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Sensors, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2012), Pages 1-1129

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Open AccessEditorial Sensors Best Paper Award 2012
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1127-1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101127
Received: 20 January 2012 / Accepted: 23 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 2011, Sensors has been instituting an annual award to recognize outstanding papers that are related to sensing technologies and applications and meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal [1]. To improve the timeliness of the award, we have decided
[...] Read more.
Since 2011, Sensors has been instituting an annual award to recognize outstanding papers that are related to sensing technologies and applications and meet the aims, scope and high standards of this journal [1]. To improve the timeliness of the award, we have decided that starting from next year, only papers published in the preceding three years will be eligible for the competition. [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1100-1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101100
Received: 9 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE) feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas
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Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE) feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Activity Inference for Ambient Intelligence Through Handling Artifacts in a Healthcare Environment
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1072-1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101072
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (2406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important
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Human activity inference is not a simple process due to distinct ways of performing it. Our proposal presents the SCAN framework for activity inference. SCAN is divided into three modules: (1) artifact recognition, (2) activity inference, and (3) activity representation, integrating three important elements of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) (artifact-behavior modeling, event interpretation and context extraction). The framework extends the roaming beat (RB) concept by obtaining the representation using three kinds of technologies for activity inference. The RB is based on both analysis and recognition from artifact behavior for activity inference. A practical case is shown in a nursing home where a system affording 91.35% effectiveness was implemented in situ. Three examples are shown using RB representation for activity representation. Framework description, RB description and CALog system overcome distinct problems such as the feasibility to implement AmI systems, and to show the feasibility for accomplishing the challenges related to activity recognition based on artifact recognition. We discuss how the use of RBs might positively impact the problems faced by designers and developers for recovering information in an easier manner and thus they can develop tools focused on the user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Spaces and Ubiquitous Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Computer Reconstruction of Plant Growth and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Emission in Three Spatial Dimensions
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1052-1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101052
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant leaves grow and change their orientation as well their emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in time. All these dynamic plant properties can be semi-automatically monitored by a 3D imaging system that generates plant models by the method of coded light illumination, fluorescence imaging
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Plant leaves grow and change their orientation as well their emission of chlorophyll fluorescence in time. All these dynamic plant properties can be semi-automatically monitored by a 3D imaging system that generates plant models by the method of coded light illumination, fluorescence imaging and computer 3D reconstruction. Here, we describe the essentials of the method, as well as the system hardware. We show that the technique can reconstruct, with a high fidelity, the leaf size, the leaf angle and the plant height. The method fails with wilted plants when leaves overlap obscuring their true area. This effect, naturally, also interferes when the method is applied to measure plant growth under water stress. The method is, however, very potent in capturing the plant dynamics under mild stress and without stress. The 3D reconstruction is also highly effective in correcting geometrical factors that distort measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence emission of naturally positioned plant leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1042-1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101042
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 7 January 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at
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A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Post-Synapse Model Cell for Synaptic Glutamate Receptor (GluR)-Based Biosensing: Strategy and Engineering to Maximize Ligand-Gated Ion-Flux Achieving High Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1035-1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101035
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 18 January 2012
PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell-based biosensing is a “smart” way to obtain efficacy-information on the effect of applied chemical on cellular biological cascade. We have proposed an engineered post-synapse model cell-based biosensors to investigate the effects of chemicals on ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR), which is a focus
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Cell-based biosensing is a “smart” way to obtain efficacy-information on the effect of applied chemical on cellular biological cascade. We have proposed an engineered post-synapse model cell-based biosensors to investigate the effects of chemicals on ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR), which is a focus of attention as a molecular target for clinical neural drug discovery. The engineered model cell has several advantages over native cells, including improved ease of handling and better reproducibility in the application of cell-based biosensors. However, in general, cell-based biosensors often have low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios due to the low level of cellular responses. In order to obtain a higher S/N ratio in model cells, we have attempted to design a tactic model cell with elevated cellular response. We have revealed that the increase GluR expression level is not directly connected to the amplification of cellular responses because the saturation of surface expression of GluR, leading to a limit on the total ion influx. Furthermore, coexpression of GluR with a voltage-gated potassium channel increased Ca2+ ion influx beyond levels obtained with saturating amounts of GluR alone. The construction of model cells based on strategy of amplifying ion flux per individual receptors can be used to perform smart cell-based biosensing with an improved S/N ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Methods of RTK-GPS/Accelerometer Integration to Monitor the Displacement of Structures
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1014-1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101014
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 17 January 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accurate measurement of diverse displacements of structures is an important index for the evaluation of a structure’s safety. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method that can provide the most precise structure displacement measurements. For
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The accurate measurement of diverse displacements of structures is an important index for the evaluation of a structure’s safety. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method that can provide the most precise structure displacement measurements. For this purpose, three methods of calculating the dynamic displacements from the acceleration data were comparatively analyzed. In addition, two methods of determining dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements by integrating the displacements measured from the RTK-GPS system and the accelerometer were also comparatively analyzed. To ensure precise comparison results, a cantilever beam was manufactured onto which diverse types of displacements were generated to evaluate the measurement accuracy by method. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements were used as references for the evaluation to ensure accuracy. The study results showed that the most suitable method of measuring the dynamic displacement with the accelerometer was to calculate the displacement by filtering and double-integrating the acceleration data using the FIR band-pass filter. The integration method that uses frequency-based displacement extraction was most appropriate for the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method of comprehensively measuring the dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle FBG Sensor for Contact Level Monitoring and Prediction of Perforation in Cardiac Ablation
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 1002-1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120101002
Received: 25 November 2011 / Revised: 3 January 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2012 / Published: 17 January 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia, and is characterized by a disordered contractile activity of the atria (top chambers of the heart). A popular treatment for AF is radiofrequency (RF) ablation. In about 2.4% of cardiac RF ablation procedures,
[...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia, and is characterized by a disordered contractile activity of the atria (top chambers of the heart). A popular treatment for AF is radiofrequency (RF) ablation. In about 2.4% of cardiac RF ablation procedures, the catheter is accidently pushed through the heart wall due to the application of excessive force. Despite the various capabilities of currently available technology, there has yet to be any data establishing how cardiac perforation can be reliably predicted. Thus, two new FBG based sensor prototypes were developed to monitor contact levels and predict perforation. Two live sheep were utilized during the study. It was observed during operation that peaks appeared in rhythm with the heart rate whenever firm contact was made between the sensor and the endocardial wall. The magnitude of these peaks varied with pressure applied by the operator. Lastly, transmural perforation of the left atrial wall was characterized by a visible loading phase and a rapid signal drop-off correlating to perforation. A possible pre-perforation signal was observed for the epoxy-based sensor in the form of a slight signal reversal (12–26% of loading phase magnitude) prior to perforation (occurring over 8 s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2012)
Open AccessArticle Transformation of Hand-Shape Features for a Biometric Identification Approach
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 987-1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100987
Received: 28 November 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such
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The present work presents a biometric identification system for hand shape identification. The different contours have been coded based on angular descriptions forming a Markov chain descriptor. Discrete Hidden Markov Models (DHMM), each representing a target identification class, have been trained with such chains. Features have been calculated from a kernel based on the HMM parameter descriptors. Finally, supervised Support Vector Machines were used to classify parameters from the DHMM kernel. First, the system was modelled using 60 users to tune the DHMM and DHMM_kernel+SVM configuration parameters and finally, the system was checked with the whole database (GPDS database, 144 users with 10 samples per class). Our experiments have obtained similar results in both cases, demonstrating a scalable, stable and robust system. Our experiments have achieved an upper success rate of 99.87% for the GPDS database using three hand samples per class in training mode, and seven hand samples in test mode. Secondly, the authors have verified their algorithms using another independent and public database (the UST database). Our approach has reached 100% and 99.92% success for right and left hand, respectively; showing the robustness and independence of our algorithms. This success was found using as features the transformation of 100 points hand shape with our DHMM kernel, and as classifier Support Vector Machines with linear separating functions, with similar success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hand-Based Biometrics Sensors and Systems)
Open AccessArticle Prediction of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations in a Typical Urban River Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix with PARAFAC and UV Absorption Indices
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 972-986; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100972
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (1881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater
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The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1), terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2), and protein-like organic substances (C3), and UV absorption indices (UV220 and UV254), and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV220, C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV220 and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sap Flow Sensors: Construction, Quality Control and Comparison
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 954-971; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100954
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work provides a design for two types of sensors, based on the thermal dissipation and heat ratio methods of sap flow calculation, for moderate to large scale deployments for the purpose of monitoring tree transpiration. These designs include a procedure for making
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This work provides a design for two types of sensors, based on the thermal dissipation and heat ratio methods of sap flow calculation, for moderate to large scale deployments for the purpose of monitoring tree transpiration. These designs include a procedure for making these sensors, a quality control method for the final products, and a complete list of components with vendors and pricing information. Both sensor designs were field tested alongside a commercial sap flow sensor to assess their performance and show the importance for quality controlling the sensor outputs. Results show that for roughly 2% of the cost of commercial sensors, self-made sap flow sensors can provide acceptable estimates of the sap flow measurements compared to the commercial sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 923-953; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100923
Received: 14 December 2011 / Revised: 15 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites
[...] Read more.
Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Sheathless Size-Based Acoustic Particle Separation
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 905-922; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100905
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Particle separation is of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. Existence
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Particle separation is of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. Flow-based methods have been used to sort particles and cells. However, the main challenge with flow based particle separation systems is the need for a sheath flow for successful operation. Existence of the sheath liquid dilutes the analyte, necessitates precise flow control between sample and sheath flow, requires a complicated design to create sheath flow and separation efficiency depends on the sheath liquid composition. In this paper, we present a microfluidic platform for sheathless particle separation using standing surface acoustic waves. In this platform, particles are first lined up at the center of the channel without introducing any external sheath flow. The particles are then entered into the second stage where particles are driven towards the off-center pressure nodes for size based separation. The larger particles are exposed to more lateral displacement in the channel due to the acoustic force differences. Consequently, different-size particles are separated into multiple collection outlets. The prominent feature of the present microfluidic platform is that the device does not require the use of the sheath flow for positioning and aligning of particles. Instead, the sheathless flow focusing and separation are integrated within a single microfluidic device and accomplished simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrated two different particle size-resolution separations; (1) 3 µm and 10 µm and (2) 3 µm and 5 µm. Also, the effects of the input power, the flow rate, and particle concentration on the separation efficiency were investigated. These technologies have potential to impact broadly various areas including the essential microfluidic components for lab-on-a-chip system and integrated biological and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 895-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100895
Received: 29 November 2011 / Revised: 29 December 2011 / Accepted: 10 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues.
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This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm), 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm), and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm) for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth) using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin), 5.0 mm (skull), and > 50 mm (brain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors in Medicine)
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Open AccessEditorial Paper Withdrawn Before the Issue Release
Sensors 2012, 12(1), 878-894; https://doi.org/10.3390/s120100878
Received: 8 December 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The following paper “Juan V. Capella, Alberto Bonastre, Miguel Peris and Rafael Ors. Distributed In-Line Analysis of Water Pollution in a Spanish Lake. Sensors 2012, 12, 878-894” has been withdrawn at the request of the authors before the issue release of
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The following paper “Juan V. Capella, Alberto Bonastre, Miguel Peris and Rafael Ors. Distributed In-Line Analysis of Water Pollution in a Spanish Lake. Sensors 2012, 12, 878-894” has been withdrawn at the request of the authors before the issue release of Sensors Volume 12, Issue 1. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. Full article
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