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Special Issue "Ubiquitous Sensing"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Feng Xia (Website)

School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Development Zone, Dalian 116620, China
Interests: cyber-physical systems; internet of things; mobile computing; social computing; intelligent systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The era of ubiquitous sensing has begun recently thanks to the proliferation of wireless sensors. For instance, modern smartphones are equipped with a variety of sensors that can be used to continuously monitor activities and locations of the users, and a rapidly growing number of sensors are embedded into the physical world for monitoring of our living environments. Ubiquitous sensing promises to enhance awareness of the cyber, physical, and social contexts of our daily activities, thus providing supports for services and applications that will change our lives.

This special issue aims to collect recent research results that address key issues and topics related to ubiquitous sensing. We recommend authors provide as much details as possible, extended long research papers or comprehensive reviews (tutorial and survey papers approximately 30-50 pages each are particularly welcome.

In addition to open submissions, authors of selected papers published in the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom 2011; http://cpscom.org) and the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings 2011; http://ieee-iot.org) will be invited to submit extended versions of their papers to this special issue for consideration. Manuscripts from the conferences must have at least 40% extension compared with the conference versions.

Dr. Feng Xia
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • participatory sensing
  • human-centric sensing
  • sensing with smartphones
  • mobile sensing
  • ubiquitous sensing with RFID
  • sensing for social computing
  • community sensing
  • wireless sensor networks
  • cyber-physical systems
  • Internet of Things
  • platforms for ubiquitous sensing
  • ubiquitous sensing services and applications

Published Papers (44 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Paper Withdrawn by the Authors before the Issue Release
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16250-16261; doi:10.3390/s121216250
Received: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
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Abstract
The following paper: “Jung, S.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S. Bloom Filter-Based Advanced Traceback Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2012, 12, 16250-16261.” has been withdrawn at the request of the authors before the issue release of Sensors Volume 12, Issue 12. We [...] Read more.
The following paper: “Jung, S.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S. Bloom Filter-Based Advanced Traceback Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2012, 12, 16250-16261.” has been withdrawn at the request of the authors before the issue release of Sensors Volume 12, Issue 12. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4922-4946; doi:10.3390/s130404922
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for [...] Read more.
Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(2), 1942-1964; doi:10.3390/s130201942
Received: 15 December 2012 / Revised: 20 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1210-1230; doi:10.3390/s130101210
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN [...] Read more.
Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN), in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1160-1182; doi:10.3390/s130101160
Received: 16 August 2012 / Revised: 1 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an upcoming smart transportation environment, performance evaluations of existing Vehicle Detection Systems are crucial to maintain their accuracy. The existing evaluation method for Vehicle Detection Systems is based on a wired Vehicle Detection System reference and a video recorder, which must [...] Read more.
In an upcoming smart transportation environment, performance evaluations of existing Vehicle Detection Systems are crucial to maintain their accuracy. The existing evaluation method for Vehicle Detection Systems is based on a wired Vehicle Detection System reference and a video recorder, which must be operated and analyzed by capable traffic experts. However, this conventional evaluation system has many disadvantages. It is inconvenient to deploy, the evaluation takes a long time, and it lacks scalability and objectivity. To improve the evaluation procedure, this paper proposes a Portable Vehicle Detector Evaluation System based on wireless sensor networks. We describe both the architecture and design of a Vehicle Detector Evaluation System and the implementation results, focusing on the wireless sensor networks and methods for traffic information measurement. With the help of wireless sensor networks and automated analysis, our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System can evaluate a Vehicle Detection System conveniently and objectively. The extensive evaluations of our Vehicle Detector Evaluation System show that it can measure the traffic information such as volume counts and speed with over 98% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 875-897; doi:10.3390/s130100875
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as [...] Read more.
Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Mobile Asset Tracking System Architecture under Mobile-Stationary Co-Existing WSNs
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 17446-17462; doi:10.3390/s121217446
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tracking of multiple wireless mobile nodes is not easy with current legacy WSN technologies, due to their inherent technical complexity, especially when heavy traffic and frequent movement of mobile nodes are encountered. To enable mobile asset tracking under these legacy WSN [...] Read more.
The tracking of multiple wireless mobile nodes is not easy with current legacy WSN technologies, due to their inherent technical complexity, especially when heavy traffic and frequent movement of mobile nodes are encountered. To enable mobile asset tracking under these legacy WSN systems, it is necessary to design a specific system architecture that can manage numerous mobile nodes attached to mobile assets. In this paper, we present a practical system architecture including a communication protocol, a three-tier network, and server-side middleware for mobile asset tracking in legacy WSNs consisting of mobile-stationary co-existing infrastructures, and we prove the functionality of this architecture through careful evaluation in a test bed. Evaluation was carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber as well as on a straight road near our office. We evaluated communication mobility performance between mobile and stationary nodes, location-awareness performance, system stability under numerous mobile node conditions, and the successful packet transfer rate according to the speed of the mobile nodes. The results indicate that the proposed architecture is sufficiently robust for application in realistic mobile asset tracking services that require a large number of mobile nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Towards a Hybrid Energy Efficient Multi-Tree-Based Optimized Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 17295-17319; doi:10.3390/s121217295
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 10 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper considers the problem of designing power efficient routing with guaranteed delivery for sensor networks with unknown geographic locations. We propose HECTOR, a hybrid energy efficient tree-based optimized routing protocol, based on two sets of virtual coordinates. One set is based [...] Read more.
This paper considers the problem of designing power efficient routing with guaranteed delivery for sensor networks with unknown geographic locations. We propose HECTOR, a hybrid energy efficient tree-based optimized routing protocol, based on two sets of virtual coordinates. One set is based on rooted tree coordinates, and the other is based on hop distances toward several landmarks. In HECTOR, the node currently holding the packet forwards it to its neighbor that optimizes ratio of power cost over distance progress with landmark coordinates, among nodes that reduce landmark coordinates and do not increase distance in tree coordinates. If such a node does not exist, then forwarding is made to the neighbor that reduces tree-based distance only and optimizes power cost over tree distance progress ratio. We theoretically prove the packet delivery and propose an extension based on the use of multiple trees. Our simulations show the superiority of our algorithm over existing alternatives while guaranteeing delivery, and only up to 30% additional power compared to centralized shortest weighted path algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Prioritized Degree Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks with a Network Coded Data Collection Method
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 17128-17154; doi:10.3390/s121217128
Received: 3 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network [...] Read more.
The reliability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be greatly affected by failures of sensor nodes due to energy exhaustion or the influence of brutal external environment conditions. Such failures seriously affect the data persistence and collection efficiency. Strategies based on network coding technology for WSNs such as LTCDS can improve the data persistence without mass redundancy. However, due to the bad intermediate performance of LTCDS, a serious ‘cliff effect’ may appear during the decoding period, and source data are hard to recover from sink nodes before sufficient encoded packets are collected. In this paper, the influence of coding degree distribution strategy on the ‘cliff effect’ is observed and the prioritized data storage and dissemination algorithm PLTD-ALPHA is presented to achieve better data persistence and recovering performance. With PLTD-ALPHA, the data in sensor network nodes present a trend that their degree distribution increases along with the degree level predefined, and the persistent data packets can be submitted to the sink node according to its degree in order. Finally, the performance of PLTD-ALPHA is evaluated and experiment results show that PLTD-ALPHA can greatly improve the data collection performance and decoding efficiency, while data persistence is not notably affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Approaches for Disaggregated Energy Sensing: A Survey
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16838-16866; doi:10.3390/s121216838
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
Cited by 104 | PDF Full-text (2634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Appliance Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential for energy management solutions, allowing them to obtain appliance-specific energy consumption statistics that can further be used to devise load scheduling strategies for optimal energy utilization. Fine-grained energy monitoring can be achieved by deploying smart power [...] Read more.
Appliance Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential for energy management solutions, allowing them to obtain appliance-specific energy consumption statistics that can further be used to devise load scheduling strategies for optimal energy utilization. Fine-grained energy monitoring can be achieved by deploying smart power outlets on every device of interest; however it incurs extra hardware cost and installation complexity. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is an attractive method for energy disaggregation, as it can discern devices from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of measurement. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of NILM system and its associated methods and techniques used for disaggregated energy sensing. We review the state-of-the art load signatures and disaggregation algorithms used for appliance recognition and highlight challenges and future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Performance Analysis of Movement-Based Group Location Management Using RFID Sensing in Public Transportation Systems
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16077-16098; doi:10.3390/s121216077
Received: 7 September 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs [...] Read more.
Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs moves between location areas (LAs), group location management was proposed. Under the group location management, an MS performs group registration when it gets on a TS and performs group deregistration when it gets off a TS. Then, only a TS updates its current location when it changes LA, on behalf of all riding MSs. In this paper, movement-based group location management using radio frequency identification (RFID) is proposed, where the MS’s getting on and getting off behaviors are detected using RFID and only location update of a TS is carried out if the number of crossed cells from the last updated cell exceeds a predefined movement threshold, on behalf of all riding MSs. Then, we develop an analytical model for the performance analysis of the movement-based group location management and analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance. The results show that the movement-based group location management has reduced signaling cost compared with movement-based individual location management, and optimal performance can be achieved by choosing appropriate movement threshold values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16116-16143; doi:10.3390/s121216116
Received: 20 September 2012 / Revised: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless [...] Read more.
Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle TDMA-Based Dual-Mode Communication for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16194-16210; doi:10.3390/s121216194
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs), are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing [...] Read more.
Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs), are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing goals during various stages of the mission. This work addresses those requirements with a hybrid communications infrastructure consisting of a stationary mesh network along with the mobile nodes. The combined network operates in two independent modes, coupling a highly efficient, low duty cycle, low throughput mode for routing and persistent sensing with a burst mode for high data rate communication. By strategically distributing available frequency channels between the mobile agents and the stationary nodes, the overall network provides reliable long-term communication paths while maximizing data throughput when needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Presence-Based Context-Aware Chronic Stress Recognition System
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15888-15906; doi:10.3390/s121115888
Received: 20 September 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight [...] Read more.
Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight or flight’ response. The currently available stress assessment methods are usually not suitable for daily chronic stress measurement. The paper presents a context-aware chronic stress recognition system that addresses this problem. The proposed system obtains contextual data from various mobile sensors and other external sources in order to calculate the impact of ongoing stress. By identifying and visualizing ongoing stress situations of an individual user, he/she is able to modify his/her behavior in order to successfully avoid them. Clinical evaluation of the proposed methodology has been made in parallel by using electrodermal activity sensor. To the best of our knowledge, the system presented herein is the first one that enables recognition of chronic stress situations on the basis of user context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Development Architecture for Serious Games Using BCI (Brain Computer Interface) Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15671-15688; doi:10.3390/s121115671
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Games that use brainwaves via brain–computer interface (BCI) devices, to improve brain functions are known as BCI serious games. Due to the difficulty of developing BCI serious games, various BCI engines and authoring tools are required, and these reduce the development time [...] Read more.
Games that use brainwaves via brain–computer interface (BCI) devices, to improve brain functions are known as BCI serious games. Due to the difficulty of developing BCI serious games, various BCI engines and authoring tools are required, and these reduce the development time and cost. However, it is desirable to reduce the amount of technical knowledge of brain functions and BCI devices needed by game developers. Moreover, a systematic BCI serious game development process is required. In this paper, we present a methodology for the development of BCI serious games. We describe an architecture, authoring tools, and development process of the proposed methodology, and apply it to a game development approach for patients with mild cognitive impairment as an example. This application demonstrates that BCI serious games can be developed on the basis of expert-verified theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Impact of High Power Interference Sources in Planning and Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks and Devices in the 2.4 GHz Frequency Band in Heterogeneous Environments
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15689-15708; doi:10.3390/s121115689
Received: 29 August 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on [...] Read more.
In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Decentralized Cooperative TOA/AOA Target Tracking for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15308-15337; doi:10.3390/s121115308
Received: 6 July 2012 / Revised: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a distributed method for cooperative target tracking in hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The concept of leader-based information processingis conducted to achieve object positioning, considering a cluster-based network topology. Random timers and local information are applied to adaptively select a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a distributed method for cooperative target tracking in hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The concept of leader-based information processingis conducted to achieve object positioning, considering a cluster-based network topology. Random timers and local information are applied to adaptively select a sub-cluster for thelocalization task. The proposed energy-efficient tracking algorithm allows each sub-clustermember to locally estimate the target position with a Bayesian filtering framework and a neural networking model, and further performs estimation fusion in the leader node with the covariance intersection algorithm. This paper evaluates the merits and trade-offs of the protocol design towards developing more efficient and practical algorithms for objectposition estimation.  Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15159-15191; doi:10.3390/s121115159
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is [...] Read more.
The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Large Scale Code Resolution Service Network in the Internet of Things
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15206-15243; doi:10.3390/s121115206
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
PDF Full-text (1615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving [...] Read more.
In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15009-15035; doi:10.3390/s121115009
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
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Abstract
This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following [...] Read more.
This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Network Modeling and Energy-Efficiency Optimization for Advanced Machine-to-Machine Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14851-14861; doi:10.3390/s121114851
Received: 30 August 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
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Abstract
Wireless machine-to-machine sensor networks with multiple radio interfaces are expected to have several advantages, including high spatial scalability, low event detection latency, and low energy consumption. Here, we propose a network model design method involving network approximation and an optimized multi-tiered clustering [...] Read more.
Wireless machine-to-machine sensor networks with multiple radio interfaces are expected to have several advantages, including high spatial scalability, low event detection latency, and low energy consumption. Here, we propose a network model design method involving network approximation and an optimized multi-tiered clustering algorithm that maximizes node lifespan by minimizing energy consumption in a non-uniformly distributed network. Simulation results show that the cluster scales and network parameters determined with the proposed method facilitate a more efficient performance compared to existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14862-14886; doi:10.3390/s121114862
Received: 15 August 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take [...] Read more.
Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Enabling Smart Workflows over Heterogeneous ID-SensingTechnologies
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14914-14936; doi:10.3390/s121114914
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
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Abstract
Sensing technologies in mobile devices play a key role in reducing the gapbetween the physical and the digital world. The use of automatic identification capabilitiescan improve user participation in business processes where physical elements are involved(Smart Workflows). However, identifying all objects in [...] Read more.
Sensing technologies in mobile devices play a key role in reducing the gapbetween the physical and the digital world. The use of automatic identification capabilitiescan improve user participation in business processes where physical elements are involved(Smart Workflows). However, identifying all objects in the user surroundings does notautomatically translate into meaningful services to the user. This work introduces Parkour,an architecture that allows the development of services that match the goals of each ofthe participants in a smart workflow. Parkour is based on a pluggable architecture thatcan be extended to provide support for new tasks and technologies. In order to facilitatethe development of these plug-ins, tools that automate the development process are alsoprovided. Several Parkour-based systems have been developed in order to validate theapplicability of the proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle WikiSensing: An Online Collaborative Approach for Sensor Data Management
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13295-13332; doi:10.3390/s121013295
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
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Abstract
This paper presents a new methodology for collaborative sensor data management known as WikiSensing. It is a novel approach that incorporates online collaboration with sensor data management. We introduce the work on this research by describing the motivation and challenges of designing [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new methodology for collaborative sensor data management known as WikiSensing. It is a novel approach that incorporates online collaboration with sensor data management. We introduce the work on this research by describing the motivation and challenges of designing and developing an online collaborative sensor data management system. This is followed by a brief survey on popular sensor data management and online collaborative systems. We then present the architecture for WikiSensing highlighting its main components and features. Several example scenarios are described to present the functionality of the system. We evaluate the approach by investigating the performance of aggregate queries and the scalability of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Building Environment Analysis Based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13458-13470; doi:10.3390/s121013458
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Expanding Window Compressed Sensing for Non-Uniform Compressible Signals
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13034-13057; doi:10.3390/s121013034
Received: 7 June 2012 / Revised: 28 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many practical compressible signals like image signals or the networked data in wireless sensor networks have non-uniform support distribution in their sparse representation domain. Utilizing this prior information, a novel compressed sensing (CS) scheme with unequal protection capability is proposed in this [...] Read more.
Many practical compressible signals like image signals or the networked data in wireless sensor networks have non-uniform support distribution in their sparse representation domain. Utilizing this prior information, a novel compressed sensing (CS) scheme with unequal protection capability is proposed in this paper by introducing a windowing strategy called expanding window compressed sensing (EW-CS). According to the importance of different parts of the signal, the signal is divided into several nested subsets, i.e., the expanding windows. Each window generates its own measurements using a random sensing matrix. The more significant elements are contained by more windows, so they are captured by more measurements. This design makes the EW-CS scheme have more convenient implementation and better overall recovery quality for non-uniform compressible signals than ordinary CS schemes. These advantages are theoretically analyzed and experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the EW-CS scheme is applied to the compressed acquisition of image signals and networked data where it also has superior performance than ordinary CS and the existing unequal protection CS schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12588-12605; doi:10.3390/s120912588
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context [...] Read more.
Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Using SWE Standards for Ubiquitous Environmental Sensing: A Performance Analysis
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12026-12051; doi:10.3390/s120912026
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although smartphone applications represent the most typical data consumer tool from the citizen perspective in environmental applications, they can also be used for in-situ data collection and production in varied scenarios, such as geological sciences and biodiversity. The use of standard protocols, [...] Read more.
Although smartphone applications represent the most typical data consumer tool from the citizen perspective in environmental applications, they can also be used for in-situ data collection and production in varied scenarios, such as geological sciences and biodiversity. The use of standard protocols, such as SWE, to exchange information between smartphones and sensor infrastructures brings benefits such as interoperability and scalability, but their reliance on XML is a potential problem when large volumes of data are transferred, due to limited bandwidth and processing capabilities on mobile phones. In this article we present a performance analysis about the use of SWE standards in smartphone applications to consume and produce environmental sensor data, analysing to what extent the performance problems related to XML can be alleviated by using alternative uncompressed and compressed formats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 11754-11781; doi:10.3390/s120911754
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving [...] Read more.
Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR) algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical). The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 11334-11359; doi:10.3390/s120811334
Received: 19 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
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Abstract
In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling [...] Read more.
In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Complete Scene Recovery and Terrain Classification in Textured Terrain Meshes
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 11221-11237; doi:10.3390/s120811221
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
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Abstract
Terrain classification allows a mobile robot to create an annotated map of its local environment from the three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) datasets collected by its array of sensors, including a GPS receiver, gyroscope, video camera, and range sensor. However, parts of [...] Read more.
Terrain classification allows a mobile robot to create an annotated map of its local environment from the three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) datasets collected by its array of sensors, including a GPS receiver, gyroscope, video camera, and range sensor. However, parts of objects that are outside the measurement range of the range sensor will not be detected. To overcome this problem, this paper describes an edge estimation method for complete scene recovery and complete terrain reconstruction. Here, the Gibbs-Markov random field is used to segment the ground from 2D videos and 3D point clouds. Further, a masking method is proposed to classify buildings and trees in a terrain mesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Hybrid TOA-Fingerprinting Based Localization of Mobile Nodes Using UWB Signaling for Non Line-Of-Sight Conditions
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 11187-11204; doi:10.3390/s120811187
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 3 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) signaling has become popular for providing precise location accuracy for mobile and wireless sensor node localization in the indoor environment due to its large bandwidth and high time resolution while providing ultra-high transmission capacity. However, the [...] Read more.
Recently, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) signaling has become popular for providing precise location accuracy for mobile and wireless sensor node localization in the indoor environment due to its large bandwidth and high time resolution while providing ultra-high transmission capacity. However, the Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) error mitigation has considerable importance in localization of wireless nodes. In order to mitigate NLOS errors in indoor localization this paper proposes and investigates a novel approach which creates a hybrid combination of channel impulse response (CIR)-based fingerprinting (FP) positioning and an iterative Time of Arrival (TOA) real time positioning method using Ultra Wideband (UWB) signaling. Besides, to reduce the calculation complexities in FP method, this paper also introduces a unique idea for the arrangement of reference nodes (or tags) to create a fingerprinting database. The simulation results confirm that the proposed hybrid method yields better positioning accuracies and is much more robust in NLOS error mitigation than TOA only and FP only and a conventional iterative positioning method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10463-10486; doi:10.3390/s120810463
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 11 July 2012 / Accepted: 18 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Search Strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10163-10195; doi:10.3390/s120810163
Received: 18 May 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9800-9822; doi:10.3390/s120709800
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 12 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 18 July 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature [...] Read more.
Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC). The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 8586-8600; doi:10.3390/s120708586
Received: 2 May 2012 / Revised: 28 May 2012 / Accepted: 6 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to [...] Read more.
The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(6), 6930-6952; doi:10.3390/s120606930
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 26 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 25 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks’ ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes’ ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks [...] Read more.
Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks’ ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes’ ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Impact of Furniture on Communications Performance for Ubiquitous Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Homes
Sensors 2012, 12(5), 6463-6496; doi:10.3390/s120506463
Received: 1 April 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 16 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet [...] Read more.
The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures
Sensors 2012, 12(5), 5775-5790; doi:10.3390/s120505775
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named [...] Read more.
An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR), which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC) were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Supervising Lifestyle Diseases Using Long-Term Activity Monitoring
Sensors 2012, 12(5), 5363-5379; doi:10.3390/s120505363
Received: 6 March 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activity monitoring of a person for a long-term would be helpful for controlling lifestyle associated diseases. Such diseases are often linked with the way a person lives. An unhealthy and irregular standard of living influences the risk of such diseases in the [...] Read more.
Activity monitoring of a person for a long-term would be helpful for controlling lifestyle associated diseases. Such diseases are often linked with the way a person lives. An unhealthy and irregular standard of living influences the risk of such diseases in the later part of one’s life. The symptoms and the initial signs of these diseases are common to the people with irregular lifestyle. In this paper, we propose a novel healthcare framework to manage lifestyle diseases using long-term activity monitoring. The framework recognizes the user’s activities with the help of the sensed data in runtime and reports the irregular and unhealthy activity patterns to a doctor and a caregiver. The proposed framework is a hierarchical structure that consists of three modules: activity recognition, activity pattern generation and lifestyle disease prediction. We show that it is possible to assess the possibility of lifestyle diseases from the sensor data. We also show the viability of the proposed framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3118-3130; doi:10.3390/s120303118
Received: 14 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Architecture and Protocol of a Semantic System Designed for Video Tagging with Sensor Data in Mobile Devices
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2062-2087; doi:10.3390/s120202062
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 10 February 2012 / Published: 14 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current mobile phones come with several sensors and powerful video cameras. These video cameras can be used to capture good quality scenes, which can be complemented with the information gathered by the sensors also embedded in the phones. For example, the surroundings [...] Read more.
Current mobile phones come with several sensors and powerful video cameras. These video cameras can be used to capture good quality scenes, which can be complemented with the information gathered by the sensors also embedded in the phones. For example, the surroundings of a beach recorded by the camera of the mobile phone, jointly with the temperature of the site can let users know via the Internet if the weather is nice enough to swim. In this paper, we present a system that tags the video frames of the video recorded from mobile phones with the data collected by the embedded sensors. The tagged video is uploaded to a video server, which is placed on the Internet and is accessible by any user. The proposed system uses a semantic approach with the stored information in order to make easy and efficient video searches. Our experimental results show that it is possible to tag video frames in real time and send the tagged video to the server with very low packet delay variations. As far as we know there is not any other application developed as the one presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1572-1593; doi:10.3390/s120201572
Received: 24 December 2011 / Revised: 29 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on [...] Read more.
This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 393-425; doi:10.3390/s130100393
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role [...] Read more.
In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role in smart cities. From smart design of buildings, which capture rain water for later use, to intelligent control systems, which can monitor infrastructures autonomously, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies are immense. Ubiquitous sensing poses numerous challenges, which are of a technological or social nature. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art with regards to sensing in smart cities. Topics include sensing applications in smart cities, sensing platforms and technical challenges associated with these technologies. In an effort to provide a holistic view of how sensing technologies play a role in smart cities, a range of applications and technical challenges associated with these applications are discussed. As some of these applications and technologies belong to different disciplines, the material presented in this paper attempts to bridge these to provide a broad overview, which can be of help to researchers and developers in understanding how advanced sensing can play a role in smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Sensing)

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