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Sensors 2013, 13(1), 1121-1136; doi:10.3390/s130101121

Using an Automatic Resistivity Profiler Soil Sensor On-The-Go in Precision Viticulture

1 Sistemi Colturali degli Ambienti Caldo–Aridi (SCA), Agricultural Research Council (CRA), Via Celso Ulpiani, 5, 70125 Bari, Italy 2 Department of Economics and Mathematics, University of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy 3 Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (University of La Rioja, CSIC, Gobierno de La Rioja) 26006 Logroño, Spain 4 CITAB, Department of Agronomy, UTAD, 5001-911 Vila Real, Portugal 5 So. In. GStrutture & Ambiente, 57121 Livorno, Italy 6 School of Agriculture, Forest and Environmemtal Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano, 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
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Spatial information on vineyard soil properties can be useful in precision viticulture. In this paper a combination of high resolution soil spatial information of soil electrical resistivity (ER) and ancillary topographic attributes, such as elevation and slope, were integrated to assess the spatial variability patterns of vegetative growth and yield of a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) located in the wine-producing region of La Rioja, Spain. High resolution continuous geoelectrical mapping was accomplished by an Automatic Resistivity Profiler (ARP) on-the-go sensor with an on-board GPS system; rolling electrodes enabled ER to be measured for a depth of investigation approximately up to 0.5, 1 and 2 m. Regression analysis and cluster analysis algorithm were used to jointly process soil resistivity data, landscape attributes and grapevine variables. ER showed a structured variability that matched well with trunk circumference spatial pattern and yield. Based on resistivity and a simple terrain attribute uniform management units were delineated. Once a spatial relationship to target variables is found, the integration of point measurement with continuous soil resistivity mapping is a useful technique to identify within-plots areas of vineyard with similar status.
Keywords: soil spatial variability; electrical resistivity; vineyard variability soil spatial variability; electrical resistivity; vineyard variability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rossi, R.; Pollice, A.; Diago, M.-P.; Oliveira, M.; Millan, B.; Bitella, G.; Amato, M.; Tardaguila, J. Using an Automatic Resistivity Profiler Soil Sensor On-The-Go in Precision Viticulture. Sensors 2013, 13, 1121-1136.

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