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Sensors 2012, 12(1), 923-953; doi:10.3390/s120100923

Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

Department of Environmental, Water, and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Department of Chemistry, University of Limpopo, P.O. Box 235, Medunsa 0204, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2011 / Revised: 15 January 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymeric material; mediator; electrochemical sensor; biosensor; enzyme electrode polymeric material; mediator; electrochemical sensor; biosensor; enzyme electrode

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moyo, M.; Okonkwo, J.O.; Agyei, N.M. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes. Sensors 2012, 12, 923-953.

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