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Sensors 2012, 12(1), 549-572; doi:10.3390/s120100549
Review

Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs) in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT) Technology

Received: 30 November 2011; in revised form: 30 December 2011 / Accepted: 31 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
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Abstract: Specific protein domains known as protein transduction domains (PTDs) can permeate cell membranes and deliver proteins or bioactive materials into living cells. Various approaches have been applied for improving their transduction efficacy. It is, therefore, crucial to clarify the entry mechanisms and to identify the rate-limiting steps. Because of technical limitations for imaging PTD behavior on cells with conventional fluorescent-dyes, how PTDs enter the cells has been a topic of much debate. Utilizing quantum dots (QDs), we recently tracked the behavior of PTD that was derived from HIV-1 Tat (TatP) in living cells at the single-molecule level with 7-nm special precision. In this review article, we initially summarize the controversy on TatP entry mechanisms; thereafter, we will focus on our recent findings on single-TatP-QD tracking (SQT), to identify the major sequential steps of intracellular delivery in living cells and to discuss how SQT can easily provide direct information on TatP entry mechanisms. As a primer for SQT study, we also discuss the latest findings on single particle tracking of various molecules on the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss the problems of QDs and the challenges for the future in utilizing currently available QD probes for SQT. In conclusion, direct identification of the rate-limiting steps of PTD entry with SQT should dramatically improve the methods for enhancing transduction efficiency.
Keywords: protein transduction domain; HIV-1; Tat; quantum dot; single particle tracking protein transduction domain; HIV-1; Tat; quantum dot; single particle tracking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Suzuki, Y. Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs) in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT) Technology. Sensors 2012, 12, 549-572.

AMA Style

Suzuki Y. Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs) in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT) Technology. Sensors. 2012; 12(1):549-572.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suzuki, Yasuhiro. 2012. "Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs) in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT) Technology." Sensors 12, no. 1: 549-572.


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