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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) These are small molecules with a 10-carbon skeleton called monoterpenes, which show great [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Structure, Chemical Analysis, Biosynthesis, Metabolism, Molecular Engineering, and Biological Functions of Phytoalexins
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Plants in their natural environment are facing large numbers of pathogenic microorganisms, mainly fungi and bacteria.[…] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes–2
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes is a series of Editorials, which are published on a biannual basis by the Editorial Board of the Medicinal Chemistry section of the journal Molecules [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessEditorial Removal of Expression of Concern: Segneanu et al. Helleborus purpurascens—Amino Acid and Peptide Analysis Linked to the Chemical and Antiproliferative Properties of the Extracted Compounds. Molecules 2015, 20, 22170–22187
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010136
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
The article [1] published in Molecules was the subject of a law suit related to authorship. We previously published an Expression of Concern to highlight this fact to readers[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Molecules in 2017
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010138
Received: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Molecules maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial The Chemistry of Alliums
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010143
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Physiologically active sulfur-containing compounds produced by Allium spp. have long fascinated chemists, biochemists, and biologists.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Alliums)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Comparative Study between Direct and Pseudomorphic Transformation of Rice Husk Ash into MFI-Type Zeolite
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Pre-shaped mesoporous amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) and MCM-41 derived from RHA as a silica source were transformed into MFI-type zeolites using two different structure-directing agents. Tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) was utilized as an alkali source for silica dissolution and structure control during the
[...] Read more.
Pre-shaped mesoporous amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) and MCM-41 derived from RHA as a silica source were transformed into MFI-type zeolites using two different structure-directing agents. Tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) was utilized as an alkali source for silica dissolution and structure control during the direct transformation of RHA into zeolite. A monopropylamine (PA)-containing alkaline solution (NaOH) was used for the pseudomorphic transformation of RHA or MCM-41 into zeolite. The hydrothermal conversion of RHA or MCM-41 into MFI-type zeolites was investigated as a function of reaction time at 175 °C. With PA as template, the crystallization took place inside and on the outer surface of RHA or MCM-41 without losing the original shape of the initial silica sources, while TPAOH led to the formation of conventional MFI-type zeolite crystals due to the complete dissolution of RHA. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and optical emission spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energetic Di- and Trinitromethylpyridines: Synthesis and Characterization
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Pyridine derivatives based on the addition of trinitromethyl functional groups were synthesized by the reaction of N2O4 with the corresponding pyridinecarboxaldoximes, then they were converted into dinitromethylide hydrazinium salts. These energetic compounds were fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy,
[...] Read more.
Pyridine derivatives based on the addition of trinitromethyl functional groups were synthesized by the reaction of N2O4 with the corresponding pyridinecarboxaldoximes, then they were converted into dinitromethylide hydrazinium salts. These energetic compounds were fully characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray crystallography. These pyridine derivatives have good densities, positive enthalpies of formation, and acceptable sensitivity values. Theoretical calculations carried out using Gaussian 03 and EXPLO5 programs demonstrated good to excellent detonation velocities and pressures. Each of these compounds is superior in performance to TNT, while 2,6-bis(trinitromethyl)pyridine (D = 8700 m·s−1, P = 33.2 GPa) shows comparable detonation performance to that of RDX, but its thermal stability is too low, making it inferior to RDX. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins and flavones are important pigments responsible for the coloration of fruits. Mulberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, which have multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine. The antinociceptive and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids (TF) from black mulberry (MnTF, TF of
[...] Read more.
Anthocyanins and flavones are important pigments responsible for the coloration of fruits. Mulberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, which have multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine. The antinociceptive and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids (TF) from black mulberry (MnTF, TF of Morus nigra) and non-black mulberry (MmTF, TF of Morus mongolica; and MazTF, TF of Morus alba ‘Zhenzhubai’) fruits were studied. MnTF was rich in anthocyanins (11.3 mg/g) and flavonols (0.7 mg/g) identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tunable ultraviolet/mass single-quadrupole detection (UPLC–TUV/QDa). Comparatively, MmTF and MazTF had low flavonol contents and MazTF had no anthocyanins. MnTF showed significantly higher antinociceptive and antibacterial activities toward Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus than MmTF and MazTF. MnTF inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phospho-p65 (p-p65) and phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα), and increased interleukin 10 (IL-10). Additionally, mice tests showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), rutin (Ru) and isoquercetin (IQ) were the main active ingredients in the antinociceptive process. Stronger antinociceptive effect of MnTF was correlated with its high content of anthocyanins and flavonols and its inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway-related proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method for the Calculation of Two Molecular Descriptors at Both Ends of Dilution: Liquid Viscosity and Activity Coefficient in Water at Infinite Dilution
Received: 10 December 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
The application of a commonly used computer algorithm based on the group-additivity method for the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient at 293.15 K and the activity coefficient at infinite dilution in water at 298.15 K of organic molecules is presented. The method
[...] Read more.
The application of a commonly used computer algorithm based on the group-additivity method for the calculation of the liquid viscosity coefficient at 293.15 K and the activity coefficient at infinite dilution in water at 298.15 K of organic molecules is presented. The method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms, further subdividing them by their immediate neighborhood. A fast Gauss–Seidel fitting method using experimental data from literature is applied for the calculation of the atom groups’ contributions. Plausibility tests have been carried out on each of the calculations using a ten-fold cross-validation procedure which confirms the excellent predictive quality of the method. The goodness of fit (Q2) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the viscosity coefficient, expressed as log(η), was 0.9728 and 0.11, respectively, for 413 test molecules, and for the activity coefficient log(γ) the corresponding values were 0.9736 and 0.31, respectively, for 621 test compounds. The present approach has proven its versatility in that it enabled the simultaneous evaluation of the liquid viscosity of normal organic compounds as well as of ionic liquids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Major Chromophore Arising from Glucose Degradation and Oxidative Stress Occurrence during Lens Proteins Glycation Induced by Glucose
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Glucose autoxidation has been proposed as a key reaction associated with deleterious effects induced by hyperglycemia in the eye lens. Little is known about chromophores generated during glucose autoxidation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in the
[...] Read more.
Glucose autoxidation has been proposed as a key reaction associated with deleterious effects induced by hyperglycemia in the eye lens. Little is known about chromophores generated during glucose autoxidation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of oxidative and dicarbonyl stress in the generation of a major chromophore arising from glucose degradation (GDC) and its association with oxidative damage in lens proteins. Glucose (5 mM) was incubated with H2O2 (0.5–5 mM), Cu2+ (5–50 μM), glyoxal (0.5–5 mM) or methylglyoxal (0.5–5 mM) at pH 7.4, 5% O2, 37 °C, from 0 to 30 days. GDC concentration increased with incubation time, as well as when incubated in the presence of H2O2 and/or Cu2+, which were effective even at the lowest concentrations. Dicarbonylic compounds did not increase the levels of GDC during incubations. 1H, 13C and FT-IR spectra from the purified fraction containing the chromophore (detected by UV/vis spectroscopy) showed oxidation products of glucose, including gluconic acid. Lens proteins solutions (10 mg/mL) incubated with glucose (30 mM) presented increased levels of carboxymethyl-lysine and hydrogen peroxide that were associated with GDC increase. Our results suggest a possible use of GDC as a marker of autoxidative reactions occurring during lens proteins glycation induced by glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Modifications and Bioconjugation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Resveratrol-Induced Changes in MicroRNA Expression in Primary Human Fibroblasts Harboring Carnitine-Palmitoyl Transferase-2 Gene Mutation, Leading to Fatty Acid Oxidation Deficiency
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in long-chain fatty acid entry into mitochondria for their β-oxidation and energy production. Two phenotypes are associated with the extremely reduced CPT2 activity in genetically deficient patients: neonatal lethality or, in milder forms,
[...] Read more.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in long-chain fatty acid entry into mitochondria for their β-oxidation and energy production. Two phenotypes are associated with the extremely reduced CPT2 activity in genetically deficient patients: neonatal lethality or, in milder forms, myopathy. Resveratrol (RSV) is a phytophenol produced by grape plant in response to biotic or abiotic stresses that displays anti-oxidant properties, in particular through AP-1, NFκB, STAT-3, and COX pathways. Some beneficiary effects of RSV are due to its modulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression. RSV can enhance residual CPT2 activities in human fibroblasts derived from CPT2-deficient patients and restores normal fatty acid oxidation rates likely through stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we report changes in miRNA expression linked to CPT2-deficiency, and we identify miRNAs whose expression changed following RSV treatment of control or CPT2-deficient fibroblasts isolated from patients. Our findings suggest that RSV consumption might exert beneficiary effects in patients with CPT2-deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Recyclable Keggin Heteropolyacids as an Environmentally Benign Catalyst for the Synthesis of New 2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide Derivatives under Microwave Irradiations at Solvent-Free Conditions and the Evaluation of Biological Activity
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide derivatives (5ah) were prepared from 2-phenyl-3,1-(4H)-benzoxazin-4-one 3 and substituted anilines 4ah in the presence of a Keggin-type heteropolyacids series (H3PW12O40·13H2O; H4SiW12
[...] Read more.
2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide derivatives (5ah) were prepared from 2-phenyl-3,1-(4H)-benzoxazin-4-one 3 and substituted anilines 4ah in the presence of a Keggin-type heteropolyacids series (H3PW12O40·13H2O; H4SiW12O40·13H2O; H4SiMo12O40·13H2O; and H3PMo12O40·13H2O) as catalysts without solvent and under microwave irradiation. We found that the use of H3PW12O40·13H2O acid coupled to microwave irradiation allowed obtaining a high-yielding reaction with a short time. The compound structures were established by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds exhibited an inhibition of the growth of bacteria and fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Transformation of Renewable Material for Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of the Defensive Secretion from the Medicinal Insect Blaps rynchopetera
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire has long been used as a folk medicine by the Yi and Bai ethnic groups in China to treat fever, cough, gastritis, boils, and tumors. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the defensive secretion (TDS) of B. rynchopetera against
[...] Read more.
Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire has long been used as a folk medicine by the Yi and Bai ethnic groups in China to treat fever, cough, gastritis, boils, and tumors. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the defensive secretion (TDS) of B. rynchopetera against AGS Caco-2, HepG2 U251 and Bel-7402 was tested, and the results revealed that TDS had potent cytotoxicity against testing cells with IC50 values of 45.8, 17.4, 53.6, 98.4 and 23.4 μg/mL, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to clarify the cytotoxic constituents in TDS of B. rynchopetera and five volatile compounds, including 2-ethyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (3, 31.00%), 1-tridecene (5, 28.02%), 2-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (2, 22.86%), hydroquinone (4, 1.33%), and p-benzoquinone (1, 1.01%), were identified. Chemical constituent investigation on TDS further supported the presence of 5 above compounds. A cytotoxic assay indicated that compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against the testing cell lines, implying that benzoquinones and hydroquinone played important roles in the cytotoxicity of TDS of B. rynchopetera. TDS is a cytotoxic natural material and further studies investigating mechanisms and inhibitory activities on other cell lines is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
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Open AccessArticle Anticoagulants Influence the Performance of In Vitro Assays Intended for Characterization of Nanotechnology-Based Formulations
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To
[...] Read more.
The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To enable such tests one has to prevent the blood from coagulating, which is usually achieved by the addition of an anticoagulant into blood collection tubes. Heparin, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and citrate are the most commonly used anticoagulants. Novel anticoagulants such as hirudin are also available but are not broadly used. Despite the notion that certain anticoagulants may influence assay performance, a systematic comparison between traditional and novel anticoagulants in the in vitro assays intended for immunological characterization of nanotechnology-based formulations is currently not available. We compared hirudin-anticoagulated blood with its traditional counterparts in the standardized immunological assay cascade, and found that the type of anticoagulant did not influence the performance of the hemolysis assay. However, hirudin was more optimal for the complement activation and leukocyte proliferation assays, while traditional anticoagulants citrate and heparin were more appropriate for the coagulation and cytokine secretion assays. The results also suggest that traditional immunological controls such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS ) are not reliable for understanding the role of anticoagulant in the assay performance. We observed differences in the test results between hirudin and traditional anticoagulant-prepared blood for nanomaterials at the time when no such effects were seen with traditional controls. It is, therefore, important to recognize the advantages and limitations of each anticoagulant and consider individual nanoparticles on a case-by-case basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Furoquinoline Alkaloids from Vepris lecomteana (Pierre) Cheek & T. Heller (Rutaceae)
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Three new prenylated furoquinoline alkaloids named lecomtequinoline A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with the known compounds anhydroevoxine (4), evoxine (5), dictamnine (6), N-methylflindersine (7), evoxanthine
[...] Read more.
Three new prenylated furoquinoline alkaloids named lecomtequinoline A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with the known compounds anhydroevoxine (4), evoxine (5), dictamnine (6), N-methylflindersine (7), evoxanthine (8), hesperidin, lupeol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, stearic acid, and myristyl alcohol, were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts of leaves and stem of Vepris lecomteana. The structures of compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS, UV, and IR) and by comparison with previously reported data. Crude extracts of leaves and stem displayed high antimicrobial activity, with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (values of 10.1–16.5 and 10.2–20.5 µg/mL, respectively, against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas agarici, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus warneri, while compounds 16 showed values ranging from 11.1 to 18.7 µg/mL or were inactive, suggesting synergistic effect. The extracts may find application in crude drug preparations in Western Africa where Vepris lecomteana is endemic, subject to negative toxicity results in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Resveratrol on Cell Viability in the Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cell Line Ramos
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic natural compound produced by a variety of crops. Currently, resveratrol is considered a multi-target anti-cancer agent with pleiotropic activity, including the ability to prevent the proliferation of malignant cells by inhibiting angiogenesis and curtailing invasive and metastatic factors in
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic natural compound produced by a variety of crops. Currently, resveratrol is considered a multi-target anti-cancer agent with pleiotropic activity, including the ability to prevent the proliferation of malignant cells by inhibiting angiogenesis and curtailing invasive and metastatic factors in many cancer models. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol-specific effects on lymphoma cells remain unknown. To begin tackling this question, we treated the Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line Ramos with resveratrol and assessed cell survival and gene expression. Our results suggest that resveratrol shows a significant anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity on Ramos cells, inducing the DNA damage response, DNA repairing, and modulating the expression of several genes that regulate the apoptotic process and their proliferative activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Polyphenolic Content in the Aquatic Plants Ruppia cirrhosa and Ruppia maritima —A Source of Nutritional Natural Products
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Herein, the polyphenolic content in extracts of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande and Ruppia maritima L.was fully characterized for the first time. High amounts of the main compound chicoric acid (CA) (≤30.2 ± 4.3 mg/g) were found in both Ruppia species. In
[...] Read more.
Herein, the polyphenolic content in extracts of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande and Ruppia maritima L.was fully characterized for the first time. High amounts of the main compound chicoric acid (CA) (≤30.2 ± 4.3 mg/g) were found in both Ruppia species. In addition, eight flavonoids, namely the 3-O-glucopyranosides and 3-O-galactopyranosides, as well as malonylated 3-O-glycosides of quercetin and isorhamnetin, were isolated and identified. The antioxidant activity of Ruppia cirrhosa extracts and isolated compounds was investigated spectrophotometrically by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging assay. IC50 values were 31.8–175.7 μg/mL for Ruppia cirrhosa extracts and 12.1–88.4 μg/mL for isolated flavonoids. Both individual and total phenolic and flavonoid content were quantified in crude extracts using analytical HPLC. The relative high amount of total flavonoids ranged from 5.9 to 14.7 mg/g in both species, with concentrations of individual flavonoids ranging from 0.4 to 2.9 mg/g dry weight. The content of chicoric acid was twofold more in Ruppia maritima than in Ruppia cirrhosa. Seasonal variation of the quantitative content in Ruppia cirrhosa was examined. Total flavonoid content ranged from 8.4 mg/g in October to 14.7 mg/g in August, whereas the highest concentration of chicoric acid was observed in March (29.2 mg/g). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Potent and Selective Carboxylic Acid Inhibitors of Tumor-Associated Carbonic Anhydrases IX and XII
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Selective inhibition of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms IX and XII is a crucial prerequisite to develop successful anticancer therapeutics. Herein, we confirmed the efficacy of the 3-nitrobenzoic acid substructure in the design of potent and selective carboxylic acid derivatives as
[...] Read more.
Selective inhibition of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms IX and XII is a crucial prerequisite to develop successful anticancer therapeutics. Herein, we confirmed the efficacy of the 3-nitrobenzoic acid substructure in the design of potent and selective carboxylic acid derivatives as CAs inhibitors. Compound 10 emerged as the most potent inhibitor of the tumor-associated hCA IX and XII (Ki = 16 and 82.1 nM, respectively) with a significant selectivity with respect to the wide spread hCA II. Other 3-nitrobenzoic acid derivatives showed a peculiar CA inhibition profile with a notable potency towards hCA IX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Chemistry in Europe)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Substituent Effects in Multivalent Halogen Bonding Complexes: A Combined Theoretical and Crystallographic Study
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
In this manuscript, we combined ab initio calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory) and a search in the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) to analyze the influence of aromatic substitution in charge-assisted multivalent halogen bonding complexes. We used a series of benzene substituted iodine derivatives
[...] Read more.
In this manuscript, we combined ab initio calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory) and a search in the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) to analyze the influence of aromatic substitution in charge-assisted multivalent halogen bonding complexes. We used a series of benzene substituted iodine derivatives C6H4(IF4)Y (Y = H, NH2, OCH3, F, CN, and CF3) as Lewis acids and used Cl as electron rich interacting atoms. We have represented the Hammett’s plot and observed a good regression coefficient (interaction energies vs. Hammett’s σ parameter). Additionally, we demonstrated the direct correlation between the Hammett’s σ parameter and the value of molecular electrostatic potential measured at the I atom on the extension of the C–I bond. Furthermore, we have carried out AIM (atoms in molecules) and NBO (natural bonding orbital) analyses to further describe and characterize the interactions described herein. Finally, we have carried out a search in the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) and found several X-ray structures where these interactions are present, thus giving reliability to the results derived from the calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Halogen Bonds and Beyond)
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Open AccessCommunication Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Magnetoelectrochemical Etching with Chloride Additives
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Magnetoelectrolysis (electrolysis under magnetic fields) produces chiral surfaces on metal thin films, which can recognize the enantiomers of amino acids. Here, the chiral surface formation on copper films is reported in magnetoelectrochemical etching (MEE) at 5T with chloride additives. In the absence of
[...] Read more.
Magnetoelectrolysis (electrolysis under magnetic fields) produces chiral surfaces on metal thin films, which can recognize the enantiomers of amino acids. Here, the chiral surface formation on copper films is reported in magnetoelectrochemical etching (MEE) at 5T with chloride additives. In the absence of additives, the surface chirality signs of MEE films depended on the magnetic field polarity. On the contrary, the MEE films prepared with the additives exhibited only d-activity in both magnetic field polarities. This result implies that the specific adsorption of chloride additives induces the chiral symmetry breaking for the magnetic field polarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chirality in Health and Environment: Recent developments)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Characteristics, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Dihydroquercetin and Its Complexes
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Dihydroquercetin is a kind of dihydroflavonol compounds with antioxidant, antitumor, antivirus and radioresistance activities. This study attempted to produce the dihydroquercetin complexes with lecithin and β-cyclodextrin, and research their characteristics and bioactivities via ultraviolet spectrum (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM),
[...] Read more.
Dihydroquercetin is a kind of dihydroflavonol compounds with antioxidant, antitumor, antivirus and radioresistance activities. This study attempted to produce the dihydroquercetin complexes with lecithin and β-cyclodextrin, and research their characteristics and bioactivities via ultraviolet spectrum (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD), and MTT assay. Results showed that the complexes with lecithin and β-cyclodextrin could improve the solubility and dissolution rate, and remove the characteristic endothermic peak of dihydroquercetin. IR spectra proved their interaction, and results of SEM and XRD showed the amorphous characteristics of the dihydroquercetin compounds. These results indicated that dihydroquercetin was combined by lecithin or β-cyclodextrin with better physical and chemical properties, which would effectively improve the application value in the food and drug industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Antioxidant and Safety Properties of Spent Coffee Ground Extracts Impacted by the Combined Hot Pressurized Liquid Extraction–Resin Purification Process
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Hot pressurized liquid extraction has been used to obtain polyphenols; however, its operating conditions can generate hydroxymethylfurfural, a potential human carcinogen. The addition of ethanol can reduce process temperatures and retain extraction efficiencies, but the ethanol may reduce the recovery of polyphenols in
[...] Read more.
Hot pressurized liquid extraction has been used to obtain polyphenols; however, its operating conditions can generate hydroxymethylfurfural, a potential human carcinogen. The addition of ethanol can reduce process temperatures and retain extraction efficiencies, but the ethanol may reduce the recovery of polyphenols in the subsequent purification stage, affecting the antioxidant properties of the extracts. This study evaluates a combined hot pressurized liquid extraction—resin purification process to obtain polyphenol extracts from spent ground coffee reduced in hydroxymethylfurfural. A multifactorial design was developed to determine the combined effect of the extraction (ethanol content: 0–16% and temperature: 60–90 °C) and purification (ethanol: 60–80%) conditions on some chemical properties of the extracts. The highest recovery of polyphenols (~8 mg GAE/g dry coffee solids) and reduction of hydroxymethylfurfural (95%) were obtained at 90 °C and 16% of ethanol during extraction and 80% of ethanol during purification. These operating conditions retained the antioxidant capacity of the crude extract between 60% and 88% depending on the determination method and recovered 90, 98, and 100% of 4-feruloylquinic acid, epicatechin, and 5-feruloylquinic acid, respectively after purification. The combined process allows differential polyphenols’ recovery and enhances the safety of the extracts. Our computational chemistry results ruled out that the overall selectivity of the integrated process was correlated with the size of the polyphenols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Supramolecular Understanding of 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzenes
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Understanding the supramolecular environment of crystal structures is necessary to facilitate designing molecules with desirable properties. A series of 12 novel 1,3,5-tris(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzenes was used to assess the existence of planar stacking columns in supramolecular structures of pyrazoles. This class
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Understanding the supramolecular environment of crystal structures is necessary to facilitate designing molecules with desirable properties. A series of 12 novel 1,3,5-tris(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzenes was used to assess the existence of planar stacking columns in supramolecular structures of pyrazoles. This class of molecules with different substituents may assist in understanding how small structural changes affect the supramolecular environment. The obtained compounds did not present the formation of planar stacking interactions between benzenes in solid or liquid states. This supposition was indicated by single crystal diffraction, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) calculations, and concentration-dependent liquid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR showed that chemical shifts of benzene and pyrazole hydrogens confirm that planar stacking interactions are not formed in solution. The crystalline structures presented different molecular conformations. The molecular structures of 5 and 9b are in a twisted conformation, while compound 7 showed a conformation analogous to a calyx form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pyrazole Derivatives)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Chemical Variations between Crude and Salt-Processed Anemarrhenae rhizoma Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Methods
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
The present study was designed to systematically investigate the chemical profile differences between crude Anemarrhenae rhizoma (CAR) and salt-processed Anemarrhenae rhizoma (SAR). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–QTOF-MS), coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used for the discrimination of chemical profiles and
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The present study was designed to systematically investigate the chemical profile differences between crude Anemarrhenae rhizoma (CAR) and salt-processed Anemarrhenae rhizoma (SAR). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–QTOF-MS), coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used for the discrimination of chemical profiles and the identification of the differentiation of the chemical constitutions of CAR and SAR. In addition, seven main constituents of CAR and SAR were simultaneously determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) for analyzing the content variations. A total of 24 components were found to be the main contributors to the significant difference between CAR and SAR. The structures of the marker compounds were identified based on their chromatographic behaviors, intact precursor ions, and characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. The potential structural transformation mechanism of furostanol saponins during salt processing was explored. The results may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing mechanism of Anemarrhenae rhizoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Discovery of Quinazoline- and Thiourea-Containing Sorafenib Analogs as EGFR and VEGFR-2 Dual TK Inhibitors
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Both EGFR and VEGFR-2 play a critical role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, and targeting EGFR and VEGFR-2 simultaneously represents a promising approach to cancer treatment. In this work, a series of novel quinazoline- and thiourea-containing sorafenib analogs (10av
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Both EGFR and VEGFR-2 play a critical role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, and targeting EGFR and VEGFR-2 simultaneously represents a promising approach to cancer treatment. In this work, a series of novel quinazoline- and thiourea-containing sorafenib analogs (10av) were designed and synthesized as EGFR and VEGFR-2 dual TK inhibitors. Their in vitro enzymatic inhibitory activities against EGFR and VEGFR-2, and antiproliferative activities against HCT-116, MCF-7 and B16 cell lines were evaluated and described. Most of the compounds showed potent activities against both cell lines and TK kinases. Compounds 10b and 10q which exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities against EGFR (IC50 = 0.02 µM and 0.01 µM, respectively), VEGFR-2 (IC50 = 0.05 µM and 0.08 µM, respectively), and good antiproliferative activities, also displayed competitive anti-tumor activities than sorafenib in vivo by B16 melanoma xenograft model test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Red and Green Walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Fruit color is an important economic trait. The color of red walnut cultivars is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in the molecular mechanism of leaf and peel color change between red and green walnut.
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Fruit color is an important economic trait. The color of red walnut cultivars is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in the molecular mechanism of leaf and peel color change between red and green walnut. A reference transcriptome of walnut was sequenced and annotated to identify genes related to fruit color at the ripening stage. More than 290 million high-quality reads were assembled into 39,411 genes using a combined assembly strategy. Using Illumina digital gene expression profiling, we identified 4568 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between red and green walnut leaf and 3038 DEGs between red and green walnut peel at the ripening stage. We also identified some transcription factor families (MYB, bHLH, and WD40) involved in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The trends in the expression levels of several genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors in the leaf and peel of red and green walnut were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Together, our results identified the genes involved in anthocyanin accumulation in red walnut. These data provide a valuable resource for understanding the coloration of red walnut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of Malonamide Derivatives as Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious threat to humans. Most existing antimicrobial drugs, including the β-lactam and quinoxiline classes, are not effective against MRSA. In this study, we synthesized 24 derivatives of malonamide, a new class of antibacterial agents and potentiators of
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious threat to humans. Most existing antimicrobial drugs, including the β-lactam and quinoxiline classes, are not effective against MRSA. In this study, we synthesized 24 derivatives of malonamide, a new class of antibacterial agents and potentiators of classic antimicrobials. A derivative that increases bacterial killing and biofilm eradication with low cell toxicity was created. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Inhibitors Targeting Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase from the Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Phytopathogenic Bacteria
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
Ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) deliver NADPH or low potential one-electron donors to redox-based metabolism in plastids and bacteria. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease that affects commercial citrus crops worldwide. The Xcc fpr gene
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Ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) deliver NADPH or low potential one-electron donors to redox-based metabolism in plastids and bacteria. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease that affects commercial citrus crops worldwide. The Xcc fpr gene encodes a bacterial type FNR (XccFPR) that contributes to the bacterial response to oxidative stress conditions, usually found during plant colonization. Therefore, XccFPR is relevant for the pathogen survival and its inhibition might represent a strategy to treat citrus canker. Because of mechanistic and structural differences from plastidic FNRs, XccFPR is also a potential antibacterial target. We have optimized an activity-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that identifies XccFPR inhibitors. We selected 43 hits from a chemical library and narrowed them down to the four most promising inhibitors. The antimicrobial effect of these compounds was evaluated on Xcc cultures, finding one with antimicrobial properties. Based on the functional groups of this compound and their geometric arrangement, we identified another three XccFPR inhibitors. Inhibition mechanisms and constants were determined for these four XccFPR inhibitors. Their specificity was also evaluated by studying their effect on the plastidic Anabaena PCC 7119 FNR, finding differences that can become interesting tools to discover Xcc antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavoenzymes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Structural Basis for the Substrate Inhibition of Proline Utilization A by Proline
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the two-step oxidation of l-proline to l-glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) active sites. Substrate inhibition of the coupled PRODH-GSALDH reaction by proline is a
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Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the two-step oxidation of l-proline to l-glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) active sites. Substrate inhibition of the coupled PRODH-GSALDH reaction by proline is a common kinetic feature of PutAs, yet the structural basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. To understand the mechanism of substrate inhibition, we determined the 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA complexed with proline. Proline was discovered in five locations remote from the PRODH active site. Most notably, strong electron density indicated that proline bound tightly to the GSAL binding site of the GSALDH active site. The pose and interactions of proline bound in this site are remarkably similar to those of the natural aldehyde substrate, GSAL, implying that proline inhibits the GSALDH reaction of PutA. Kinetic measurements show that proline is a competitive inhibitor of the PutA GSALDH reaction. Together, the structural and kinetic data show that substrate inhibition of the PutA coupled reaction is due to proline binding in the GSAL site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavoenzymes)
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Open AccessArticle DL_ANALYSER Notation for Atomic Interactions (DANAI): A Natural Annotation System for Molecular Interactions, Using Ethanoic Acid Liquid as a Test Case
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
The DL_ANALYSER Notation for Atomic Interactions, DANAI, is the notation syntax to describe interactions between molecules. This notation can annotate precisely the detailed atomistic interactions without having to resolve to diagrammatic illustrations, and yet can be interpreted easily by both human users and
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The DL_ANALYSER Notation for Atomic Interactions, DANAI, is the notation syntax to describe interactions between molecules. This notation can annotate precisely the detailed atomistic interactions without having to resolve to diagrammatic illustrations, and yet can be interpreted easily by both human users and computational means. By making use of the DL_F Notation, a universal atom typing scheme for molecular simulations, DANAI contains the expression of atomic species in a natural chemical sense. It is implemented within DL_ANALYSER, a general analysis software program for DL_POLY molecular dynamics simulation software. By making references to the molecular dynamics simulations of pure ethanoic acid liquid, it is shown that DL_ANALYSER can identify and distinguish a variety of hydrogen bond and hydrophobic contact networks through the use of the DANAI expression. It was found that the carboxylic groups preferentially orientated in a “head-to-tail” conformation to form hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen and hydroxyl hydrogen, resulting in a series of linear structures that intertwined with pockets of methyl clusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Theoretical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Copper Reduces the Hepatotoxicity of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Mice
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
We developed Cu-deficient, -sufficient and -super nutrition mice models by feeding them with diet containing 1.68, 11.72 or 51.69 mg of Cu/kg for 28 days, respectively. Then, the mice were treated to (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 750 mg/kg BW) by oral in order to assess
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We developed Cu-deficient, -sufficient and -super nutrition mice models by feeding them with diet containing 1.68, 11.72 or 51.69 mg of Cu/kg for 28 days, respectively. Then, the mice were treated to (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 750 mg/kg BW) by oral in order to assess the acute toxicity of the drug. Following EGCG treatment, the survival rates were 12.5%, 50% and 100% in the Cu-deficient, -sufficient and Cu-super nutrition groups of mice, respectively. Cu level and ceruloplasmin activity in serum were significantly increased with the increase of dietary Cu. However, the Cu supplementation did not produce any obvious impact on serum superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, ceruloplasmin, in vitro, significantly promotes EGCG oxidation accompanied with increasing oxidation products and decreasing levels of reactive oxygen species. These results, therefore, suggest that Cu can relieve EGCG hepatotoxicity, possibly by up-regulating ceruloplasmin activity, which can be used to promote EGCG applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catechin in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Extracting Fitness Relationships and Oncogenic Patterns among Driver Genes in Cancer
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Driver mutation provides fitness advantage to cancer cells, the accumulation of which increases the fitness of cancer cells and accelerates cancer progression. This work seeks to extract patterns accumulated by driver genes (“fitness relationships”) in tumorigenesis. We introduce a network-based method for extracting
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Driver mutation provides fitness advantage to cancer cells, the accumulation of which increases the fitness of cancer cells and accelerates cancer progression. This work seeks to extract patterns accumulated by driver genes (“fitness relationships”) in tumorigenesis. We introduce a network-based method for extracting the fitness relationships of driver genes by modeling the network properties of the “fitness” of cancer cells. Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) and skin cutaneous malignant melanoma (SKCM) are employed as case studies. Consistent results derived from different background networks suggest the reliability of the identified fitness relationships. Additionally co-occurrence analysis and pathway analysis reveal the functional significance of the fitness relationships with signaling transduction. In addition, a subset of driver genes called the “fitness core” is recognized for each case. Further analyses indicate the functional importance of the fitness core in carcinogenesis, and provide potential therapeutic opportunities in medicinal intervention. Fitness relationships characterize the functional continuity among driver genes in carcinogenesis, and suggest new insights in understanding the oncogenic mechanisms of cancers, as well as providing guiding information for medicinal intervention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Novel Aphicidal Mezzettiaside-Type Oligorhamnosides and Their Analogues
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
Oligosaccharides have been used for an environmentally friendly insect control in the agricultural industry. In order to discover novel eco-friendly pesticides, a series of partially acetylated oligorhamnoses mezzettiasides, 28, and their analogues, 914, with biosurfactant characteristics were
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Oligosaccharides have been used for an environmentally friendly insect control in the agricultural industry. In order to discover novel eco-friendly pesticides, a series of partially acetylated oligorhamnoses mezzettiasides, 28, and their analogues, 914, with biosurfactant characteristics were designed and synthesized, some of which exhibited comparable to or even stronger aphicidal activity than pymetrozine. Preliminary SAR studies demonstrated that the aphicidal activity of mezzettiasides analogs is highly dependent on their structures, including both the sugar length and the substitutes on the sugar. Among them, trirhamnolipid 9 displayed the strongest aphicidal activity, with an LC50 of 0.019 mmol/L, indicating that the biosurfactant 9 may have potential for use as an environmentally friendly agricultural pesticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Fascaplysin Sensitizes Anti-Cancer Effects of Drugs Targeting AKT and AMPK
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
Fascaplysin, a natural product isolated from marine sponges, is a potential candidate for the development of anti-cancer drugs. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect of strengthening anti-cancer efficacy of other drugs is poorly understood. Here, we found that fascaplysin increases phosphorylation of
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Fascaplysin, a natural product isolated from marine sponges, is a potential candidate for the development of anti-cancer drugs. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect of strengthening anti-cancer efficacy of other drugs is poorly understood. Here, we found that fascaplysin increases phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB), also known as AKT, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which are considered therapeutic targets for cancer treatment due to their anti-apoptotic or pro-survival functions in cancer. A cell viability assay revealed that pharmacological suppression of AKT using LY294002 enhanced the anti-cancer effect of fascaplysin in various cancer cells. Similarly, fascaplysin was observed to have improved anti-cancer effects in combination with compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor. Another challenge showed that fascaplysin increased the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX)-mediated cancer therapy by suppressing genes related to folate and purine metabolism. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin may be useful for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of targeted anti-cancer drugs, such as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase AKT signaling, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as MTX. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Amine-Functionalized Sugarcane Bagasse: A Renewable Catalyst for Efficient Continuous Flow Knoevenagel Condensation Reaction at Room Temperature
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
A biomass-based catalyst with amine groups (–NH2), viz., amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse (SCB-NH2), was prepared through the amination of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) in a two-step process. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized through FT-IR, elemental analysis, XRD, TG,
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A biomass-based catalyst with amine groups (–NH2), viz., amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse (SCB-NH2), was prepared through the amination of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) in a two-step process. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized through FT-IR, elemental analysis, XRD, TG, and SEM-EDX techniques, which confirmed the –NH2 group was grafted onto SCB successfully. The catalytic performance of SCB-NH2 in Knoevenagel condensation reaction was tested in the batch and continuous flow reactions. Significantly, it was found that the catalytic performance of SCB-NH2 is better in flow system than that in batch system. Moreover, the SCB-NH2 presented an excellent catalytic activity and stability at the high flow rate. When the flow rate is at the 1.5 mL/min, no obvious deactivation was observed and the product yield and selectivity are more than 97% and 99% after 80 h of continuous reaction time, respectively. After the recovery of solvent from the resulting solution, a white solid was obtained as a target product. As a result, the SCB-NH2 is a promising catalyst for the synthesis of fine chemicals by Knoevenagel condensation reaction in large scale, and the modification of the renewable SCB with –NH2 group is a potential avenue for the preparation of amine-functionalized catalytic materials in industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Chemical Modifications—Towards Sustainable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Semisynthesis and Biological Evaluation of Oleanolic Acid 3-O-β-d-Glucuronopyranoside Derivatives for Protecting H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-Induced Injury
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
A series of novel oleanolic acid 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Biological evaluation has indicated that some of the synthesized compounds exhibit moderate to good activity against H2O2-induced injury in rat
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A series of novel oleanolic acid 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Biological evaluation has indicated that some of the synthesized compounds exhibit moderate to good activity against H2O2-induced injury in rat myocardial cells (H9c2). Particularly, derivative 28-N-isobutyl ursolic amide 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (8a) exhibited a greater protective effect than the positive control oleanolic acid 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, indicating that it possesses a great potential for further development as a cardiovascular disease modulator by structural modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Directed Drug Design and Molecular Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of Biological Activities of Aziridine Derivatives of Urea and Thiourea
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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In the present paper, we report the synthesis and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activities of aziridine-thiourea derivatives. A series of aziridines in reaction with isocyanates and isothiocyanates to obtain urea and thiourea derivatives were used. The structures of all new products were
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In the present paper, we report the synthesis and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activities of aziridine-thiourea derivatives. A series of aziridines in reaction with isocyanates and isothiocyanates to obtain urea and thiourea derivatives were used. The structures of all new products were confirmed based on spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HR-MS). These compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria. Six of the tested compounds appeared to be promising agents against reference strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Subsequently, compounds exhibiting promising antibacterial activity were tested against twelve clinical isolates of S. aureus from three different sources of infection. The most bactericidal compounds (MIC = 16–32 µg/mL) showed better antibacterial activity against MRSA than ampicillin and streptomycin. The in vitro cytotoxicity analysis on L929 murine fibroblast and HeLa human tumor cell line using the MTT assay allowed us to select the least toxic compounds for future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antitumor and Immunoregulatory Activities of Seleno-β-Lactoglobulin on S180 Tumor-Bearing Mice
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Degeneration of immune organs like thymus and spleen has been discovered in tumor-bearing mice; which increases the difficulties on oncotherapy. More effective drugs which target the protection of immune organs are expected to be researched. In this study; we aim to analyze the
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Degeneration of immune organs like thymus and spleen has been discovered in tumor-bearing mice; which increases the difficulties on oncotherapy. More effective drugs which target the protection of immune organs are expected to be researched. In this study; we aim to analyze the antitumor and immunoregulatory activities of seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-lg) on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Results indicated that Se-β-lg exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on S180 solid tumors with the inhibition rate of 48.38%; and protected the thymuses and spleens of S180-bearing mice. In addition, Se-β-lg could also balance the proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in spleens; thymuses and peripheral bloods; and improve Levels of IL-2; IFN-γ; TNF-α in mice serums. β-lg showed weaker bioactivities while SeO2 showed stronger toxicity on mice. Therefore our results demonstrated that Se-β-lg possessed stronger antitumor and immunoregulatory activities with lower side effects and had the potential to be a novel immunopotentiator and antitumor agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Novel Chalcone Derivatives Bearing Triazolo[4,3-a]-quinoxaline Moieties as Potent Anticancer Agents with Dual EGFR Kinase and Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitory Effects
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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A series of hybrid of triazoloquinoxaline-chalcone derivatives 7ak were designed, synthesized, fully characterized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three target cell lines: human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2). The preliminary results showed
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A series of hybrid of triazoloquinoxaline-chalcone derivatives 7ak were designed, synthesized, fully characterized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three target cell lines: human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2). The preliminary results showed that some of these chalcones like 7bc, and 7eg exhibited significant antiproliferative effects against most of the cell lines, with selective or non-selective behavior, indicated by IC50 values in the 1.65 to 34.28 µM range. In order to investigate the mechanistic aspects of these active compounds, EGFR TK and tubulin inhibitory activities were measured as further biological assays. The EGFR TK assay results revealed that the derivatives 7ac, 7e, and 7g could inhibit the EGFR TK in the submicromolar range (0.093 to 0.661 µM). Moreover, an antitubulin polymerization effect was noted for the active derivatives compared to the reference drug colchicine, with compounds 7e and 7g displaying 14.7 and 8.4 micromolar activity, respectively. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was carried out to explain the observed effects and the binding modes of these chalcones with the EGFR TK and tubulin targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination of Stereoisomers by Their Enantioselective Interactions with Chiral Cholesterol-Containing Membranes
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Discrimination between enantiomers is an important subject in medicinal and biological chemistry because they exhibit markedly different bioactivity and toxicity. Although stereoisomers should vary in the mechanistic interactions with chiral targets, their discrimination associated with the mode of action on membrane lipids is
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Discrimination between enantiomers is an important subject in medicinal and biological chemistry because they exhibit markedly different bioactivity and toxicity. Although stereoisomers should vary in the mechanistic interactions with chiral targets, their discrimination associated with the mode of action on membrane lipids is scarce. The aim of this study is to reveal whether enantiomers selectively act on chiral lipid membranes. Different classes of stereoisomers were subjected at 5–200 μM to reactions with biomimetic phospholipid membranes containing ~40 mol % cholesterol to endow the lipid bilayers with chirality and their membrane interactions were comparatively evaluated by measuring fluorescence polarization. All of the tested compounds interacted with cholesterol-containing membranes to modify their physicochemical property with different potencies between enantiomers, correlating to those of their experimental and clinical effects. The rank order of membrane interactivity was reversed by changing cholesterol to C3-epimeric α-cholesterol. The same selectivity was also obtained from membranes prepared with 5α-cholestan-3β-ol and 5β-cholestan-3α-ol diastereomers. The opposite configuration allows molecules to interact with chiral sterol-containing membranes enantioselectively, and the specific β configuration of cholesterol’s 3-hydroxyl group is responsible for such selectivity. The enantioselective membrane interaction has medicinal implications for the characterization of the stereostructures with higher bioactivity and lower toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chirality in Health and Environment: Recent developments)
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Open AccessArticle Antrodia cinnamomea Oligosaccharides Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation through Promoting O-GlcNAcylation and Repressing p38/Akt Phosphorylation
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products
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Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), an edible fungus growing in Taiwan, has various health benefits. This study was designed to examine the potential inhibitory effects of AC oligosaccharides on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. By trifluoroacetic acid degradation, two oligosaccharide products were prepared from AC polysaccharides at 90 °C (ACHO) or 25 °C (ACCO), which showed different oligosaccharide identities. Compared to ACCO, ACHO displayed better inhibitory effects on LPS-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α and MCP-1 in macrophage cells. Further, ACHO significantly suppressed the inflammation in lung tissues of LPS-injected C57BL/6 mice. The potential anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism may be associated with the promotion of protein O-GlcNAcylation, which further skewed toward the marked suppression of p38 and Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the suppressive effect of AC oligosaccharides on inflammation may be an effective approach for the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Selecting Feature Subsets Based on SVM-RFE and the Overlapping Ratio with Applications in Bioinformatics
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
Feature selection is an important topic in bioinformatics. Defining informative features from complex high dimensional biological data is critical in disease study, drug development, etc. Support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is an efficient feature selection technique that has shown its power in
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Feature selection is an important topic in bioinformatics. Defining informative features from complex high dimensional biological data is critical in disease study, drug development, etc. Support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is an efficient feature selection technique that has shown its power in many applications. It ranks the features according to the recursive feature deletion sequence based on SVM. In this study, we propose a method, SVM-RFE-OA, which combines the classification accuracy rate and the average overlapping ratio of the samples to determine the number of features to be selected from the feature rank of SVM-RFE. Meanwhile, to measure the feature weights more accurately, we propose a modified SVM-RFE-OA (M-SVM-RFE-OA) algorithm that temporally screens out the samples lying in a heavy overlapping area in each iteration. The experiments on the eight public biological datasets show that the discriminative ability of the feature subset could be measured more accurately by combining the classification accuracy rate with the average overlapping degree of the samples compared with using the classification accuracy rate alone, and shielding the samples in the overlapping area made the calculation of the feature weights more stable and accurate. The methods proposed in this study can also be used with other RFE techniques to define potential biomarkers from big biological data. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Minerals and Antioxidant Activity of Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) Fruits
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
The extraction efficiency of major classes of phenolics from lingonberries grown in the central region of Poland was evaluated. The ethanol–water solution (60:40, v/v) resulted in the highest extraction yields; however, the results obtained for ethyl acetate were only slightly
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The extraction efficiency of major classes of phenolics from lingonberries grown in the central region of Poland was evaluated. The ethanol–water solution (60:40, v/v) resulted in the highest extraction yields; however, the results obtained for ethyl acetate were only slightly lower. Total phenolics estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay ranged from 468 to 661 mg of GA/100 g fresh weight (fw), while total flavonoids were in the range of 53.2–67.8 μmol/100 g fw. Both solvents exhibited comparable potential for monomeric anthocyanin extraction (26.1–43.0 mg CGE/100 g of fw). The content of several minerals in these fruits and in soil collected from the same places were compared. The essential metal concentrations in all samples increased in the following order: Cr < Cu < Zn < Fe. The levels of toxic elements (Cd, Pb) were acceptable to human consumption for most tested samples. The ethanol-water extracts exhibited the highest scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, while the highest reducing capacity evaluated by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) was obtained for ethyl acetate extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Species of the Genus Usnea by UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise
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Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species (U. barbata, U. antarctica, U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana), a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata, 21 in U. antarctica, 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana. Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Physicochemical Properties of Yogurt Fortified with Fish Oil/γ-Oryzanol by Nanoemulsion Technology
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
Fish oil has several dietary benefits, but its application in food formulations is limited because of its poor water-solubility, easy oxidation and strong odor. The purposes of this study were to produce a fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion and to evaluate the effect of adding
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Fish oil has several dietary benefits, but its application in food formulations is limited because of its poor water-solubility, easy oxidation and strong odor. The purposes of this study were to produce a fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion and to evaluate the effect of adding this nanoemulsion on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurts. Adding fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion resulted in a significant reduction in the acidity and syneresis of yogurt. Yogurt with the nanoemulsion had significantly lower peroxide value (0.28 mmol/L after 21 days) and higher retention of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (decreased to 95% and 94% of its initial value, respectively) than yogurt with fish oil/γ-oryzanol (peroxide value = 0.65 mmol/L; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents decreased to 72% and 53% of its initial value, respectively). Fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion incorporated into yogurt had closer sensory attributes scores to plain yogurt. This study may have important implications for the application of fish oil/γ-oryzanol nanoemulsion in yogurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanochemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Cytotoxic Terpenoids from the Roots of Dracocephalum taliense
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
A chemical investigation of methanol extract from the roots of Dracocephalum taliense led to the isolation of a new aromatic abietane diterpenoid, 12-methoxy-18-hydroxy-sugiol (1), and one highly-oxygenated ursane triterpenoid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-urs-28,13β-olide (2), together with 15 known natural products (3
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A chemical investigation of methanol extract from the roots of Dracocephalum taliense led to the isolation of a new aromatic abietane diterpenoid, 12-methoxy-18-hydroxy-sugiol (1), and one highly-oxygenated ursane triterpenoid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-urs-28,13β-olide (2), together with 15 known natural products (317). Among these, compounds 113 and 1517 were detected for the first time in the genus of Dracocephalum. The structures of all of these isolates were determined by extensively spectroscopic analyses. In the anti-inflammatory assay, compounds 1 and 2 had no obvious inhibitory activity on the release of cytokine IL-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, compound 2 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against cell lines HepG2 (IC50 = 6.58 ± 0.14 μM) and NCI-H1975 (IC50 = 7.17 ± 0.26 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle Flaccidoxide-13-Acetate Extracted from the Soft Coral Cladiella kashmani Reduces Human Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion through Reducing Activation of the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Metastasis of cancer is the cause of the majority of cancer deaths. Active compound flaccidoxide-13-acetate, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella kashmani, has been found to exhibit anti-tumor activity. In this study, Boyden chamber analysis, Western blotting and gelatin zymography assays indicated
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Metastasis of cancer is the cause of the majority of cancer deaths. Active compound flaccidoxide-13-acetate, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella kashmani, has been found to exhibit anti-tumor activity. In this study, Boyden chamber analysis, Western blotting and gelatin zymography assays indicated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of RT4 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. The results demonstrated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A), Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3), and increased the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 in RT4 and T24 cells. This study revealed that flaccidoxide-13-acetate suppressed cell migration and invasion by reducing the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9, regulated by the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, our study was the first to demonstrate that flaccidoxide-13-acetate could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of bladder cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents against Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: Striking Effect of Nitrothiazole Moiety
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
In an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents, new 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on multiple human cancer cell lines, including the K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line that expresses the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. N-(5-Nitrothiazol-2-yl)-2-((5-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetamide (2
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In an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents, new 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on multiple human cancer cell lines, including the K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line that expresses the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. N-(5-Nitrothiazol-2-yl)-2-((5-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)acetamide (2) inhibited the Abl protein kinase with an IC50 value of 7.4 µM and showed selective activity against the Bcr-Abl positive K562 cell line. Furthermore, a Bcr-Abl-compound 2 molecular modelling simulation highlighted the anchoring role of the nitrothiazole moiety in bonding and hydrophobic interaction with the key amino acid residues. These results provide promising starting points for further development of novel kinase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Thiosemicarbazone Derivative Schiff Bases as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Agents
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Twenty-six novel thiosemicarbazone derivative B1B26 were synthesized via condensation reactions between the corresponding thiosemicarbazides and aldehydes. The chemical characterization of the compounds was carried out by infrared (IR), mass (MS), proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13
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Twenty-six novel thiosemicarbazone derivative B1B26 were synthesized via condensation reactions between the corresponding thiosemicarbazides and aldehydes. The chemical characterization of the compounds was carried out by infrared (IR), mass (MS), proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR) spectroscopic analyses. The compounds were investigated for their monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory activity and most of them were more potent against MAO-A enzyme when compared with MAO-B enzyme. N-Cyclohexyl-2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl)thio]benzylidene]hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (B24) was the most active compound against MAO-A. The enzyme kinetics study revealed that compound B24 has a reversible and competitive mode of binding. Interaction modes between compound B24 and MAO-A were clarified by docking studies. In addition, the favourable absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties and non-toxic nature of compound B24 make this compound a promising MAO-A inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction of a Novel Cold-Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus and Its Antitumor and Immunological Activities
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
The polysaccharides of Astragalus membranaceus have received extensive study and attention, but there have been few reports on the extraction of these polysaccharides using cold water (4 °C). In this study, we fractionated a novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (cAMPs-1A) from Astragalus membranaceus with a
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The polysaccharides of Astragalus membranaceus have received extensive study and attention, but there have been few reports on the extraction of these polysaccharides using cold water (4 °C). In this study, we fractionated a novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (cAMPs-1A) from Astragalus membranaceus with a 92.00% carbohydrate content using a DEAE-cellulose 52 anion exchange column and a Sephadex G-100 column. Our UV, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance gel permeation chromatography, and ion chromatography analysis results indicated the monosaccharide composition of cAMPs-1A with 1.23 × 104 Da molecular weight to be fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose, with molar ratios of 0.01:0.06:0.20:1.00:0.06, respectively. The UV spectroscopy detected no protein and nucleic acid in cAMPs-1A. We used FTIR analysis to characterize the α-d-pyranoid configuration in cAMPs-1A. In addition, we performed animal experiments in vivo to evaluate the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of cAMPs-1A. The results suggested that cAMPs-1A oral administration could significantly inhibit tumor growth with the inhibitory rate of 20.53%, 36.50% and 44.49%, respectively, at the dosage of 75,150, and 300 mg/kg. Moreover, cAMPs-1A treatment could also effectively protect the immune organs, promote macrophage pinocytosis, and improve the percentages of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice. These findings demonstrate that the polysaccharide cAMPs-1A has an underlying application as natural antitumor agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Molecularly Imprinted Microrods via Mesophase Polymerization
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via “mesophase polymerization”. The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to
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The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via “mesophase polymerization”. The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to direct the morphology of the synthesized imprinted polymers using theophylline, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a drug model template, a functional monomer, and a crosslinker, respectively. The obtained molecularly imprinted microrods (MIMs) were assessed by performing binding experiments and in vitro release studies, and the obtained results highlighted good selective recognition abilities and sustained release properties. In conclusion, the adopted synthetic strategy involving a lyotropic mesophase system allows for the preparation of effective MIPs characterized by a rod-like morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Activation Profile Analysis of CruCA4, an α-Carbonic Anhydrase Involved in Skeleton Formation of the Mediterranean Red Coral, Corallium rubrum
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
CruCA4, a coral α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) involved in the biomineralization process of the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, was investigated for its activation with a panel of amino acids and amines. Most compounds showed considerable activating properties, with a rather
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CruCA4, a coral α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) involved in the biomineralization process of the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, was investigated for its activation with a panel of amino acids and amines. Most compounds showed considerable activating properties, with a rather well defined structure–activity relationship. The most effective CruCA4 activators were d-His, 4-H2N-l-Phe, Histamine, Dopamine, Serotonin, 1-(2-Aminoethyl)-piperazine, and l-Adrenaline, with activation constants in the range of 8–98 nM. Other amines and amino acids, such as d-DOPA, l-Tyr, 2-Pyridyl-methylamine, 2-(2-Aminoethyl) pyridine and 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-morpholine, were submicromolar CruCA4 activators, with KA ranging between 0.15 and 0.93 µM. Since it has been shown that CA activators may facilitate the initial phases of in-bone mineralization, our study may be relevant for finding modulators of enzyme activity, which can enhance the formation of the red coral skeleton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloenzyme Inhibitors and Activators)
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Open AccessArticle Chrysin Induces Antidiabetic, Antidyslipidemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Athymic Nude Diabetic Mice
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Extensive knowledge of diabetes and its complications is helpful to find new drugs for proper treatment to stop degenerative changes derived from this disease. In this context, chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural product that occurs in a variety of flowers and fruits with
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Extensive knowledge of diabetes and its complications is helpful to find new drugs for proper treatment to stop degenerative changes derived from this disease. In this context, chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural product that occurs in a variety of flowers and fruits with anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects, among others. Thus, a diabetic model in athymic nude mice was developed and used to establish the ability of chrysin to decrease the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, it was determined the acute (50 mg/kg) and sub-acute (50 mg/kg/day/10 days) antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities after the period of time treatment. Results indicate that chrysin has significant acute antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic effects in nude diabetic mice (p < 0.05). Moreover, triglyceride blood levels were reduced and IL-1β and TNF-α were diminished after 10 days’ treatment compared with control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it was found that chrysin could produce similar effects as metformin, a drug used for the treatment of diabetes, since both test samples decreased glucose and triglycerides levels, they impaired the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in the development of diabetes and its consequences, such as atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Basis for Converting (2S)-Methylsuccinyl-CoA Dehydrogenase into an Oxidase
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Although flavoenzymes have been studied in detail, the molecular basis of their dioxygen reactivity is only partially understood. The members of the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase families catalyze similar reactions and share common structural features. However, both enzyme
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Although flavoenzymes have been studied in detail, the molecular basis of their dioxygen reactivity is only partially understood. The members of the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA oxidase families catalyze similar reactions and share common structural features. However, both enzyme families feature opposing reaction specificities in respect to dioxygen. Dehydrogenases react with electron transfer flavoproteins as terminal electron acceptors and do not show a considerable reactivity with dioxygen, whereas dioxygen serves as a bona fide substrate for oxidases. We recently engineered (2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase towards oxidase activity by rational mutagenesis. Here we characterized the (2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase wild-type, as well as the engineered (2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA oxidase, in detail. Using stopped-flow UV-spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based assays, we explain the molecular base for dioxygen reactivity in the engineered oxidase and show that the increased oxidase function of the engineered enzyme comes at a decreased dehydrogenase activity. Our findings add to the common notion that an increased activity for a specific substrate is achieved at the expense of reaction promiscuity and provide guidelines for rational engineering efforts of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and oxidases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavoenzymes)
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Open AccessArticle Structure Related Inhibition of Enzyme Systems in Cholinesterases and BACE1 In Vitro by Naturally Occurring Naphthopyrone and Its Glycosides Isolated from Cassia obtusifolia
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
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Abstract
Cassia obtusifolia Linn. have been used to improve vision, inflammatory diseases, and as hepatoprotective agents and to promote urination from ancient times. In the present study, we investigated the influence of glycosylation of components of C. obtusifolia and structure-activity relationships (SARs) with respect
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Cassia obtusifolia Linn. have been used to improve vision, inflammatory diseases, and as hepatoprotective agents and to promote urination from ancient times. In the present study, we investigated the influence of glycosylation of components of C. obtusifolia and structure-activity relationships (SARs) with respect to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), which are related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). All six C. obtusifolia-derived compounds, rubrofusarin (1), rubrofusarin 6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), rubrofusarin 6-O-β-d-gentiobioside (3), nor-rubrofusarin 6-O-β-d-glucoside (4), isorubrofusarin 10-O-β-d-gentiobioside (5), and rubrofusarin 6-O-β-d-triglucoside (6) showed promising inhibitory activity against AChE/BACE1. Compounds 3 and 4 showed most significant inhibition against AChE and BACE1, respectively. The SARs results emphasized the importance of gentiobiosyl moiety in the rubrofusarin for AChE inhibition, whereas the presence of hydroxyl group at C-8 and the glucosyl moiety at the C-6 position in the nor-rubrofusarin appeared to largely determine BACE1 inhibition. Kinetics and docking studies showed the lowest binding energy and highest affinity for mixed-type inhibitors, 3 and 4. Hydrophobic bonds interactions and the number of hydrogen bonds determined the strength of the protein-inhibitor interaction. These results suggest that C. obtusifolia and its constituents have therapeutic potential, and that the SARs of its active components are further explored with a view towards developing a treatment for AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrazone Derivatives Enhance Antileishmanial Activity of Thiochroman-4-ones
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease, which causes severe skin lesions. Due to the lack of effective vaccines, and toxicity or reduced effectiveness of available drugs in addition to complex and prolonged treatments, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease, which causes severe skin lesions. Due to the lack of effective vaccines, and toxicity or reduced effectiveness of available drugs in addition to complex and prolonged treatments, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives for the treatment for CL with different mechanisms of action. In our effort to search for new promising hits against Leishmania parasites we prepared 18 acyl hydrazone derivatives of thiochroman-4-ones. Compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against the intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania panamensis and cytotoxic activity against human monocytes (U-937 ATCC CRL-1593.2). Our results show that derivatization of the thiochroman-4-ones with acyl hydrazones significantly enhances the antileishmanial activity. Among the compounds tested semicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone derivatives of thioflavanone 19 and 20 displayed the highest antileishmanial activities, with EC50 values of 5.4 and 5.1 µM and low cytotoxicities (100.2 and 50.1 µM respectively), resulting in higher indexes of selectivity (IS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Peptide Nucleic Acid against MicroRNA miR-145-5p Enhances the Expression of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in Calu-3 Cells
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are very useful tools for gene regulation at different levels, but in particular in the last years their use for targeting microRNA (anti-miR PNAs) has provided impressive advancements. In this respect, microRNAs related to the repression of cystic fibrosis
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Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are very useful tools for gene regulation at different levels, but in particular in the last years their use for targeting microRNA (anti-miR PNAs) has provided impressive advancements. In this respect, microRNAs related to the repression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which is defective in cystic fibrosis, are of great importance in the development of new type of treatments. In this paper we propose the use of an anti-miR PNA for targeting miR-145, a microRNA reported to suppress CFTR expression. Octaarginine-anti-miR PNA conjugates were delivered to Calu-3 cells, exerting sequence dependent targeting of miR-145-5p. This allowed to enhance expression of the miR-145 regulated CFTR gene, analyzed at mRNA (RT-qPCR, Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) and CFTR protein (Western blotting) level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Properties and the Applications of Peptide Nucleic Acids)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Extract from Diaphragma juglandis Fructus and Their Inhibitory Activity on Nitric Oxide Production In Vitro
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Diaphragma juglandis fructus contains various bioactive constituents. Fourteen compounds were isolated from Diaphragma juglandis fructus by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Compounds
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Diaphragma juglandis fructus contains various bioactive constituents. Fourteen compounds were isolated from Diaphragma juglandis fructus by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Compounds (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (12), (6R,9R)-9-hydroxymegastigman-4-en-3-one (13) and (6R,9S)-9-hydroxymegastigman-4-en-3-one (14) are found from Juglans regia L. for the first time. Compounds dihydrophaseic acid (2), blumenol B (3) and (4S)-4-hydroxy-1-tetralone (11) are isolated from Diaphragma juglandis fructus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory effects of isolated compounds were evaluated by an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds gallic acid (1), ethyl gallate (9) and (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (12) exhibited inhibitory activity on the nitric oxide production of RAW 264.7 at a concentration of 25 μM. The result indicated that the combination HSCCC with pre-HPLC is an effective way for compound separation and purification. And Diaphragma juglandis fructus constituents have the potential for the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2)
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical
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Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phytoestrogenic Activity of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Is Partially Mediated through Estrogen Receptor Beta
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Phytoestrogens are plant compounds with estrogenic effects found in many foods. We have previously reported phytoestrogen activity of blackcurrant anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-rutinoside) via the estrogen receptor (ER)α. In this study, we investigated the participation of ERβ in the phytoestrogen activity
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Phytoestrogens are plant compounds with estrogenic effects found in many foods. We have previously reported phytoestrogen activity of blackcurrant anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-rutinoside) via the estrogen receptor (ER)α. In this study, we investigated the participation of ERβ in the phytoestrogen activity of these anthocyanins. Blackcurrant anthocyanin induced ERβ-mediated transcriptional activity, and the IC50 of ERβ was lower than that of ERα, indicating that blackcurrant anthocyanins have a higher binding affinity to ERβ. In silico docking analysis of cyanidin and delphinidin, the core portions of the compound that fits within the ligand-binding pocket of ERβ, showed that similarly to 17β-estradiol, hydrogen bonds formed with the ERβ residues Glu305, Arg346, and His475. No fitting placement of glucoside or rutinoside sugar chains within the ligand-binding pocket of ERβ-estradiol complex was detected. However, as the conformation of helices 3 and 12 in ERβ varies depending on the ligand, we suggest that the surrounding structure, including these helices, adopts a conformation capable of accommodating glucoside or rutinoside. Comparison of ERα and ERβ docking structures revealed that the selectivity for ERβ is higher than that for ERα, similar to genistein. These results show that blackcurrant anthocyanins exert phytoestrogen activity via ERβ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Analog DK1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro through Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is
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Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is one of the natural substances that have been extensively studied due to its anti-cancer properties and is pharmacologically safe considering its ubiquitous consumption for centuries. However, curcumin suffers from a poor circulating bioavailability, which has led to the development of a chemically synthesized curcuminoid analog, namely (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the curcumin analog DK1 was investigated in both U-2OS and MG-63 osteosarcoma cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell death was microscopically examined via acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) double staining. Flow cytometer analysis including Annexin V/Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), cell cycle analysis and JC-1 were adapted to determine the mode of cell death. Subsequently in order to determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and proteome profiling was carried out to measure the expression of several apoptotic-related genes and proteins. Results indicated that DK1 induced U-2 OS and MG-63 morphological changes and substantially reduced cell numbers through induction of apoptosis. Several apoptotic genes and proteins were steadily expressed after treatment with DK1; including caspase 3, caspase 9, and BAX, which indicated that apoptosis occurred through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, DK1 could be considered as a potential candidate for an anti-osteosarcoma drug in the near future, contingent upon its ability to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
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Open AccessArticle Anticonvulsant Activity of Halogen-Substituted Cinnamic Acid Derivatives and Their Effects on Glycosylation of PTZ-Induced Chronic Epilepsy in Mice
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder disease, and there is an urgent need for the development of novel anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, the anticonvulsant activities and neurotoxicity of 12 cinnamic acid derivatives substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and trifluoromethyl groups were
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Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder disease, and there is an urgent need for the development of novel anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, the anticonvulsant activities and neurotoxicity of 12 cinnamic acid derivatives substituted by fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and trifluoromethyl groups were screened by the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and rotarod tests (Tox). Three of the tested compounds (compounds 3, 6 and 12) showed better anticonvulsant effects and lower neurotoxicity. They showed respective median effective dose (ED50) of 47.36, 75.72 and 70.65 mg/kg, and median toxic dose (TD50) of them was greater than 500 mg/kg, providing better protective indices. Meanwhile, they showed a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) ED50 value of 245.2, >300 and 285.2 mg/kg in mice, respectively. Especially, the most active compound 3 displayed a prominent anticonvulsant profile and had lower toxicity. Therefore, the antiepileptic mechanism of 3 on glycosylation changes in chronic epilepsy in mice was further investigated by using glycomics techniques. Lectin microarrays results showed that epilepsy was closely related to abnormal glycosylation, and 3 could reverse the abnormal glycosylation in scPTZ-induced epilepsy in mice. This work can provide new ideas for future discovery of potential biomarkers for evaluation of antiepileptic drugs based on the precise alterations of glycopatterns in epilepsy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Polarizable Atomic Multipole-Based Force Field for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Anionic Lipids
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
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Abstract
In all of the classical force fields, electrostatic interaction is simply treated and explicit electronic polarizability is neglected. The condensed-phase polarization, relative to the gas-phase charge distributions, is commonly accounted for in an average way by increasing the atomic charges, which remain fixed
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In all of the classical force fields, electrostatic interaction is simply treated and explicit electronic polarizability is neglected. The condensed-phase polarization, relative to the gas-phase charge distributions, is commonly accounted for in an average way by increasing the atomic charges, which remain fixed throughout simulations. Based on the lipid polarizable force field DMPC and following the same framework as Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for BiomoleculAr (AMOEBA) simulation, the present effort expands the force field to new anionic lipid models, in which the new lipids contain DMPG and POPS. The parameters are compatible with the AMOEBA force field, which includes water, ions, proteins, etc. The charge distribution of each atom is represented by the permanent atomic monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments, which are derived from the ab initio gas phase calculations. Many-body polarization including the inter- and intramolecular polarization is modeled in a consistent manner with distributed atomic polarizabilities. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two aqueous DMPG and POPS membrane bilayer systems, consisting of 72 lipids with water molecules, were then carried out to validate the force field parameters. Membrane width, area per lipid, volume per lipid, deuterium order parameters, electron density profile, electrostatic potential difference between the center of the bilayer and water are all calculated, and compared with limited experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Structure and Function)
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Open AccessArticle Compressional-Puffing Pretreatment Enhances Neuroprotective Effects of Fucoidans from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum on 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Cells
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, a compressional-puffing process (CPP) was used to pretreat Sargassum hemiphyllum (SH) and then fucoidan was extracted from SH by hot water. Three fucoidan extracts, namely SH1 (puffing at 0 kg/cm2); SH2 (puffing at 1.7 kg/cm2); and
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In this study, a compressional-puffing process (CPP) was used to pretreat Sargassum hemiphyllum (SH) and then fucoidan was extracted from SH by hot water. Three fucoidan extracts, namely SH1 (puffing at 0 kg/cm2); SH2 (puffing at 1.7 kg/cm2); and SH3 (puffing at 10.0 kg/cm2) were obtained, and their compositions and biological activities were evaluated. The results indicate that CPP increased the extraction yield, total sugar content, and molar ratios of sulfate/fucose of fucoidan and decreased molecular weight and impurities of fucoidan. The SH1–SH3 extracts exhibited characteristics of fucoidan as demonstrated by the analyses of composition, FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular weight. All SH1–SH3 extracts showed antioxidant activities. The SH1–SH3 extracts protected SH-SY5Y cells from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis as illustrated by cell cycle distribution, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Additional experiments revealed that phosphorylation of Akt is involved in the opposing effects of SH1–SH3 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. SH3 exhibited a relatively high extraction yield, the lowest levels of impurities, and was the most effective at reversing the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells among SH1–SH3, which taken together indicate that it may have potential as a candidate therapeutic agent for the preventive therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Chemical Diversity of Algerian Plants: Three New Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from Launaea acanthoclada Roots
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
The chemical study of Launaea acanthoclada from South-East Algeria led to the isolation of twelve oxygenated terpenoid compounds, including three new pentacyclic triterpenoids 13 with either lupane or ursane rearranged skeletons. The structure and the stereochemistry of these compounds were established
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The chemical study of Launaea acanthoclada from South-East Algeria led to the isolation of twelve oxygenated terpenoid compounds, including three new pentacyclic triterpenoids 13 with either lupane or ursane rearranged skeletons. The structure and the stereochemistry of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, including NMR techniques. The chemical pattern of L. acanthoclada is in accordance with the triterpenoid scenario of the genus Launaea embracing to date lupane, oleane, ursane and taraxastane skeletons. However, the carbon frameworks exhibited by new compounds 13 have never been reported from Launaea species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Substituted Diquinolinyl-Pyridine Ligands as Anticancer Agents by Targeting G-Quadruplex
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked non-canonical nucleic acid structures found in specific G-rich DNA or RNA sequences in the human genome. G4 structures are liable for various biological functions; transcription, translation, cell aging as well as diseases such as cancer. These structures are therefore
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G-quadruplexes (G4) are stacked non-canonical nucleic acid structures found in specific G-rich DNA or RNA sequences in the human genome. G4 structures are liable for various biological functions; transcription, translation, cell aging as well as diseases such as cancer. These structures are therefore considered as important targets for the development of anticancer agents. Small organic heterocyclic molecules are well known to target and stabilize G4 structures. In this article, we have designed and synthesized 2,6-di-(4-carbamoyl-2-quinolyl)pyridine derivatives and their ability to stabilize G4-structures have been determined through the FRET melting assay. It has been established that these ligands are selective for G4 over duplexes and show a preference for the parallel conformation. Next, telomerase inhibition ability has been assessed using three cell lines (K562, MyLa and MV-4-11) and telomerase activity is no longer detected at 0.1 μM concentration for the most potent ligand 1c. The most promising G4 ligands were also tested for antiproliferative activity against the two human myeloid leukaemia cell lines, HL60 and K562. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-Quadruplex Ligands and Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Lithium Complexes Derived of Benzylphosphines: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation in the ROP of rac-Lactide and ε-Caprolactone
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
A series of lithium complexes ([Ph2P(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)] (1-Li), [PhP(o-C6H4-CH3)(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)] (2-Li), [PhP(o-C6
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A series of lithium complexes ([Ph2P(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)] (1-Li), [PhP(o-C6H4-CH3)(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)] (2-Li), [PhP(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)2] (2-Li2) and [P(o-C6H4-CH2Li·TMEDA)3] (3-Li3)) was prepared from mono-, di- and tri-benzylphosphines and varying amounts of nBuLi and was characterized extensively by IR and 1H, 7Li, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of complexes 1-Li and 2-Li were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The two complexes have monomeric structures in the solid state comprising seesaw lithium atoms. In each case, the ligand exhibits an asymmetric C-C η2-coordination mode and an intramolecular P-Li bond interaction. Theoretical calculations at Density functional theory (DFT) level M06/6111+G(2d,p) show that indeed a P-Li bond is established which can be explained as the P lone pair (sp1.26) being partially delocalized on an available sp2 orbital on Li (sp2.04) and additional bonding contribution of the phosphorous atom to Li stems from further delocalization of a σ P-C orbital into the sp2 orbital on Li. The observed short contact distances between an aromatic ipso carbon and Li in the crystal structures of 1-Li and 2-Li are explained as due to the interaction of a σ C-Li orbital into the π* orbital of a C-C aromatic bond. Preliminary tests show compounds 1-Li, 2-Li, 2-Li2 and 3-Li3 are active catalysts in the solvent free ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and rac-lactide (rac-LA). High conversions to polycaprolactones were obtained in short periods of time: 1–6 min at 25 °C. Additionally, all four lithium complexes behave as moderately good initiators for the ROP of rac-LA showing high conversions to polylactides at 140 °C in one hour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Selenium-Quinone Hybrid Compounds with Potential Antitumor Activity via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation and Click Reactions
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
In continuation of our quest for new redox-modulating catalytic antitumor molecules, selenium-containing quinone-based 1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized using rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond activation and click reactions. All compounds were evaluated against five types of cancer cell lines: HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells), HCT-116 (human colon
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In continuation of our quest for new redox-modulating catalytic antitumor molecules, selenium-containing quinone-based 1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized using rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond activation and click reactions. All compounds were evaluated against five types of cancer cell lines: HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells), HCT-116 (human colon carcinoma cells), SF295 (human glioblastoma cells), NCIH-460 (human lung cells) and PC3 (human prostate cancer cells). Some compounds showed good activity with IC50 values below 1 µM. The cytotoxic potential of the naphthoquinoidal derivatives was also evaluated in non-tumor cells, exemplified by L929 cells. Overall, these compounds represent promising new lead derivatives and stand for a new class of chalcogenium-containing derivatives with potential antitumor activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Molecule Catalysts with Therapeutic Potential)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Smo Activity of Some Novel Benzamide Derivatives
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
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Abstract
Two series of benzamides compounds bearing piperidine groups were synthesized and the Gli-luc luciferase activity was screened by Gys-luc luciferase gene detection method. Compound 5q showed promising inhibition of hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. To further verify whether the Hh inhibitory activities of the
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Two series of benzamides compounds bearing piperidine groups were synthesized and the Gli-luc luciferase activity was screened by Gys-luc luciferase gene detection method. Compound 5q showed promising inhibition of hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. To further verify whether the Hh inhibitory activities of the target compounds are derived from their inhibition to the Smoothened (Smo) receptor, the compounds with good potency were evaluated in a fluorescence competitive displacement assays, the results showed the Smo inhibitory potency of these compounds correlated well with their Hh inhibition, which suggested that the observed Hh activity was driven by Smo inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Vasorelaxant Principles from the Needles of Pinus morrisonicola Hayata
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
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Abstract
Pinus morrisonicola Hayata, usually called Taiwan five-leaf pine (5LP), is an endemic species in Taiwan and is traditionally used to relieve hypertension symptoms and improve cardiovascular function. In this study, the needle extract of 5LP was fractionated and analyzed by LC/MS/MS to search
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Pinus morrisonicola Hayata, usually called Taiwan five-leaf pine (5LP), is an endemic species in Taiwan and is traditionally used to relieve hypertension symptoms and improve cardiovascular function. In this study, the needle extract of 5LP was fractionated and analyzed by LC/MS/MS to search for possible antihypertensive candidates. In addition, bioassay-guided purification of the bioactive components was performed by Ca2+ fluorescent signal (Fluo 4-AM) assays. Two dihydrobenzofuran lignans, pinumorrisonide A (1) and icariside E4 (2), and one acylated flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-α-(6‴-p-coumaroylglucosyl-β-1,4-rhamnoside) (3) were characterized from the active fractions. The structure of a new compound 1 was established on the basis of 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, and the known compounds 2 and 3 were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The purified compounds 13 exhibited significant inhibition of Ca2+ fluorescence with IC50 values of 0.71, 0.36, and 0.20 mM, respectively. A mechanism study showed that these compounds showed vasorelaxant effects by blocking the voltage-operated Ca2+ channel (VOCC) and inhibiting Ca2+ influx to the cytoplasmic. These results suggested that 5LP and the three characterized components could be promising antihypertensive candidates for the use as VOCC blockers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Lupane Triterpenes from the Leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
The phytochemical study on the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (Araliaceae) resulted in the discovery of a new lupane-triterpene compound, acangraciligenin S (1), and a new lupane-triterpene glycoside, acangraciliside S (2), as well as two known ones, 3α,11α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid (
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The phytochemical study on the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (Araliaceae) resulted in the discovery of a new lupane-triterpene compound, acangraciligenin S (1), and a new lupane-triterpene glycoside, acangraciliside S (2), as well as two known ones, 3α,11α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid (3) and acankoreoside C (4). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical structures of the new compounds 1 and 2 were determined to be 1β,3α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23, 28-dioic acid and 1β,3α-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester, respectively. The anti-neuroinflammatory activity of the selective compounds, 1 and 3, were evaluated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia. The tested compounds showed moderate inhibitory effect of nitric oxide (NO) production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Network-Based Differential Analysis to Identify Molecular Features of Tumorigenesis for Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate across the world. The diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer are hindered by the limited knowledge about the pathogenesis mechanisms of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer has two major subtypes, squamous and adenocarcinoma. In
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Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate across the world. The diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer are hindered by the limited knowledge about the pathogenesis mechanisms of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer has two major subtypes, squamous and adenocarcinoma. In this work, we proposed a method to select candidate biomarkers of esophageal squamous carcinoma based on the topological differential analysis between the gene–gene interaction networks for esophageal squamous carcinoma and normal cells. We established the gene–gene interaction networks for esophageal squamous carcinoma and normal based on the correlation of genes. For each gene, we firstly calculated and compared five centrality measures, which could reflect the topological property of a network. According to five centrality measures, the genes with large differences between the two networks were regarded as candidate biomarkers for esophageal squamous carcinoma. A total of 21 candidate biomarkers were identified for esophageal squamous carcinoma, and seven of them have been confirmed to be biomarkers of esophageal-12 squamous carcinoma by previous research. In addition, six genes (RBPMS2, PDK4, IGK, SBSN, IFIT3 and HSPB6) were likely to be the biomarkers of tumorigenesis for esophageal squamous carcinoma due to the fact that the biological processes in which they participate are closely related with the development of esophageal squamous carcinoma. Statistical analysis indicates that effectiveness of the detected biomarkers of esophageal squamous carcinoma. The proposed method could be extended to other complex diseases for detecting the molecular features of pathopoiesis and targets for targeted therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biotinylated Cyclooligosaccharides for Paclitaxel Solubilization
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Abstract
The poor water solubility of paclitaxel causes significant problems in producing cancer therapeutic formulations. Here, we aimed to solubilize paclitaxel using biocompatible cyclic carbohydrates. Generally recognized as safe, labeled β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), a cyclic α-1,4-glucan consisting of seven glucoses, was prepared, and bio-sourced cyclosophoraoses
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The poor water solubility of paclitaxel causes significant problems in producing cancer therapeutic formulations. Here, we aimed to solubilize paclitaxel using biocompatible cyclic carbohydrates. Generally recognized as safe, labeled β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), a cyclic α-1,4-glucan consisting of seven glucoses, was prepared, and bio-sourced cyclosophoraoses (CyS), which are unbranched cyclic β-1,2-glucans with 17–23 glucose units, were purified using various chromatographic methods from Rhizobium leguminosarum cultural broth. For effective targeting, CyS and β-CD were modified with a biotinyl moiety in a reaction of mono-6-amino CyS and mono-6-amino-β-CD with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of biotinamidohexanoic acid. Interestingly, the aqueous solubility of paclitaxel was enhanced 10.3- and 3.7-fold in the presence of biotinyl CyS and biotinyl β-CD, respectively. These findings suggest that biotin-appended cyclooligosaccharides can be applied to improve the delivery of paclitaxel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharide-based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Immunosuppressive Effect of Geniposide on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling Pathway and Their Cross-Talk in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes of Adjuvant Arthritis Rats
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
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Geniposide (GE), an iridoid glycoside compound derived from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, is known to have anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of GE in the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling
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Geniposide (GE), an iridoid glycoside compound derived from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, is known to have anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of GE in the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway and the cross-talk among the MAPK signalling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats. AA was induced by injecting with Freund’s complete adjuvant. Male SD rats and FLS were subjected to treatment with GE (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg) in vivo from day 14 to 21 after immunization and GE (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) in vitro, respectively. The proliferation of FLS was assessed by MTT. IL-4, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 were determined by ELISA. Key proteins in the MAPK signalling pathway were detected by Western blot. GE significantly reduced the proliferation of FLS, along with decreased IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased IL-4 and TGF-β1. In addition, GE decreased the expression of p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 in FLS of AA rats. Furthermore, disrupting one MAPK pathway inhibited the activation of other MAPK pathways, suggesting cross-talk among MAPK signalling. In vivo study, it was also observed that GE attenuated histopathologic changes in the synovial tissue of AA rats. Collectively, the mechanisms by which GE exerts anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects may be related to the synergistic effect of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38. Targeting MAPK signalling may be a new therapeutic strategy in inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Supported Ni Catalyst for Liquid Phase Hydrogenation of Adiponitrile to 6-Aminocapronitrile and Hexamethyenediamine
Received: 25 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Supported Ni catalysts prepared under different conditions, for liquid phase hydrogenation of adiponitrile (ADN) to 6-aminocapronitrile (ACN) and hexamethyenediamine (HMD), were investigated. The highly reactive imine intermediate can form condensation byproducts with primary amine products (ACN and HMD), which decreased the yield coefficient
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Supported Ni catalysts prepared under different conditions, for liquid phase hydrogenation of adiponitrile (ADN) to 6-aminocapronitrile (ACN) and hexamethyenediamine (HMD), were investigated. The highly reactive imine intermediate can form condensation byproducts with primary amine products (ACN and HMD), which decreased the yield coefficient of primary amines. The catalysts support, condition of catalyst preparation and dosage of additive were studied to improve the yield. A highly dispersed Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by the direct reduction of Ni(NO3)2/SiO2 suppressed the condensation reactions by promoting the hydrogenation of adsorbed imines, and it gave the improved hydrogenation activity of 0.63 mol·kgcat−1·min−1 and primary amine selectivity of 94% when NaOH was added into the reactor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Base Metal Catalysis and Green Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.)
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018