation of systems that perform person localization in world coordinate system and use it to evaluate the proposed system as well as its components. Experimental results on a challenging indoor dataset, which involves multiple people walking around a realistically cluttered room, confirm that proposed fusion of both systems significantly outperforms its individual components. Compared to the radio-based system, it achieves better localization results, while at the same time it successfully prevents propagation of identity switches that occur in pure computer-vision-based tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 274-291; doi:10.3390/s130100274
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed,
[...] Read more.
As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI) for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter) was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Seeding and Harvest: A Framework for Unsupervised Feature Selection Problems
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 292-333; doi:10.3390/s130100292
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Feature selection, also known as attribute selection, is the technique of selecting a subset of relevant features for building robust object models. It is becoming more and more important for large-scale sensors applications with AI capabilities. The core idea of this paper is
[...] Read more.
Feature selection, also known as attribute selection, is the technique of selecting a subset of relevant features for building robust object models. It is becoming more and more important for large-scale sensors applications with AI capabilities. The core idea of this paper is derived from a straightforward and intuitive principle saying that, if a feature subset (pattern) has more representativeness, it should be more self-organized, and as a result it should be more insensitive to artificially seeded noise points. In the light of this heuristic finding, we established the whole set of theoretical principles, based on which we proposed a two-stage framework to evaluate the relative importance of feature subsets, called seeding and harvest (S&H for short). At the first stage, we inject a number of artificial noise points into the original dataset; then at the second stage, we resort to an outlier detector to identify them under various feature patterns. The more precisely the seeded points can be extracted under a particular feature pattern, the more valuable and important the corresponding feature pattern should be. Besides, we compared our method with several state-of-the-art feature selection methods on a number of real-life datasets. The experiment results significantly confirm that our method can accomplish feature reduction tasks with high accuracy as well as low computing complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessCommunication Piezoelectric Bimorph Cantilever for Vibration-Producing-Hydrogen
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 367-374; doi:10.3390/s130100367
Received: 5 September 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ~0.07 N and ~46.2 Hz was observed. This
[...] Read more.
A device composed of a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever and a water electrolysis device was fabricated to realize piezoelectrochemical hydrogen production. The obvious output of the hydrogen and oxygen through application of a mechanical vibration of ~0.07 N and ~46.2 Hz was observed. This method provides a cost-effective, recyclable, environment-friendly and simple way to directly split water for hydrogen fuels by scavenging mechanical waste energy forms such as noise or traffic vibration in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle An On-Time Power-Aware Scheduling Scheme for Medical Sensor SoC-Based WBAN Systems
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 375-392; doi:10.3390/s130100375
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
PDF Full-text (3420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless
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The focus of many leading technologies in the field of medical sensor systems is on low power consumption and robust data transmission. For example, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), which is used to maintain the heart in a healthy state, requires a reliable wireless communication scheme with an extremely low duty-cycle, high bit rate, and energy-efficient media access protocols. Because such devices must be sustained for over 5 years without access to battery replacement, they must be designed to have extremely low power consumption in sleep mode. Here, an on-time, energy-efficient scheduling scheme is proposed that performs power adjustments to minimize the sleep-mode current. The novelty of this scheduler is that it increases the determinacy of power adjustment and the predictability of scheduling by employing non-pre-emptible dual priority scheduling. This predictable scheduling also guarantees the punctuality of important periodic tasks based on their serialization, by using their worst case execution time) and the power consumption optimization. The scheduler was embedded into a system on chip (SoC) developed to support the wireless body area network—a wakeup-radio and wakeup-timer for implantable medical devices. This scheduling system is validated by the experimental results of its performance when used with life-time extensions of ICD devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Self-Organized Multi-Camera Network for a Fast and Easy Deployment of Ubiquitous Robots in Unknown Environments
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 426-454; doi:10.3390/s130100426
Received: 13 November 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (12010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and
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To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and the adaptation of their services to new environments are tasks that usually require several days of expert work. With this in view, we present a multi-agent system made up of intelligent cameras and autonomous robots, which is easy and fast to deploy in different environments. The cameras will enhance the robot perceptions and allow them to react to situations that require their services. Additionally, the cameras will support the movement of the robots. This will enable our robots to navigate even when there are not maps available. The deployment of our system does not require expertise and can be done in a short period of time, since neither software nor hardware tuning is needed. Every system task is automatic, distributed and based on self-organization processes. Our system is scalable, robust, and flexible to the environment. We carried out several real world experiments, which show the good performance of our proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Deposition of Bacteriorhodopsin Protein in a Purple Membrane Form on Nitrocellulose Membranes for Enhanced Photoelectric Response
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 455-462; doi:10.3390/s130100455
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR)-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited
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Bacteriorhodopsin protein (bR)-based systems are one of the simplest known biological energy converters. The robust chemical, thermal and electrochemical properties of bR have made it an attractive material for photoelectric devices. This study demonstrates the photoelectric response of a dry bR layer deposited on a nitrocellulose membrane with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Light-induced electrical current as well as potential and impedance changes of dried bR film were recorded as the function of illumination. We have also tested bR in solution and found that the electrical properties are strongly dependent on light intensity changing locally proton concentration and thus pH of the solution. Experimental data support the assumption that bR protein on a positively charged nitrocellulose membrane (PNM) can be used as highly sensitive photo- and pH detector. Here the bR layer facilitates proton translocation and acts as an ultrafast optoelectric signal transducer. It is therefore useful in applications related to bioelectronics, biosensors, bio-optics devices and current carrying junction devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany 2012)
Open AccessArticle What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 463-483; doi:10.3390/s130100463
Received: 26 November 2012 / Revised: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived
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Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents) are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85). ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disposable Fluorescence Optical pH Sensor for Near Neutral Solutions
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 484-499; doi:10.3390/s130100484
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design, development and performance evaluation of a fluorescence-based pH sensor for on-line measurements is presented. The pKa of the sensing element has been calculated to be 7.9, thus the sensor is suitable for measurement of near neutral solutions. The sensor consists of
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The design, development and performance evaluation of a fluorescence-based pH sensor for on-line measurements is presented. The pKa of the sensing element has been calculated to be 7.9, thus the sensor is suitable for measurement of near neutral solutions. The sensor consists of a low-cost disposable polymer sensing probe, in contact with the solution under test, interrogated by an optoelectronic transduction system. The pH sensitive dye is based on fluorescein O-methacrylate, which has been covalently linked to a hydrogel matrix, realized through the use of HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), HDDA (1,6-hexanediol diacrylate) and PEGDA (polyethylene glycol diacrylate). The optical interrogation setup, together with the electronics, has been developed to acquire and process the fluorescence signal. The sensor works over a pH range between 6.5 and 9.0. In the range between 7.0 and 8.0, the sensor shows a linear behavior with a maximum linearity error of 5%. Thanks to the good performance of the sensing element and transduction system, the short term drift of the reading (measured over 40 min) is lower than 0.15%. The measuring system also exhibits good performance in terms of response time and reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 500-515; doi:10.3390/s130100500
Received: 3 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine
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Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability) under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility). A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29) or reproducibility (p = 0.89). The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions. Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Use of a Terrestrial LIDAR Sensor for Drift Detection in Vineyard Spraying
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 516-534; doi:10.3390/s130100516
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system to characterize drift during pesticide application is described. The LIDAR system is compared with an ad hoc test bench used to quantify the amount of spray liquid moving beyond the canopy. Two
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The use of a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system to characterize drift during pesticide application is described. The LIDAR system is compared with an ad hoc test bench used to quantify the amount of spray liquid moving beyond the canopy. Two sprayers were used during the field test; a conventional mist blower at two air flow rates (27,507 and 34,959 m3·h−1) equipped with two different nozzle types (conventional and air injection) and a multi row sprayer with individually oriented air outlets. A simple model based on a linear function was used to predict spray deposit using LIDAR measurements and to compare with the deposits measured over the test bench. Results showed differences in the effectiveness of the LIDAR sensor depending on the sprayed droplet size (nozzle type) and air intensity. For conventional mist blower and low air flow rate; the sensor detects a greater number of drift drops obtaining a better correlation (r = 0.91; p < 0.01) than for the case of coarse droplets or high air flow rate. In the case of the multi row sprayer; drift deposition in the test bench was very poor. In general; the use of the LIDAR sensor presents an interesting and easy technique to establish the potential drift of a specific spray situation as an adequate alternative for the evaluation of drift potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Open AccessArticle Mid-Infrared Fiber-Coupled Photoacoustic Sensor for Biomedical Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 535-549; doi:10.3390/s130100535
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 22 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomedical devices employed in therapy, diagnostics and for self-monitoring often require a high degree of flexibility and compactness. Many near infrared (NIR) optical fiber-coupled systems meet these requirements and are employed on a daily basis. However, mid-infrared (MIR) fibers-based systems have not yet
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Biomedical devices employed in therapy, diagnostics and for self-monitoring often require a high degree of flexibility and compactness. Many near infrared (NIR) optical fiber-coupled systems meet these requirements and are employed on a daily basis. However, mid-infrared (MIR) fibers-based systems have not yet found their way to routine application in medicine. In this work we present the implementation of the first MIR fiber-coupled photoacoustic sensor for the investigation of condensed samples in the MIR fingerprint region. The light of an external-cavity quantum-cascade laser (1010–1095 cm-1) is delivered by a silver halide fiber, which is attached to the PA cell. The PA chamber is conically shaped to perfectly match the beam escaping the fiber and to minimize the cell volume. This results in a compact and handy sensor for investigations of biological samples and the monitoring of constituents both in vitro and in vivo. The performance of the fiber-coupled PA sensor is demonstrated by sensing glucose in aqueous solutions. These measurements yield a detection limit of 57 mg/dL (SNR = 1). Furthermore, the fiber-coupled sensor has been applied to record human skin spectra at different body sites to illustrate its flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle Lamb Waves Propagation along 3C-SiC/AlN Membranes for Application in Temperature-Compensated, High-Sensitivity Gravimetric Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 550-564; doi:10.3390/s130100550
Received: 28 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on
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The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Absorption Measurements of Periodically Poled Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP) at 775 nm and 1550 nm
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 565-573; doi:10.3390/s130100565
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficient generation of second-harmonic light and squeezed light requires non-linear crystals that have low absorption at the fundamental and harmonic wavelengths. In this work the photo-thermal self-phase modulation technique is exploited to measure the absorption coefficient of periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate
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The efficient generation of second-harmonic light and squeezed light requires non-linear crystals that have low absorption at the fundamental and harmonic wavelengths. In this work the photo-thermal self-phase modulation technique is exploited to measure the absorption coefficient of periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) at 1,550 nm and 775 nm. Themeasurement results are (84±40) ppm/cmand (127±24) ppm/cm, respectively. We conclude that the performance of state-of-the-art frequency doubling and squeezed light generation in PPKTP is not limited by absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 574-586; doi:10.3390/s130100574
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
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A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Health Evaluation Strategy for Multifunctional Self-Validating Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 587-610; doi:10.3390/s130100587
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 1 January 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2013 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance evaluation of sensors is very important in actual application. In this paper, a theory based on multi-variable information fusion is studied to evaluate the health level of multifunctional sensors. A novel conception of health reliability degree (HRD) is defined
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The performance evaluation of sensors is very important in actual application. In this paper, a theory based on multi-variable information fusion is studied to evaluate the health level of multifunctional sensors. A novel conception of health reliability degree (HRD) is defined to indicate a quantitative health level, which is different from traditional so-called qualitative fault diagnosis. To evaluate the health condition from both local and global perspectives, the HRD of a single sensitive component at multiple time points and the overall multifunctional sensor at a single time point are defined, respectively. The HRD methodology is emphasized by using multi-variable data fusion technology coupled with a grey comprehensive evaluation method. In this method, to acquire the distinct importance of each sensitive unit and the sensitivity of different time points, the information entropy and analytic hierarchy process method are used, respectively. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed strategy, a health evaluating experimental system for multifunctional self-validating sensors was designed. The five different health level situations have been discussed. Successful results show that the proposed method is feasible, the HRD could be used to quantitatively indicate the health level and it does have a fast response to the performance changes of multifunctional sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Radial Pulse Tonometric (RPT) Sensor with a Temperature Compensation Mechanism
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 611-625; doi:10.3390/s130100611
Received: 2 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several RPT sensors have been developed to acquire objective and quantitative pulse waves. These sensors offer improved performance with respect to pressure calibration, size and sensor deployment, but not temperature. Since most pressure sensors are sensitive to temperature, various temperature compensation techniques have
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Several RPT sensors have been developed to acquire objective and quantitative pulse waves. These sensors offer improved performance with respect to pressure calibration, size and sensor deployment, but not temperature. Since most pressure sensors are sensitive to temperature, various temperature compensation techniques have been developed, but these techniques are largely inapplicable to RPT sensors due to the size restrictions of the sensor, and incompatibility between the compensation techniques and the RPT sensor. Consequently, in this paper a new RPT sensor comprising six piezoresistive pressure sensors and one thermistor has been developed through finite element analysis and then a suitable temperature compensation technique has been proposed. This technique compensates for temperature variations by using the thermistor and simple compensation equations. As verification of the proposed compensation technique, pulse waves of all types were successfully compensated for temperature changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle The Long-Time Chronoamperometric Current at an Inlaid Microband (or Laminar) Electrode
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 626-647; doi:10.3390/s130100626
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this article, we derive an approximate asymptotic analytical expression for the long-time chronoamperometric current response at an inlaid microband (or laminar) electrode. The expression is applicable when the length of the microband is much greater than the width, so that the diffusion
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In this article, we derive an approximate asymptotic analytical expression for the long-time chronoamperometric current response at an inlaid microband (or laminar) electrode. The expression is applicable when the length of the microband is much greater than the width, so that the diffusion of the electrochemical species can be regarded as two-dimensional. We extend the previously known result for the diffusion-limited current response (Aoki, K. et al. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1987, 225, 19–32 and Phillips, C.G. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1992, 333, 11–32) to accommodate quasi-reversible reactions and unequal diffusion coefficients of the oxidant and the reductant. Comparison with numerical calculations validates the analytical expression, and we demonstrate that unequal diffusion coefficients can substantially change the current response. Finally, we discuss the form of the long-time current response for a one-step, one-electron redox reaction if the rate constants are modelled in the Butler–Volmer framework, and indicate the importance of choosing the width of the microband appropriately to allow accurate experimental determination of the standard kinetic rate constant and the electron transfer coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultramicroelectrode Electrochemistry - Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Improving Packet Delivery Performance of Publish/Subscribe Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 648-680; doi:10.3390/s130100648
Received: 1 December 2012 / Revised: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 26 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MQTT-S and CoAP are two protocols able to use the publish/subscribe model in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The high scalability provided by the publish/subscribe model may incur a high packet loss and therefore requires an efficient reliability mechanism to cope with this situation.
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MQTT-S and CoAP are two protocols able to use the publish/subscribe model in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The high scalability provided by the publish/subscribe model may incur a high packet loss and therefore requires an efficient reliability mechanism to cope with this situation. The reliability mechanism of MQTT-S and CoAP employs a method which defines a fixed value for the retransmission timeout (RTO). This article argues that this method is not efficient for deploying publish/subscribe in WSN, because it may be unable to recover a packet, therefore resulting in a lower packet delivery ratio (PDR) at the subscriber nodes. This article proposes and evaluates an adaptive RTO method, which consists in using a Smooth Round-trip Time and multiplying it by a constant parameter (K). Thanks to this method, the reliability mechanism of MQTT-S and CoAP would be able to react properly to packet loss and would also be lightweight in terms of energy, memory and computing for sensor nodes where these resources are critical. We present a detailed evaluation of the effects of the K value on the calculation of the adaptive RTO method. We also establish the setting for obtaining the highest PDR on the subscriber nodes for single-hop and multi-hop scenarios. The results for single-hop scenario show that use of the appropriate K value for the adaptive RTO method increases the PDR up to 76% for MQTT-S and up to 38% for CoAP when compared with the use of fixed RTO method for both protocols, respectively. Meanwhile the same comparison for multi-hop scenario, the adaptive RTO method increases the PDR up to 36% for MQTT-S and up to 14% for CoAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Detection Enhancement Using Microcantilevers with Long-Slit-Based Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 681-702; doi:10.3390/s130100681
Received: 21 November 2012 / Revised: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 30 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work analyzes theoretically and verifies the advantage of utilizing rectangular microcantilevers with long-slits in microsensing applications. The deflection profile of these microcantilevers is compared with that of typical rectangular microcantilevers under the action of dynamic disturbances. Various force-loading conditions are considered.
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The present work analyzes theoretically and verifies the advantage of utilizing rectangular microcantilevers with long-slits in microsensing applications. The deflection profile of these microcantilevers is compared with that of typical rectangular microcantilevers under the action of dynamic disturbances. Various force-loading conditions are considered. The theory of linear elasticity for thin beams is used to obtain the deflection-related quantities. The disturbance in these quantities is obtained based on wave propagation and beam vibration theories. It is found that detections of rectangular microcantilevers with long-slits based on maximum slit opening length can be more than 100 times the deflections of typical rectangular microcantilevers. Moreover, the disturbance (noise effect) in the detection quantities of the microcantilever with long-slits is found to be always smaller than that of typical microcantilevers, regardless of the wavelength, force amplitude, and the frequency of the dynamic disturbance. Eventually, the detection quantities of the microcantilever with long-slits are found to be almost unaffected by dynamic disturbances, as long as the wavelengths of these disturbances are larger than 3.5 times the microcantilever width. Finally, the present work recommends implementation of microcantilevers with long-slits as microsensors in robust applications, including real analyte environments and out of laboratory testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle A Homodyne Quadrature Laser Interferometer for Micro-Asperity Deformation Analysis
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 703-720; doi:10.3390/s130100703
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 18 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the successful realization of a contactless, non-perturbing, displacement-measuring system for characterizing the surface roughness of polymer materials used in tribological applications. A single, time-dependent, scalar value, dubbed the collective micro-asperity deformation, is extracted from the normal-displacement measurements of normally loaded
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We report on the successful realization of a contactless, non-perturbing, displacement-measuring system for characterizing the surface roughness of polymer materials used in tribological applications. A single, time-dependent, scalar value, dubbed the collective micro-asperity deformation, is extracted from the normal-displacement measurements of normally loaded polymer samples. The displacement measurements with a sub-nanometer resolution are obtained with a homodyne quadrature laser interferometer. The measured collective micro-asperity deformation is critical for a determination of the real contact area and thus for the realistic contact conditions in tribological applications. The designed measuring system senses both the bulk creep as well as the micro-asperity creep occurring at the roughness peaks. The final results of our experimental measurements are three time-dependent values of the collective micro-asperity deformation for the three selected surface roughnesses. These values can be directly compared to theoretical deformation curves, which can be derived using existing real-contact-area models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Comparison of Two Sensors Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance in a Plastic Optical Fiber
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 721-735; doi:10.3390/s130100721
Received: 25 October 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In silica optical fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors, an increase in fiber core diameter produces a corresponding increase in the sensitivity and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) realized in PMMA there are different influences of design parameters
[...] Read more.
In silica optical fiber Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors, an increase in fiber core diameter produces a corresponding increase in the sensitivity and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) realized in PMMA there are different influences of design parameters on the performance, as both sensitivity and SNR are concerned. In particular, the SNR, for different refractive index values of the analyte, in a 250 μm diameter POF is greater than the one in 1,000 μm diameter POF. On the other hand, the sensitivity, for the same refractive index values of the analyte, in a 1,000 μm diameter POF is greater than the one in a 250 μm diameter POF. The results of an experimental analysis demonstrating the above behavior are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessCommunication Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in Liquid Media by Volatile Production Similarity Patterns, Using a FF-2A Electronic Nose
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 736-745; doi:10.3390/s130100736
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A technique for rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential for the diagnosis of associated infections and for food safety analysis. Aeromonas hydrophila is one such food contaminant. Several methods for rapid detection of this pathogen have been developed; these include multiplex polymerase
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A technique for rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential for the diagnosis of associated infections and for food safety analysis. Aeromonas hydrophila is one such food contaminant. Several methods for rapid detection of this pathogen have been developed; these include multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays and the colony overlay procedure for peptidases. However, these conventional methods can only be used to detect the microorganisms at high accuracy after symptomatic onset of the disease. Therefore, in the future, simple pre-screening methods may be useful for preventing food poisoning and disease. In this paper, we present a novel system for the rapid detection of the microorganism A. hydrophila in cultured media (in <2 h), with the use of an electronic nose (FF-2A). With this electronic nose, we detected the changes of volatile patterns produced by A. hydrophila after 30 min culture. Our calculations revealed that the increased volatiles were similar to the odours of organic acids and esters. In future, distinctive volatile production patterns of microorganisms identified with the electronic nose may have the potential in microorganism detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2012)
Open AccessArticle An Improved Direction Finding Algorithm Based on Toeplitz Approximation
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 746-757; doi:10.3390/s130100746
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 29 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm called the Toeplitz fourth order cumulants multiple signal classification method (TFOC-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed through combining a fast MUSIC-like algorithm termed the modified fourth order cumulants MUSIC (MFOC-MUSIC) algorithm and Toeplitz approximation.
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In this paper, a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm called the Toeplitz fourth order cumulants multiple signal classification method (TFOC-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed through combining a fast MUSIC-like algorithm termed the modified fourth order cumulants MUSIC (MFOC-MUSIC) algorithm and Toeplitz approximation. In the proposed algorithm, the redundant information in the cumulants is removed. Besides, the computational complexity is reduced due to the decreased dimension of the fourth-order cumulants matrix, which is equal to the number of the virtual array elements. That is, the effective array aperture of a physical array remains unchanged. However, due to finite sampling snapshots, there exists an estimation error of the reduced-rank FOC matrix and thus the capacity of DOA estimation degrades. In order to improve the estimation performance, Toeplitz approximation is introduced to recover the Toeplitz structure of the reduced-dimension FOC matrix just like the ideal one which has the Toeplitz structure possessing optimal estimated results. The theoretical formulas of the proposed algorithm are derived, and the simulations results are presented. From the simulations, in comparison with the MFOC-MUSIC algorithm, it is concluded that the TFOC-MUSIC algorithm yields an excellent performance in both spatially-white noise and in spatially-color noise environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Facile Electrochemical Sensor for Nonylphenol Determination Based on the Enhancement Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 758-768; doi:10.3390/s130100758
Received: 8 December 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP) was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP) electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover,
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A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP) was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP) electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover, the oxidation peak current of NP at the CTAB/CP electrode demonstrated a linear relationship with NP concentration, which could be applied in the direct determination of NP. Some experimental parameters were investigated, such as external solution pH, mode and time of accumulation, concentration and modification time of CTAB and so on. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to 2.5 × 10−5 mol·L−1 was obtained for the sensor, with a low limit of detection at 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1. Several distinguishing advantages of the as-prepared sensor, including facile fabrication, easy operation, low cost and so on, suggest a great potential for its practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Mechatronic Description of a Laser Autoguided Vehicle for Greenhouse Operations
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 769-784; doi:10.3390/s130100769
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 27 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout,
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This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Cross-Coupled Control for All-Terrain Rovers
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 785-800; doi:10.3390/s130100785
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 2 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 8 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile robots are increasingly being used in challenging outdoor environments for applications that include construction, mining, agriculture, military and planetary exploration. In order to accomplish the planned task, it is critical that the motion control system ensure accuracy and robustness. The achievement of
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Mobile robots are increasingly being used in challenging outdoor environments for applications that include construction, mining, agriculture, military and planetary exploration. In order to accomplish the planned task, it is critical that the motion control system ensure accuracy and robustness. The achievement of high performance on rough terrain is tightly connected with the minimization of vehicle-terrain dynamics effects such as slipping and skidding. This paper presents a cross-coupled controller for a 4-wheel-drive/4-wheel-steer robot, which optimizes the wheel motors’ control algorithm to reduce synchronization errors that would otherwise result in wheel slip with conventional controllers. Experimental results, obtained with an all-terrain rover operating on agricultural terrain, are presented to validate the system. It is shown that the proposed approach is effective in reducing slippage and vehicle posture errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Novel Two Dimensional Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Using Multiplied Beam Splitting Optics
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 801-812; doi:10.3390/s130100801
Received: 18 October 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing
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A novel two dimensional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system with a multi-point sensing region is described. The use of multiplied beam splitting optics, as a core technology, permitted multi-point sensing to be achieved. This system was capable of simultaneously measuring nine sensing points. Calibration curves for sucrose obtained on nine sensing points were linear in the range of 0–10% with a correlation factor of 0.996–0.998 with a relative standard deviation of 0.090–4.0%. The detection limits defined as S/N = 3 were 1.98 × 10−6–3.91 × 10−5 RIU. This sensitivity is comparable to that of conventional SPR sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Arrhythmia Identification with Two-Lead Electrocardiograms Using Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines for a Portable ECG Monitor System
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 813-828; doi:10.3390/s130100813
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 9 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An automatic configuration that can detect the position of R-waves, classify the normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and other four arrhythmic types from the continuous ECG signals obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is proposed. In this configuration, a support vector machine (SVM) was
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An automatic configuration that can detect the position of R-waves, classify the normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and other four arrhythmic types from the continuous ECG signals obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is proposed. In this configuration, a support vector machine (SVM) was used to detect and mark the ECG heartbeats with raw signals and differential signals of a lead ECG. An algorithm based on the extracted markers segments waveforms of Lead II and V1 of the ECG as the pattern classification features. A self-constructing neural fuzzy inference network (SoNFIN) was used to classify NSR and four arrhythmia types, including premature ventricular contraction (PVC), premature atrium contraction (PAC), left bundle branch block (LBBB), and right bundle branch block (RBBB). In a real scenario, the classification results show the accuracy achieved is 96.4%. This performance is suitable for a portable ECG monitor system for home care purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 829-847; doi:10.3390/s130100829
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the
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Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Radar Emitter Recognition Based on Rough k-Means Classifier and Relevance Vector Machine
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 848-864; doi:10.3390/s130100848
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 27 December 2012 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increasing complexity of electromagnetic signals, there exists a significant challenge for recognizing radar emitter signals. In this paper, a hybrid recognition approach is presented that classifies radar emitter signals by exploiting the different separability of samples. The proposed approach comprises
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Due to the increasing complexity of electromagnetic signals, there exists a significant challenge for recognizing radar emitter signals. In this paper, a hybrid recognition approach is presented that classifies radar emitter signals by exploiting the different separability of samples. The proposed approach comprises two steps, namely the primary signal recognition and the advanced signal recognition. In the former step, a novel rough k-means classifier, which comprises three regions, i.e., certain area, rough area and uncertain area, is proposed to cluster the samples of radar emitter signals. In the latter step, the samples within the rough boundary are used to train the relevance vector machine (RVM). Then RVM is used to recognize the samples in the uncertain area; therefore, the classification accuracy is improved. Simulation results show that, for recognizing radar emitter signals, the proposed hybrid recognition approach is more accurate, and presents lower computational complexity than traditional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Sensing Performance of Precisely Ordered TiO2 Nanowire Gas Sensors Fabricated by Electron-Beam Lithography
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 865-874; doi:10.3390/s130100865
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 5 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, electron beam lithography, rather than the most popular method, chemical synthesis, is used to construct periodical TiO2 nanowires for a gas sensor with both robust and rapid performance. The effects of temperature on the sensing response and reaction time
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In this study, electron beam lithography, rather than the most popular method, chemical synthesis, is used to construct periodical TiO2 nanowires for a gas sensor with both robust and rapid performance. The effects of temperature on the sensing response and reaction time are analyzed at various operation temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C. At the optimized temperature of 300 °C, the proposed sensor repeatedly obtained a rise/recovery time (ΔR: 0.9 R0 to 0.1 R0) of 3.2/17.5 s and a corresponding sensor response (ΔR/R0) of 21.7% at an ethanol injection mass quantity of 0.2 μg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2013)
Open AccessArticle Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 875-897; doi:10.3390/s130100875
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the
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Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a 433 MHz Band Body Sensor Network for Biomedical Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 898-917; doi:10.3390/s130100898
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the
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Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth orWiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Quasi-Real Time Estimation of Angular Kinematics Using Single-Axis Accelerometers
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 918-937; doi:10.3390/s130100918
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In human movement modeling, the problem of multi-link kinematics estimation by means of inertial measurement units has been investigated by several authors through efficient sensor fusion algorithms. In this perspective a single inertial measurement unit per link is required. This set-up is not
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In human movement modeling, the problem of multi-link kinematics estimation by means of inertial measurement units has been investigated by several authors through efficient sensor fusion algorithms. In this perspective a single inertial measurement unit per link is required. This set-up is not cost-effective compared with a solution in which a single-axis accelerometer per link is used. In this paper, a novel fast technique is presented for the estimation of the sway angle in a multi-link chain by using a single-axis accelerometer per segment and by setting the boundary conditions through an ad hoc algorithm. The technique, based on the windowing of the accelerometer output, was firstly tested on a mechanical arm equipped with a single-axis accelerometer and a reference encoder. The technique is then tested on a subject performing a squat task for the knee flexion-extension angle evaluation by using two single-axis accelerometers placed on the thigh and shank segments, respectively. A stereo-photogrammetric system was used for validation. RMSEs (mean ± std) are 0.40 ± 0.02° (mean peak-to-peak range of 147.2 ± 4.9°) for the mechanical inverted pendulum and 1.01 ± 0.11° (mean peak-to-peak range of 59.29 ± 2.02°) for the knee flexion-extension angle. Results obtained in terms of RMSE were successfully compared with an Extended Kalman Filter applied to an inertial measurement unit. These results suggest the usability of the proposed algorithm in several fields, from automatic control to biomechanics, and open new opportunities to increase the accuracy of the existing tools for orientation evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Polymer Photonic Crystal Fibers with Metal Nanolayers
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 956-965; doi:10.3390/s130100956
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A large-mode-area polymer photonic crystal fiber made of polymethyl methacrylate with the cladding having only one layer of air holes near the edge of the fiber is designed and proposed to be used in surface plasmon resonance sensors. In such sensor, a nanoscale
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A large-mode-area polymer photonic crystal fiber made of polymethyl methacrylate with the cladding having only one layer of air holes near the edge of the fiber is designed and proposed to be used in surface plasmon resonance sensors. In such sensor, a nanoscale metal film and analyte can be deposited on the outer side of the fiber instead of coating or filling in the holes of the conventional PCF, which make the real time detection with high sensitivity easily to realize. Moreover, it is relatively stable to changes of the amount and the diameter of air holes, which is very beneficial for sensor fabrication and sensing applications. Numerical simulation results show that under the conditions of the similar spectral and intensity sensitivity of 8.3 × 10−5–9.4 × 10−5 RIU, the confinement loss can be increased dramatically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle C59N Peapods Sensing the Temperature
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 966-974; doi:10.3390/s130100966
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 5 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the novel photoresponse of nanodevices made from azafullerene (C59N)-encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C59N@SWNTs), so called peapods. The photoconducting properties of a C59N@SWNT are measured over a temperature range of 10 to 300 K under a
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We report the novel photoresponse of nanodevices made from azafullerene (C59N)-encapsulated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C59N@SWNTs), so called peapods. The photoconducting properties of a C59N@SWNT are measured over a temperature range of 10 to 300 K under a field-effect transistor configuration. It is found that the photosensitivity of C59N@SWNTs depends very sensitively on the temperature, making them an attractive candidate as a component of nanothermometers covering a wide temperature range. Our results indicate that it is possible to read the temperature by monitoring the optoelectronics signal of C59N@SWNTs. In particular, sensing low temperatures would become more convenient and easy by giving a simple light pulse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Applications of Flexible Ultrasonic Transducer Array for Defect Detection at 150 °C
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 975-983; doi:10.3390/s130100975
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the feasibility of using a one dimensional 16-element flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT) array for nondestructive testing at 150 °C is demonstrated. The FUT arrays were made by a sol-gel sprayed piezoelectric film technology; a PZT composite film was sprayed on
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In this study, the feasibility of using a one dimensional 16-element flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT) array for nondestructive testing at 150 °C is demonstrated. The FUT arrays were made by a sol-gel sprayed piezoelectric film technology; a PZT composite film was sprayed on a titanium foil of 75 µm thickness. Since the FUT array is flexible, it was attached to a steel pipe with an outer diameter of 89 mm and a wall thickness of 6.5 mm at 150 °C. Using the ultrasonic pulse-echo mode, pipe thickness measurements could be performed. Moreover, using the ultrasonic pulse-echo and pitch-catch modes of each element of FUT array, the defect detection was performed on an Al alloy block of 30 mm thickness with a side-drilled hole (SDH) of f3 mm at 150 °C. In addition, a post-processing algorithm based on the total focusing method was used to process the full matrix of these A-scan signals of each single transmitter and multi-receivers, and then the phase-array image was obtained to indicate this defect- SDH. Both results show the capability of FUT array being operated at 150 °C for the corrosion and defect detections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Registration of 3D and Multispectral Data for the Study of Cultural Heritage Surfaces
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1004-1020; doi:10.3390/s130101004
Received: 13 November 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (11521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a technique for the multi-sensor registration of featureless datasets based on the photogrammetric tracking of the acquisition systems in use. This method is developed for the in situ study of cultural heritage objects and is tested by digitizing a small canvas
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We present a technique for the multi-sensor registration of featureless datasets based on the photogrammetric tracking of the acquisition systems in use. This method is developed for the in situ study of cultural heritage objects and is tested by digitizing a small canvas successively with a 3D digitization system and a multispectral camera while simultaneously tracking the acquisition systems with four cameras and using a cubic target frame with a side length of 500 mm. The achieved tracking accuracy is better than 0.03 mm spatially and 0.150 mrad angularly. This allows us to seamlessly register the 3D acquisitions and to project the multispectral acquisitions on the 3D model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Scheme for DVL-Aided SINS In-Motion Alignment Using UKF Techniques
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1046-1063; doi:10.3390/s130101046
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) which
[...] Read more.
In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF) are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF). Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
Open AccessArticle G-Quadruplex DNAzyme Molecular Beacon for Amplified Colorimetric Biosensing of Pseudostellaria heterophylla
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1064-1075; doi:10.3390/s130101064
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With an internal transcribed spacer of 18 S, 5.8 S and 26 S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS) as DNA marker, we report a colorimetric approach for authentication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH) and its counterfeit species based on the differentiation of the nrDNA
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With an internal transcribed spacer of 18 S, 5.8 S and 26 S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS) as DNA marker, we report a colorimetric approach for authentication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH) and its counterfeit species based on the differentiation of the nrDNA ITS sequence. The assay possesses an unlabelled G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon (MB) probe, employing complementary sequence as biorecognition element and 1:1:1:1 split G-quadruplex halves as reporter. In the absence of target DNA (T-DNA), the probe can shape intermolecular G-quadruplex structures capable of binding hemin to form G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and catalyze the oxidation of ABTS2− to blue-green ABTS•− by H2O2. In the presence of T-DNA, T-DNA can hybridize with the complementary sequence to form a duplex structure, hindering the formation of the G-quadruplex structure and resulting in the loss of the catalytic activity. Consequently, a UV-Vis absorption signal decrease is observed in the ABTS2−-H2O2 system. The “turn-off” assay allows the detection of T-DNA from 1.0 × 10−9 to 3.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 (R2 = 0.9906), with a low detection limit of 3.1 × 1010 mol·L−1. The present study provides a sensitive and selective method and may serve as a foundation of utilizing the DNAzyme MB sensor for identifying traditional Chinese medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Portable Taste Sensor with a Lipid/Polymer Membrane
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1076-1084; doi:10.3390/s130101076
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) with working and reference electrodes and
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We have developed a new portable taste sensor with a lipid/polymer membrane and conducted experiments to evaluate the sensor’s performance. The fabricated sensor consists of a taste sensor chip (40 mm × 26 mm × 2.2 mm) with working and reference electrodes and a portable sensor device (80 mm × 25 mm × 20 mm). The working electrode consists of a taste-sensing site comprising a poly(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) hydrogel layer with KCl as the electrolyte layer and a lipid/polymer membrane as the taste sensing element. The reference electrode comprises a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane layer with a small hole and a pHEMA layer with KCl. The whole device is the size of a USB memory stick, making it suitable for portable use. The sensor’s response to tannic acid as the standard astringency substance showed good accuracy and reproducibility, and was comparable with the performance of a commercially available taste sensing system. Thus, it is possible for this sensor to be used for in-field evaluations and it can make a significant contribution to the food industry, as well as in various fields of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2012)
Open AccessArticle Monolithic Composite “Pressure + Acceleration + Temperature + Infrared” Sensor Using a Versatile Single-Sided “SiN/Poly-Si/Al” Process-Module
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1085-1101; doi:10.3390/s130101085
Received: 26 November 2012 / Revised: 27 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report a newly developed design/fabrication module with low-cost single-sided “low-stress-silicon-nitride (LS-SiN)/polysilicon (poly-Si)/Al” process for monolithic integration of composite sensors for sensing-network-node applications. A front-side surface-/bulk-micromachining process on a conventional Si-substrate is developed, featuring a multifunctional SiN/poly-Si/Al layer design for diverse sensing functions.
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We report a newly developed design/fabrication module with low-cost single-sided “low-stress-silicon-nitride (LS-SiN)/polysilicon (poly-Si)/Al” process for monolithic integration of composite sensors for sensing-network-node applications. A front-side surface-/bulk-micromachining process on a conventional Si-substrate is developed, featuring a multifunctional SiN/poly-Si/Al layer design for diverse sensing functions. The first “pressure + acceleration + temperature + infrared” (PATIR) composite sensor with the chip size of 2.5 mm × 2.5 mm is demonstrated. Systematic theoretical design and analysis methods are developed. The diverse sensing components include a piezoresistive absolute-pressure sensor (up to 700 kPa, with a sensitivity of 49 mV/MPa under 3.3 V supplied voltage), a piezoresistive accelerometer (±10 g, with a sensitivity of 66 μV/g under 3.3 V and a −3 dB bandwidth of 780 Hz), a thermoelectric infrared detector (with a responsivity of 45 V/W and detectivity of 3.6 × 107 cm·Hz1/2/W) and a thermistor (−25–120 °C). This design/fabrication module concept enables a low-cost monolithically-integrated “multifunctional-library” technique. It can be utilized as a customizable tool for versatile application-specific requirements, which is very useful for small-size, low-cost, large-scale sensing-network node developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New Curb Detection Method for Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using 2D Sequential Laser Data
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1102-1120; doi:10.3390/s130101102
Received: 12 November 2012 / Revised: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the
[...] Read more.
Curb detection is an important research topic in environment perception, which is an essential part of unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations. In this paper, a new curb detection method using a 2D laser range finder in a semi-structured environment is presented. In the proposed method, firstly, a local Digital Elevation Map (DEM) is built using 2D sequential laser rangefinder data and vehicle state data in a dynamic environment and a probabilistic moving object deletion approach is proposed to cope with the effect of moving objects. Secondly, the curb candidate points are extracted based on the moving direction of the vehicle in the local DEM. Finally, the straight and curved curbs are detected by the Hough transform and the multi-model RANSAC algorithm, respectively. The proposed method can detect the curbs robustly in both static and typical dynamic environments. The proposed method has been verified in real vehicle experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Using an Automatic Resistivity Profiler Soil Sensor On-The-Go in Precision Viticulture
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1121-1136; doi:10.3390/s130101121
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spatial information on vineyard soil properties can be useful in precision viticulture. In this paper a combination of high resolution soil spatial information of soil electrical resistivity (ER) and ancillary topographic attributes, such as elevation and slope, were integrated to assess the spatial
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Spatial information on vineyard soil properties can be useful in precision viticulture. In this paper a combination of high resolution soil spatial information of soil electrical resistivity (ER) and ancillary topographic attributes, such as elevation and slope, were integrated to assess the spatial variability patterns of vegetative growth and yield of a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) located in the wine-producing region of La Rioja, Spain. High resolution continuous geoelectrical mapping was accomplished by an Automatic Resistivity Profiler (ARP) on-the-go sensor with an on-board GPS system; rolling electrodes enabled ER to be measured for a depth of investigation approximately up to 0.5, 1 and 2 m. Regression analysis and cluster analysis algorithm were used to jointly process soil resistivity data, landscape attributes and grapevine variables. ER showed a structured variability that matched well with trunk circumference spatial pattern and yield. Based on resistivity and a simple terrain attribute uniform management units were delineated. Once a spatial relationship to target variables is found, the integration of point measurement with continuous soil resistivity mapping is a useful technique to identify within-plots areas of vineyard with similar status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor-Based Technologies and Processes in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of a New Heat Dissipation Matric Potential Sensor
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1137-1145; doi:10.3390/s130101137
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil moisture sensors can help to reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation. In this paper we describe the PlantCare soil moisture sensor as a new type of heat dissipation sensor, its calibration and the correction for temperature changes. With the PlantCare
[...] Read more.
Soil moisture sensors can help to reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation. In this paper we describe the PlantCare soil moisture sensor as a new type of heat dissipation sensor, its calibration and the correction for temperature changes. With the PlantCare sensor it is possible to measure the matric potential indirectly to monitor or control irrigation. This sensor is based on thermal properties of a synthetic felt. After a defined heating phase the cooling time to a threshold temperature is a function of the water content in the synthetic felt. The water content in this porous matrix is controlled by the matric potential in the surrounding soil. Calibration measurements have shown that the sensor is most sensitive to −400 hPa and allows lower sensitivity measurements to −800 hPa. The disturbing effect of the temperature change during the measurement on the cooling time can be corrected by a linear function and the differences among sensors are minimized by a two point calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1160-1182; doi:10.3390/s130101160
Received: 16 August 2012 / Revised: 1 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an upcoming smart transportation environment, performance evaluations of existing Vehicle Detection Systems are crucial to maintain their accuracy. The existing evaluation method for Vehicle Detection Systems is based on a wired Vehicle Detection System reference and a video recorder, which must be
[...] Read more.
In an upcoming smart transportation environment, performance evaluations of existing Vehicle Detection Systems are crucial to maintain their accuracy. The existing evaluation method for Vehicle Detection Systems is based on a wired Vehicle Detection System reference and a video recorder, which must be operated and analyzed by capable traffic experts. However, this conventional evaluation system has many disadvantages. It is inconvenient to deploy, the evaluation takes a long time, and it lacks scalability and objectivity. To improve the evaluation procedure, this paper proposes a Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System based on wireless sensor networks. We describe both the architecture and design of a Vehicle Detector Evaluation System and the implementation results, focusing on the wireless sensor networks and methods for traffic information measurement. With the help of wireless sensor networks and automated analysis, our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System can evaluate a Vehicle Detection System conveniently and objectively. The extensive evaluations of our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System show that it can measure the traffic information such as volume counts and speed with over 98% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Customized Multiwavelets for Planetary Gearbox Fault Detection Based on Vibration Sensor Signals
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1183-1209; doi:10.3390/s130101183
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 22 December 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Planetary gearboxes exhibit complicated dynamic responses which are more difficult to detect in vibration signals than fixed-axis gear trains because of the special gear transmission structures. Diverse advanced methods have been developed for this challenging task to reduce or avoid unscheduled breakdown and
[...] Read more.
Planetary gearboxes exhibit complicated dynamic responses which are more difficult to detect in vibration signals than fixed-axis gear trains because of the special gear transmission structures. Diverse advanced methods have been developed for this challenging task to reduce or avoid unscheduled breakdown and catastrophic accidents. It is feasible to make fault features distinct by using multiwavelet denoising which depends on the feature separation and the threshold denoising. However, standard and fixed multiwavelets are not suitable for accurate fault feature detections because they are usually independent of the measured signals. To overcome this drawback, a method to construct customized multiwavelets based on the redundant symmetric lifting scheme is proposed in this paper. A novel indicator which combines kurtosis and entropy is applied to select the optimal multiwavelets, because kurtosis is sensitive to sharp impulses and entropy is effective for periodic impulses. The improved neighboring coefficients method is introduced into multiwavelet denoising. The vibration signals of a planetary gearbox from a satellite communication antenna on a measurement ship are captured under various motor speeds. The results show the proposed method could accurately detect the incipient pitting faults on two neighboring teeth in the planetary gearbox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1210-1230; doi:10.3390/s130101210
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is
[...] Read more.
Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study on Three Different Transducers for the Measurement of Nonlinear Solitary Waves
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1231-1246; doi:10.3390/s130101231
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the use of highly- and weakly- nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. Nonlinear solitary waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles, where they are
[...] Read more.
In the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the use of highly- and weakly- nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. Nonlinear solitary waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles, where they are conventionally generated by the mechanical impact of a striker and are measured either by using thin transducers embedded in between two half-particles or by a force sensor placed at the chain’s base. These waves have a constant spatial wavelength and their speed, amplitude, and duration can be tuned by modifying the particles’ material or size, or the velocity of the striker. In this paper we propose two alternative sensing configurations for the measurements of solitary waves propagating in a chain of spherical particles. One configuration uses piezo rods placed in the chain while the other exploits the magnetostrictive property of ferromagnetic materials. The accuracy of these two sensing systems on the measurement of the solitary wave’s characteristics is assessed by comparing experimental data to the numerical prediction of a discrete particle model and to the experimental measurements obtained by means of a conventional transducer. The results show very good agreement and the advantages and limitations of the new sensors are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
Open AccessArticle An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1247-1267; doi:10.3390/s130101247
Received: 16 October 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the
[...] Read more.
There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning) require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Robot Evolutionary Localization Based on Attentive Visual Short-Term Memory
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1268-1299; doi:10.3390/s130101268
Received: 22 December 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cameras are one of the most relevant sensors in autonomous robots. However, two of their challenges are to extract useful information from captured images, and to manage the small field of view of regular cameras. This paper proposes implementing a dynamic visual memory
[...] Read more.
Cameras are one of the most relevant sensors in autonomous robots. However, two of their challenges are to extract useful information from captured images, and to manage the small field of view of regular cameras. This paper proposes implementing a dynamic visual memory to store the information gathered from a moving camera on board a robot, followed by an attention system to choose where to look with this mobile camera, and a visual localization algorithm that incorporates this visual memory. The visual memory is a collection of relevant task-oriented objects and 3D segments, and its scope is wider than the current camera field of view. The attention module takes into account the need to reobserve objects in the visual memory and the need to explore new areas. The visual memory is useful also in localization tasks, as it provides more information about robot surroundings than the current instantaneous image. This visual system is intended as underlying technology for service robot applications in real people’s homes. Several experiments have been carried out, both with simulated and real Pioneer and Nao robots, to validate the system and each of its components in office scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends towards Automatic Vehicle Control and Perception Systems)
Open AccessArticle Design of the Dual Stone Locating System on an Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptor
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1319-1328; doi:10.3390/s130101319
Received: 13 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptors are very popular for the treatment of urinary stones all over the world. They depend basically upon either X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasound scans to detect the stones before therapy begins. To increase the effectiveness of treatment this study took
[...] Read more.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptors are very popular for the treatment of urinary stones all over the world. They depend basically upon either X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasound scans to detect the stones before therapy begins. To increase the effectiveness of treatment this study took advantage of both X-ray and ultrasound to develop a dual stone locating system with image processing modules. Its functions include the initial stone locating mode with stone detection by fluorescent images and the follow-up automatic stone tracking mode made by constant ultrasound scanning. The authors have integrated both apparatus and present the operating principles for both modes. The system used two in vitro experiments to justify its abilities of stone location in all procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Low-Loss Hollow Waveguide Fibers for Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Sensing Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1329-1340; doi:10.3390/s130101329
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on single mode optical transmission of hollow core glass waveguides (HWG) coupled with an external cavity mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The QCL mode results perfectly matched to the hybrid HE11 waveguide mode and the higher losses TE-like modes have
[...] Read more.
We report on single mode optical transmission of hollow core glass waveguides (HWG) coupled with an external cavity mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The QCL mode results perfectly matched to the hybrid HE11 waveguide mode and the higher losses TE-like modes have efficiently suppressed by the deposited inner dielectric coating. Optical losses down to 0.44 dB/m and output beam divergence of ~5 mrad were measured. Using a HGW fiber with internal core size of 300 µm we obtained single mode laser transmission at 10.54 µm and successful employed it in a quartz enhanced photoacoustic gas sensor setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensing and Imaging)
Open AccessArticle Fluorescent Ratiometric Indicators Based on Cu(II)-Induced Changes in Poly(NIPAM) Microparticle Volume
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1341-1352; doi:10.3390/s130101341
Received: 1 December 2012 / Revised: 12 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microparticles consisting of the thermal responsive polymer N-isopropyl acrylamide (polyNIPAM), a metal ion-binding ligand and a fluorophore pair that undergoes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been prepared and characterized. Upon the addition of Cu(II), the microparticles swell or contract depending on
[...] Read more.
Microparticles consisting of the thermal responsive polymer N-isopropyl acrylamide (polyNIPAM), a metal ion-binding ligand and a fluorophore pair that undergoes fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been prepared and characterized. Upon the addition of Cu(II), the microparticles swell or contract depending on whether charge is introduced or neutralized on the polymer backbone. The variation in microparticle morphology is translated into changes in emission of each fluorophore in the FRET pair. By measuring the emission intensity ratio between the FRET pair upon Cu(II) addition, the concentration of metal ion in solution can be quantified. This ratiometric fluorescent indicator is the newest technique in an ongoing effort to use emission spectroscopy to monitor Cu(II) thermodynamic activity in environmental water samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 334-366; doi:10.3390/s130100334
Received: 13 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (3410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging.
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Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
Open AccessReview The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 393-425; doi:10.3390/s130100393
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 74 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role in
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In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role in smart cities. From smart design of buildings, which capture rain water for later use, to intelligent control systems, which can monitor infrastructures autonomously, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies are immense. Ubiquitous sensing poses numerous challenges, which are of a technological or social nature. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art with regards to sensing in smart cities. Topics include sensing applications in smart cities, sensing platforms and technical challenges associated with these technologies. In an effort to provide a holistic view of how sensing technologies play a role in smart cities, a range of applications and technical challenges associated with these applications are discussed. As some of these applications and technologies belong to different disciplines, the material presented in this paper attempts to bridge these to provide a broad overview, which can be of help to researchers and developers in understanding how advanced sensing can play a role in smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessReview Odor Sampling: Techniques and Strategies for the Estimation of Odor Emission Rates from Different Source Types
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 938-955; doi:10.3390/s130100938
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sampling is one of the main issues pertaining to odor characterization and measurement. The aim of sampling is to obtain representative information on the typical characteristics of an odor source by means of the collection of a suitable volume fraction of the effluent.
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Sampling is one of the main issues pertaining to odor characterization and measurement. The aim of sampling is to obtain representative information on the typical characteristics of an odor source by means of the collection of a suitable volume fraction of the effluent. The most important information about an emission source for odor impact assessment is the so-called Odor Emission Rate (OER), which represents the quantity of odor emitted per unit of time, and is expressed in odor units per second (ou∙s−1). This paper reviews the different odor sampling strategies adopted depending on source type. The review includes an overview of odor sampling regulations and a detailed discussion of the equipment to be used as well as the mathematical considerations to be applied to obtain the OER in relation to the sampled source typology. Full article
Open AccessReview Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 984-1003; doi:10.3390/s130100984
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 2 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the
[...] Read more.
Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultramicroelectrode Electrochemistry - Theory and Applications)
Open AccessReview A Flexible Sensor Technology for the Distributed Measurement of Interaction Pressure
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1021-1045; doi:10.3390/s130101021
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a sensor technology for the measure of the physical human-robot interaction pressure developed in the last years at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. The system is composed of flexible matrices of opto-electronic sensors covered by a soft silicone cover. This sensory system is
[...] Read more.
We present a sensor technology for the measure of the physical human-robot interaction pressure developed in the last years at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. The system is composed of flexible matrices of opto-electronic sensors covered by a soft silicone cover. This sensory system is completely modular and scalable, allowing one to cover areas of any sizes and shapes, and to measure different pressure ranges. In this work we present the main application areas for this technology. A first generation of the system was used to monitor human-robot interaction in upper- (NEUROExos; Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna) and lower-limb (LOPES; University of Twente) exoskeletons for rehabilitation. A second generation, with increased resolution and wireless connection, was used to develop a pressure-sensitive foot insole and an improved human-robot interaction measurement systems. The experimental characterization of the latter system along with its validation on three healthy subjects is presented here for the first time. A perspective on future uses and development of the technology is finally drafted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
Figures

Open AccessReview Low Frequency Electrical and Magnetic Methods for Non-Destructive Analysis of Fiber Dispersion in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites: An Overview
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1300-1318; doi:10.3390/s130101300
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 16 January 2013 / Accepted: 19 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in
[...] Read more.
Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
Open AccessReview Nucleic Acids for Ultra-Sensitive Protein Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1353-1384; doi:10.3390/s130101353
Received: 21 November 2012 / Revised: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 28 December 2012 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Major advancements in molecular biology and clinical diagnostics cannot be brought about strictly through the use of genomics based methods. Improved methods for protein detection and proteomic screening are an absolute necessity to complement to wealth of information offered by novel, high-throughput sequencing
[...] Read more.
Major advancements in molecular biology and clinical diagnostics cannot be brought about strictly through the use of genomics based methods. Improved methods for protein detection and proteomic screening are an absolute necessity to complement to wealth of information offered by novel, high-throughput sequencing technologies. Only then will it be possible to advance insights into clinical processes and to characterize the importance of specific protein biomarkers for disease detection or the realization of “personalized medicine”. Currently however, large-scale proteomic information is still not as easily obtained as its genomic counterpart, mainly because traditional antibody-based technologies struggle to meet the stringent sensitivity and throughput requirements that are required whereas mass-spectrometry based methods might be burdened by significant costs involved. However, recent years have seen the development of new biodetection strategies linking nucleic acids with existing antibody technology or replacing antibodies with oligonucleotide recognition elements altogether. These advancements have unlocked many new strategies to lower detection limits and dramatically increase throughput of protein detection assays. In this review, an overview of these new strategies will be given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)

Other

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Open AccessNew Book Received Introduction to Modern EW Systems. Edited by Andrea De Martino, Artech House, 2012; 417 pages. Price: £119.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-207-1
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1146-1150; doi:10.3390/s130101146
Received: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
PDF Full-text (121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Master the latest electronic warfare (EW) techniques and technologies related to on-board military platforms with this authoritative resource. You gain expert design guidance on technologies and equipment used to detect and identify emitter threats, giving you an advantage in the never-ending chess game
[...] Read more.
Master the latest electronic warfare (EW) techniques and technologies related to on-board military platforms with this authoritative resource. You gain expert design guidance on technologies and equipment used to detect and identify emitter threats, giving you an advantage in the never-ending chess game between sensor guided weapons and EW systems. This unique book offers you deeper insight into EW systems principles of operation and their mathematical descriptions, arming you with better knowledge for your specific design applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessNew Book Received Electronic Warfare Target Location Methods, Second Edition. Edited by Richard A. Poisel, Artech House, 2012; 422 pages. Price: £99.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-523-2
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1151-1157; doi:10.3390/s130101151
Received: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth
[...] Read more.
Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a launch point for further algorithm development. You gain an in-depth understanding of key target location methods that you can effectively apply to your work in the field. You discover triangulation algorithms that offer a highly efficient way to geolocate targets when the real estate on the sensor systems is adequate to support an antenna array. The book also presents quadratic geolocation techniques that can be implemented with extremely modest antennas — frequently a single dipole or monopole. Moreover, this authoritative volume details methods for geolocating the source of high frequency signals with a single sensor site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessNew Book Received Antenna Systems and Electronic Warfare Applications. Edited by Richard A. Poisel, Artech House, 2012; 1036 pages. Price: £129.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-484-6
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1158-1159; doi:10.3390/s130101158
Received: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
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Abstract
This comprehensive book serves as a one-stop resource for practical EW antenna system know-how. Supported with over 700 illustrations and nearly 1,700 equations, this authoritative reference offers you detailed explanations of all the important foundations and aspects of this technology. Moreover, you get
[...] Read more.
This comprehensive book serves as a one-stop resource for practical EW antenna system know-how. Supported with over 700 illustrations and nearly 1,700 equations, this authoritative reference offers you detailed explanations of all the important foundations and aspects of this technology. Moreover, you get an in-depth treatment of a wide range of antenna system applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)

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