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Sensors 2013, 13(1), 984-1003; doi:10.3390/s130100984

Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 2 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultramicroelectrode Electrochemistry - Theory and Applications)
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Determining the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of ions in and around living cells is important to our understanding of the contribution of those ions to cellular function. Moreover, monitoring changes in ion activities in and around cells is informative about the actions of the transporters and/or channels operating in the cell membrane. The activity of an ion can be measured using a glass microelectrode that includes in its tip a liquid-membrane doped with an ion-selective ionophore. Because these electrodes can be fabricated with tip diameters that are less than 1 μm, they can be used to impale single cells in order to monitor the activities of intracellular ions. This review summarizes the history, theory, and practice of ion-selective microelectrode use and brings together a number of classic and recent examples of their usefulness in the realm of physiological study.
Keywords: ISM; LIX; Nernst equation ISM; LIX; Nernst equation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, S.-K.; Boron, W.F.; Parker, M.D. Monitoring Ion Activities In and Around Cells Using Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrodes. Sensors 2013, 13, 984-1003.

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