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Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture
Institut ITACA, Universitat Politècnica de València, Edifici 8G, València 46022, Spain
Pervasive Systems, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2011; in revised form: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2012 / Published: 10 January 2012
Abstract: The specific characteristics of underwater environments introduce new challenges for networking protocols. In this paper, a specialized architecture for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed and evaluated. Experiments are conducted in order to analyze the suitability of this protocol for the subaquatic transmission medium. Moreover, different scheduling techniques are applied to the architecture in order to study their performance. In addition, given the harsh conditions of the underwater medium, different retransmission methods are combined with the scheduling techniques. Finally, simulation results illustrate the performance achievements of the proposed protocol in end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption, showing that this protocol can be very suitable for the underwater medium.
Keywords: underwater sensor networks; energy efficiency; fault tolerance; routing; scheduling and retransmission
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MDPI and ACS Style
Climent, S.; Capella, J.V.; Meratnia, N.; Serrano, J.J. Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture. Sensors 2012, 12, 704-731.
Climent S, Capella JV, Meratnia N, Serrano JJ. Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture. Sensors. 2012; 12(1):704-731.
Climent, Salvador; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan José. 2012. "Underwater Sensor Networks: A New Energy Efficient and Robust Architecture." Sensors 12, no. 1: 704-731.