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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) These are small molecules with a 10-carbon skeleton called monoterpenes, which show great [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Potential of Phytomelatonin as a Nutraceutical
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010238
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Phytomelatonin (plant melatonin) is chemically related to the amino acid tryptophan and has many diverse properties. Phytomelatonin is an interesting compound due to its outstanding actions at the cellular and physiological level, especially its protective effect in plants exposed to diverse stress situations,
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Phytomelatonin (plant melatonin) is chemically related to the amino acid tryptophan and has many diverse properties. Phytomelatonin is an interesting compound due to its outstanding actions at the cellular and physiological level, especially its protective effect in plants exposed to diverse stress situations, while its vegetable origin offers many opportunities because it is a natural compound. We present an overview of its origin, its action in plants in general (particularly in plant species with high levels of phytomelatonin), and its possibilities for use as a nutraceutical with particular attention paid to the beneficial effects that it may have in human health. The differences between synthetic melatonin and phytomelatonin, according to its origin and purity, are presented. Finally, the current market for phytomelatonin and its limits and potentials are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle HnRNPA1 Specifically Recognizes the Base of Nucleotide at the Loop of RNA G-Quadruplex
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010237
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Human telomere RNA performs various cellular functions, such as telomere length regulation, heterochromatin formation, and end protection. We recently demonstrated that the loops in the RNA G-quadruplex are important in the interaction of telomere RNA with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Here, we
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Human telomere RNA performs various cellular functions, such as telomere length regulation, heterochromatin formation, and end protection. We recently demonstrated that the loops in the RNA G-quadruplex are important in the interaction of telomere RNA with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Here, we report on a detailed analysis of hnRNPA1 binding to telomere RNA G-quadruplexes with a group of loop variants using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. We found that the hnRNPA1 binds to RNA G-quadruplexes with the 2’-O-methyl and DNA loops, but fails to bind with the abasic RNA and DNA loops. These results suggested that hnRNPA1 binds to the loop of the RNA G-quadruplex by recognizing the base of the loop’s nucleotides. The observation provides the first evidence that the base of the loop’s nucleotides is a key factor for hnRNPA1 specifically recognizing the RNA G-quadruplex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-Quadruplex Ligands and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Biochemical Analysis of the Role of Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases and the Carboxy-Terminus of Receptor Kinases in Regulating Kinase Activity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010236
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Protein post-translational modification by phosphorylation is essential for the activity and stability of proteins in higher plants and underlies their responses to diverse stimuli. There are more than 300 leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), a major group of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that plays
[...] Read more.
Protein post-translational modification by phosphorylation is essential for the activity and stability of proteins in higher plants and underlies their responses to diverse stimuli. There are more than 300 leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), a major group of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that plays an important role in growth, development, and biotic stress responses in higher plants. To analyze auto- and transphosphorylation patterns and kinase activities in vitro, 43 full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences were cloned from genes encoding LRR-RLKs. Autophosphorylation activity was found in the cytoplasmic domains (CDs) of 18 LRR-RLKs; 13 of these LRR-RLKs with autophosphorylation activity showed transphosphorylation in Escherichia coli. BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase (BAK1), which is critically involved in the brassinosteroid and plant innate immunity signal transduction pathways, showed strong auto- and transphosphorylation with multi-specific kinase activity within 2 h of induction of Brassica oleraceae BAK1-CD (BoBAK1-CD) in E. coli; moreover, the carboxy-terminus of LRR-RLKs regulated phosphorylation and kinase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana and vegetative crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Modifications and Bioconjugation)
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Open AccessArticle One-Pot Synthesis of 3-Functionalized 4-Hydroxycoumarin under Catalyst-Free Conditions
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010235
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
A concise and efficient one-pot synthesis of 3-functionalized 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives via a three-component domino reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, phenylglyoxal and 3-arylaminocyclopent-2-enone or 4-arylaminofuran-2(5H)-one under catalyst-free and microwave irradiation conditions is described. This synthesis involves a group-assisted purification process, which avoids traditional recrystallization
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A concise and efficient one-pot synthesis of 3-functionalized 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives via a three-component domino reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin, phenylglyoxal and 3-arylaminocyclopent-2-enone or 4-arylaminofuran-2(5H)-one under catalyst-free and microwave irradiation conditions is described. This synthesis involves a group-assisted purification process, which avoids traditional recrystallization and chromatographic purification methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents from Apios americana and Their Inhibitory Activity on Tyrosinase
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010232
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to identify phytochemicals with inhibitory activity against tyrosinase. Nine compounds 19 were isolated from the tubers of Apios americana. This is the first report of aromadendrin 5-methyl ether (1) being isolated from the
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The goal of this study was to identify phytochemicals with inhibitory activity against tyrosinase. Nine compounds 19 were isolated from the tubers of Apios americana. This is the first report of aromadendrin 5-methyl ether (1) being isolated from the Apios species. Among them, compounds 2 and 8 showed inhibitory activity toward tyrosinase. Based on a Dixon plot, the potential Ki values of competitive inhibitors 2 and 8 were calculated as 10.3 ± 0.8 µM and 44.2 ± 1.7 µM, respectively. An IC50 value of 13.2 ± 1.0 µM was calculated for the slow-binding inhibitor 2 after preincubation with tyrosinase. Additionally, the predicted binding sites between the receptor and ligand, as well as secondary structure changes, in the presence of 2 were examined by molecular simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study by UHPLC-MS/MS of Main Active Compounds after Oral Administration of Zushima-Gancao Extract in Normal and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010227
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
A sensitive and rapid ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been applied to investigate the influence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the pharmacokinetics of nine analytes (daphnetin, daphnoretin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhetinic acid), which are major
[...] Read more.
A sensitive and rapid ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been applied to investigate the influence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the pharmacokinetics of nine analytes (daphnetin, daphnoretin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhetinic acid), which are major active components in Zushima-Gancao extract. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated in a Hypersil Gold C18 column and detected on a triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer using the validated method. All analytes exhibited good linearities (R2 > 0.98), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQs) were sufficient for quantitative analysis. Intra- and inter-batch precision were all within 14.96% while the accuracy of nine analytes ranged from −17.99 to 14.48%, and these results were all within acceptance criteria. The extraction recoveries, matrix effects, and stabilities were all satisfactory. Main pharmacokinetic parameters of each compound were compared, and significant differences were found in parameters of daphnetin, daphnoretin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhetinic acid, especially the last one, between the two groups. Therefore, adjuvant-induced arthritis has different effects on the pharmacokinetics of ingredients in Zushima-Gancao extract. The comparative pharmacokinetic study between normal and adjuvant-induced arthritis rats might provide more comprehensive information to guide the clinical usage of Zushima-Gancao extract for treating RA. Full article
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Open AccessReview Tamm–Horsfall Protein is a Potent Immunomodulatory Molecule and a Disease Biomarker in the Urinary System
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010200
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), or uromodulin (UMOD), is an 80–90-kDa phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein produced exclusively by the renal tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Physiologically, THP is implicated in renal countercurrent gradient formation, sodium homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, and
[...] Read more.
Tamm–Horsfall protein (THP), or uromodulin (UMOD), is an 80–90-kDa phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein produced exclusively by the renal tubular cells in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Physiologically, THP is implicated in renal countercurrent gradient formation, sodium homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, and a defense molecule against infections in the urinary system. Investigations have also revealed that THP is an effective binding ligand for serum albumin, immunoglobulin G light chains, complement components C1 and C1q, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ through its carbohydrate side chains for maintaining circulatory and renal immune homeostasis. Thus, THP can be regarded as part of the innate immune system. UMOD mutations play crucial roles in congenital urolithiasis, hereditary hyperuricemia/gout, and medullary cystic kidney diseases. Recent investigations have focused on the immunomodulatory effects of THP on immune cells and on THP as a disease biomarker of acute and chronic kidney diseases. Our studies have suggested that normal urinary THP, through its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, binds to the surface-expressed EGF-like receptors, cathepsin G, or lactoferrin to enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis, proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocyte proliferation by activating the Rho family and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, our data support both an intact protein core structure and carbohydrate side chains are important for the different protein-binding capacities of THP. Prospectively, parts of the whole THP molecule may be used for anti-TNF-α therapy in inflammatory diseases, autoantibody-depleting therapy in autoimmune disorders, and immune intensification in immunocompromised hosts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010182
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs) from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs) from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nonanoic acid (7.58%), (E)-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%), and benzothiazole (5.08%) were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%), eugenol (17.18%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester (13.19%), and (E,E)-farnesylacetone (7.15%) were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%), (E)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%), linalool oxide (7.47%), 1-hexanol (7.07%), and benzothiazole (6.72%) were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 100.0 μg/mL to 800.0 μg/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were from 68.32 μg/mL to 452.32 μg/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 μg/mL, 210.63 μg/mL, and 264.92 μg/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 μg/mL, 184.13 μg/mL, and 206.11 μg/mL respectively for the β-carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
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Open AccessReview Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010231
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
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Abstract
Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (
[...] Read more.
Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products Research in Australia and New Zealand)
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Open AccessArticle Towards a Novel Class of Multitarget-Directed Ligands: Dual P2X7–NMDA Receptor Antagonists
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010230
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) offer new hope for the treatment of multifactorial complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Herein, we present compounds aimed at targeting the NMDA and the P2X7 receptors, which embody a different approach to AD therapy. On one hand, we
[...] Read more.
Multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) offer new hope for the treatment of multifactorial complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Herein, we present compounds aimed at targeting the NMDA and the P2X7 receptors, which embody a different approach to AD therapy. On one hand, we are seeking to delay neurodegeneration targeting the glutamatergic NMDA receptors; on the other hand, we also aim to reduce neuroinflammation, targeting P2X7 receptors. Although the NMDA receptor is a widely recognized therapeutic target in treating AD, the P2X7 receptor remains largely unexplored for this purpose; therefore, the dual inhibitor presented herein—which is open to further optimization—represents the first member of a new class of MTDLs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supported Zeolite Beta Layers via an Organic Template-Free Preparation Route
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010220
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
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Abstract
Layers of high silica zeolites, synthesized with an organic structure directing agent (OSDA) and grown onto porous support structures, frequently suffer from the thermal stress during the removal of OSDA via the calcination process. The different thermal expansion coefficients of the zeolite and
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Layers of high silica zeolites, synthesized with an organic structure directing agent (OSDA) and grown onto porous support structures, frequently suffer from the thermal stress during the removal of OSDA via the calcination process. The different thermal expansion coefficients of the zeolite and the support material, especially when stainless steel is used as a support, causes enormous tension resulting in defect formation in the zeolite layer. However, the calcination is an easy procedure to decompose the OSDA in the pore system of the zeolite. Recently, methods to synthesize zeolite beta without the use of an organic structure directing agent have been described. In the present study, a seed-directed synthesis is used to prepare OSDA-free zeolite beta layers on stainless steel supports via an in situ preparation route. For the application as membrane, a porous stainless steel support has been chosen. The beta/stainless steel composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To prove its possible application as a membrane, the beta/stainless steel composites were also tested by single gas permeances of H2, He, CO2, N2, and CH4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Distribution Assessments of Coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix in Rat Cerebrospinal Fluid and Brain by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010225
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) is a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies have begun to probe its biological activities on neurological disorders recently. To assess the brain penetration and distribution of APR, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was applied
[...] Read more.
Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR) is a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies have begun to probe its biological activities on neurological disorders recently. To assess the brain penetration and distribution of APR, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to the simultaneous determinations of the main coumarins from APR in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain after oral administration of APR extract, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, isoimperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. Most of the tested coumarins entered the rat CSF and brain quickly, and double-peak phenomena in concentration-time curves were similar to those of their plasma pharmacokinetics. Columbianetin had the highest concentration in the CSF and brain, while psoralen and columbianetin acetate had the largest percent of CSF/plasma and brain/plasma, indicating that these three coumarins may be worthy of further research on the possible nervous effects. Correlations between the in vivo brain distributions and plasma pharmacokinetics of these coumarins were well verified. These results provided valuable information for the overall in vivo brain distribution characteristics of APR and also for its further studies on the active substances for the central nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Semi-Pilot Photocatalytic Rotating Reactor (RFR) with Supported TiO2/Ag Catalysts for Water Treatment
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010224
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
A four stage semi-pilot scale RFR reactor with ceramic disks as support for TiO2 modified with silver particles was developed for the removal of organic pollutants. The design presented in this article is an adaptation of the rotating biological reactors (RBR) and
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A four stage semi-pilot scale RFR reactor with ceramic disks as support for TiO2 modified with silver particles was developed for the removal of organic pollutants. The design presented in this article is an adaptation of the rotating biological reactors (RBR) and its coupling with the modified catalyst provides additional advantages to designs where a catalyst in suspension is used. The optimal parameter of rotation was 54 rpm and the submerged surface of the disks offer a total contact area of 387 M2. The modified solid showed a decrease in the value of its bandgap compared to commercial titanium. The system has a semi-automatic operation with a maximum reaction time of 50 h. Photo-activity tests show high conversion rates at low concentrations. The results conform to the Langmuir heterogeneous catalysis model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Photochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Mechanism of the Antioxidant Baicalein toward Hydroxyl Radical-Treated Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010223
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our study explores the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of baicalein and further discusses the possible mechanisms. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that baicalein could considerably enhance the viability of hydroxyl radical-treated bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) at 37–370 µM. The highest
[...] Read more.
Our study explores the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of baicalein and further discusses the possible mechanisms. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that baicalein could considerably enhance the viability of hydroxyl radical-treated bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) at 37–370 µM. The highest viability rate was 120.4%. In subsequent studies, baicalein was observed to effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical and PTIO• radicals, reducing Fe3+ and Cu2+ ions. In the Fe2+-chelating UV-vis spectra, mixing of baicalein with Fe2+ yielded two evident redshifts (275 → 279 nm and 324 → 352 nm) and a broad absorption peak (λmax ≈ 650 nm, ε = 1.6 × 103 L mol−1·cm−1). Finally, we compared the Fe2+-chelating UV-vis spectra of baicalein and its analogues, including 5-hydroxyflavone, 6-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, catechol, pyrogallol, and chrysin. This analysis revealed that the 4-keto group of the C-ring played a role. The 5,6,7-trihydroxy-group (pyrogallol group) in the A-ring served as an auxochrome, enhancing the absorbance of the UV-vis spectra and deepening the color of the Fe2+-complex. We concluded that baicalein, as an effective hydroxyl radical-scavenger, can protect bmMSCs from hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidative stress. Its hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects are likely exerted via two pathways: direct scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, possibly through electron transfer, and indirect inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation via Fe2+ chelation through the 4-keto-5,6,7-trihydroxy groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of the Di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Family: The Mechanism, Structure–Activity Relationship, and Conformational Effect
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010222
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
In this study, a series of di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (di-COQs) were systematically investigated for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects towards •OH-damaged bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs). Five di-COQs were measured using a set of antioxidant assays. The results show
[...] Read more.
In this study, a series of di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (di-COQs) were systematically investigated for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects towards •OH-damaged bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs). Five di-COQs were measured using a set of antioxidant assays. The results show that adjacent 4,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4,5-COQ) and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4-COQ) always gave lower IC50 values than did non-adjacent di-COQs. In the Fe2+-chelating assay, 4,5-COQ and 3,4-COQ presented greater UV-Vis spectra and darker colors than did non-adjacent di-COQs. In the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, no corresponding radical adduct formation (RAF) peak was found in the reaction products of di-COQs with PTIO•. In the MTT assay, all di-COQs (especially 1,5-COQ, 1,3-COQ, and 4,5-COQ) dose-dependently increased the cellular viabilities of •OH-damaged bmMSCs. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the five antioxidant di-COQs can protect bmMSCs from •OH-induced damage. Their antioxidant mechanisms may include electron-transfer (ET), H+-transfer, and Fe2+-chelating, except for RAF. Two adjacent di-COQs (4,5-COQ and 3,4-COQ) always possessed a higher antioxidant ability than the non-adjacent di-COQs (1,3-COQ, 1,5-COQ, and 3,5-COQ) in chemical models. However, non-adjacent 1,3-COQ and 1,5-COQ exhibited a higher cytoprotective effect than did adjacent di-COQs. These differences can be attributed to the relative positions of two caffeoyl moieties and, ultimately, to the conformational effect from the cyclohexane skeleton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure-Activity Relationship of Natural Products 2018)
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Open AccessArticle A Diverse and Versatile Regiospecific Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Alkylsulfanylimidazoles as p38α Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010221
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
An alternative strategy for the synthesis of 1-aryl- and 1-alkyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazoles as potential p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors is reported. The regioselective N-substitution of the imidazole ring was achieved by treatment of α-aminoketones with different aryl or alkyl isothiocyanates. In contrast to previously
[...] Read more.
An alternative strategy for the synthesis of 1-aryl- and 1-alkyl-2-methylsulfanyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazoles as potential p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors is reported. The regioselective N-substitution of the imidazole ring was achieved by treatment of α-aminoketones with different aryl or alkyl isothiocyanates. In contrast to previously published synthesis routes starting from 2-amino-4-methylpyridine, the presented route is characterized by a higher flexibility and a lower number of steps. This strategy was also applied to access 1-alkyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(pyridin-4-yl)imidazoles in six steps starting from 2-chloro-4-methylpyridine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication 5-Bromo-4′,5′-bis(dimethylamino)fluorescein: Synthesis and Photophysical Studies
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010219
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
In this study, three new fluorescein derivatives—5-bromo-4′,5′-dinitrofluorescein (BDNF), 5-bromo-4′,5′-diaminofluorescein (BDAF), and 5-bromo-4′,5′-bis(dimethylamino)fluorescein (BBDMAF)—were synthesized and their pH-dependent protolytic equilibria were investigated. In particular, BBDMAF exhibited pH-dependent fluorescence, showing strong emission only at pH 3–6. BBDMAF bears a
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In this study, three new fluorescein derivatives—5-bromo-4′,5′-dinitrofluorescein (BDNF), 5-bromo-4′,5′-diaminofluorescein (BDAF), and 5-bromo-4′,5′-bis(dimethylamino)fluorescein (BBDMAF)—were synthesized and their pH-dependent protolytic equilibria were investigated. In particular, BBDMAF exhibited pH-dependent fluorescence, showing strong emission only at pH 3–6. BBDMAF bears a bromine moiety and thus, can be used in various cross-coupling reactions to prepare derivatives and take advantage of its unique emission properties. To confirm this, the Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions of BBDMAF with phenylboronic acid and phenylacetylene, respectively, were performed, and the desired products were successfully obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Sulfur Derivatives of Quinolinium Salts
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010218
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
A novel method for cleavage of the dithiine ring in 5,12-(dimethyl)-thioqinantrenium bis-chloride 1 “via” reaction with sodium hydrosulfide leads to 1-methyl-3-mercaptoquinoline-4(1H)-thione 2. Further transformation of thiol and thione functions of compound 2 leads to a series of sulfide and disulfide
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A novel method for cleavage of the dithiine ring in 5,12-(dimethyl)-thioqinantrenium bis-chloride 1 “via” reaction with sodium hydrosulfide leads to 1-methyl-3-mercaptoquinoline-4(1H)-thione 2. Further transformation of thiol and thione functions of compound 2 leads to a series of sulfide and disulfide derivatives of quinolinium salts 4 and 6. 1-Methyl-4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline chloride 8 was obtained by N-alkylating 4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline using dimethyl sulfate. Antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was investigated using six Gram-positive and six Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as Candida albicans yeast. Greater activity was demonstrated towards Gram-positive strains. MIC values for compounds and with benzylthio 4d and benzoylthio 4f substituents in 3-quinoline position were found to be in the 0.5–1 μg/mL range, at a level similar to that of ciprofloxacin (reference). Compounds 4d and 4f also demonstrated interesting antifungal properties (MIC = 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010217
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in
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Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle icMRCI+Q Study of the Spectroscopic Properties of the 14 Λ-S and 49 Ω States of the SiN Anion in the Gas Phase
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010210
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper calculates the potential energy curves of the 14 Λ-S and 49 Ω states, which come from the first three dissociation channels of the SiN anion. These calculations are conducted using the valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction and the Davidson
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This paper calculates the potential energy curves of the 14 Λ-S and 49 Ω states, which come from the first three dissociation channels of the SiN anion. These calculations are conducted using the valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction and the Davidson correction approach. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are taken into account. The potential energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spin-orbit coupling is computed using the state interaction approach with the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. We found that the X1Σ+ (υ′′ = 0–23) and a3Σ+ (υ′ = 0–2) states of SiN are stable at the computed adiabatic electron affinity value of 23,262.27 cm−1 for SiN. Based on the calculated potential energy curves, the spectroscopic parameters and vibrational levels were determined for all stable and metastable Λ-S and Ω states. The computed adiabatic electron affinity of SiN and the spectroscopic constants of SiN (X1Σ+) are all in agreement with the available experimental data. The d3Σ+, 25Σ+, 15Δ, and 15Σ quasi-bound states caused by avoided crossings were found. Calculations of the transition dipole moment of a3Σ+1 to X1Σ+0+ are shown. Franck-Condon factors, Einstein coefficients, and radiative lifetimes of the transition from the a3Σ+1 (υ′ = 0–2) to the X1Σ+0+ state are evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactivity-Guided Screening of Wound-Healing Active Constituents from American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana)
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010101
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 31 December 2017 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts
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Ethanol extract (EE) from Periplaneta americana (PA) is the main ingredient of Kangfuxin, which is a popular traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and has long been used for the clinical treatment of burns, wounds and ulcers. We compared the wound-healing activities of three extracts of PA using cutaneous wound-healing in mice as the bioactivity model. These three extracts were EE, total polysaccharide and total protein. We also tracked bioactive fractions in the EE by organic reagent extraction, column chromatography and HPLC. Seven compounds were successfully identified from the water elution fraction of the EE of PA using UPLC-MS. Among these compounds, four compounds (P2, P3, P4, P5(1)) were first reported in PA. Some of these compounds have been previously reported to have various pharmacological activities that could contribute to the high wound-healing activity of PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2)
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical
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Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle From Extraction of Local Structures of Protein Energy Landscapes to Improved Decoy Selection in Template-Free Protein Structure Prediction
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010216
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Due to the essential role that the three-dimensional conformation of a protein plays in regulating interactions with molecular partners, wet and dry laboratories seek biologically-active conformations of a protein to decode its function. Computational approaches are gaining prominence due to the labor and
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Due to the essential role that the three-dimensional conformation of a protein plays in regulating interactions with molecular partners, wet and dry laboratories seek biologically-active conformations of a protein to decode its function. Computational approaches are gaining prominence due to the labor and cost demands of wet laboratory investigations. Template-free methods can now compute thousands of conformations known as decoys, but selecting native conformations from the generated decoys remains challenging. Repeatedly, research has shown that the protein energy functions whose minima are sought in the generation of decoys are unreliable indicators of nativeness. The prevalent approach ignores energy altogether and clusters decoys by conformational similarity. Complementary recent efforts design protein-specific scoring functions or train machine learning models on labeled decoys. In this paper, we show that an informative consideration of energy can be carried out under the energy landscape view. Specifically, we leverage local structures known as basins in the energy landscape probed by a template-free method. We propose and compare various strategies of basin-based decoy selection that we demonstrate are superior to clustering-based strategies. The presented results point to further directions of research for improving decoy selection, including the ability to properly consider the multiplicity of native conformations of proteins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Attenuates on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010215
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily
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This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily for seven days prior to CCl4 exposure. At 24 h, curcumin-attenuated CCl4 induced elevated serum transaminase activities and histopathological damage in the mouse’s liver. Curcumin pre-treatment at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formations, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) content, followed by a decrease in caspase-9 and -3 activities. Curcumin pre-treatment significantly decreased CCl4-induced inflammation. Furthermore, curcumin pre-treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 mRNAs (both p < 0.01), and up-regulated the expression of nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 mRNA (both p < 0.01) in the liver. Inhibition of HO-1 attenuated the protective effect of curcumin on CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Given these outcomes, curcumin could protect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, which may partly involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Cyclic Dipeptides from Escherichia coli as New Antimicrobial Agents against Ralstonia Solanacearum
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010214
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have
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Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have high efficacy in the control of bacterial wilt. Three new bacterial strains with high antimicrobial activity against R. solanacearum GMI1000 were isolated and identified. Our results demonstrated that these bacteria could remarkably inhibit the disease index of host plant infected by R. solanacearum. It was indicated that strain GZ-34 (CCTCC No. M 2016353) showed an excellent protective effect to tomato under greenhouse conditions. Strain GZ-34 was characterized as Escherichia coli based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. We identified that the main antimicrobial compounds produced by E. coli GZ-34 were cyclo(l-Pro-d-Ile) and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe) using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The two active compounds also interfered with the expression levels of some pathogenicity-contributors of R. solanacearum. Furthermore, cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe) effectively inhibited spore formation of Magnaporthe grisea, which is a vital pathogenesis process of the fungal pathogen, suggesting cyclic dipeptides from E. coli are promising potential antimicrobial agents with broad-spectrum activity to kill pathogens or interfere with their pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Sp-uchl3 and Sp-uchl5 during Gonad Development of Scylla paramamosain
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010213
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHLs) are a subset of deubiquitinating enzymes, and are involved in numerous physiological processes. However, the role of UCHLs during gonad development has not been studied in crustaceans. In this study, we have first cloned and analyzed expression profiling of
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Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHLs) are a subset of deubiquitinating enzymes, and are involved in numerous physiological processes. However, the role of UCHLs during gonad development has not been studied in crustaceans. In this study, we have first cloned and analyzed expression profiling of Sp-uchl3 and Sp-uchl5 genes from mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of Sp-uchl3 is of 1804 bp. Its expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01), and during gonadal development, its expression in both O1 and O5 stages was significantly higher than in the other three stages of ovaries (p < 0.05), while in T3 it was higher than in the former two stages of testes (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the full-length cDNA of Sp-UCHL5 is 1217 bp. The expression level in the ovary was significantly higher than in other tissues (p < 0.01). Its expression in ovaries was higher than in testes during gonadal development (p < 0.05). The expression level in the O5 stage was the highest, followed by the O3 stage in ovarian development, and with no significant difference in the testis development (p > 0.05). These results provide basic data showing the role of Sp-UCHL3 and Sp-UCHL5 in the gonad development of the crab. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Antimicrobial Biocomposite Films to Preserve the Quality of Bread
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010212
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated
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This study focused on the development of gelatin-based films with incorporation of microcrystalline cellulose as reinforcement material. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) oleoresins containing antimicrobial compounds of natural origin were incorporated into the films. The mechanical, thermal, optical, and structural properties, as well as color, seal strength and permeability to water vapor, light, and oil of the films were determined. Adding oleoresins to the gelatin matrix increased the elongation of the material and significantly diminished its permeability to water vapor and oil. Evaluation of the potential use of films containing different oleoresins as bread packaging material was influenced by the film properties. The biocomposite film containing oleoresin from black pepper was the most effective packaging material for maintaining bread’s quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biodegradable Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Phenethyl Trifluoroacetate Esters by In Vitro ABTS, DPPH and in Cell-Culture DCF Assays
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010208
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenols are natural compounds showing a variety of health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, due to low lipid solubility, their applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries are limited. With the aim of obtaining novel lipophilic derivatives, the present study reports the synthesis of a
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Polyphenols are natural compounds showing a variety of health-promoting effects. Unfortunately, due to low lipid solubility, their applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries are limited. With the aim of obtaining novel lipophilic derivatives, the present study reports the synthesis of a series of phenethyl trifluoroacetate esters containing up to two hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring. Experimental logP values confirmed a greater lipophilicity of the novel compounds compared to the parent compounds. The radical scavenging capacity of all phenethyl trifluoroacetate esters was evaluated by in vitro assays (ABTS, DPPH) and in cultured cells (L6 myoblasts and THP-1 leukemic monocytes) using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. These data revealed that the esters showed a good antioxidant effect that was strictly dependent on the grade of hydroxylation of the phenyl ring. The lack of toxicity, evaluated by the MTT assay and proliferation curves, makes these trifluoroacetates attractive derivatives for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Binding Affinities of Water-Soluble Calixarenes with the Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Soman (GD) and Commonly-Used Nerve Agent Simulants
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010207
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The formation of inclusion complexes of the water-soluble p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes, where n = 4 or 6, with the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) GD, or Soman, and commonly used dialkyl methylphosphonate simulants has been studied by experimental solution NMR methods and by
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The formation of inclusion complexes of the water-soluble p-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes, where n = 4 or 6, with the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) GD, or Soman, and commonly used dialkyl methylphosphonate simulants has been studied by experimental solution NMR methods and by Molecular Mechanics (MMFF) and semi-empirical (PM6) calculations. Complex formation in non-buffered and buffered solutions is driven by the hydrophobic effect, and complex stoichiometry determined as 1:1 for all host:guest pairs. Low affinity complexes (Kassoc < 100 M−1) are observed for all guests, attributed to poor host–guest complementarity and the role of buffer cation species accounts for the low affinity of the complexes. Comparison of CWA and simulant behavior adds to understanding of CWA–simulant correlations and the challenges of simulant selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calixarenes, Pillararenes, and Cucurbiturils)
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Open AccessArticle Contribution of the Ratio of Tocopherol Homologs to the Oxidative Stability of Commercial Vegetable Oils
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010206
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present
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The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present study analyzed the effect of different tocopherol concentrations, homologs and ratios of homologs on markers of lipid oxidation in the most commonly consumed vegetable oils (canola, sunflower, soybean oil) stored in a 12 h light/dark cycle at 22 ± 2 °C for 56 days under retail/household conditions. After 56 days of storage, the α-tocopherol-rich canola and sunflower oil showed the strongest rise in lipid peroxides, yielding 25.1 ± 0.03 meq O2/kg (+25.3-fold) and 24.7 ± 0.05 meq O2/kg (+25.0-fold), respectively. ESR experiments, excluding effects of the oils’ matrices and other minor constituents, confirmed that a food representative tocopherol ratio of (γ + δ)/α = 4.77, as represented in soybean oil, led to a more pronounced delay of lipid oxidation than a lower ratio in canola (1.39) and sunflower oil (0.06). An optimum (γ + δ)/α -tocopherol ratio contributing to the oxidative quality of vegetable oils extending their shelf life has to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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