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Molecules, Volume 20, Issue 11 (November 2015)

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Open AccessArticle Carapanolides T–X from Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) Seeds
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20955-20966; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119737
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new mexicanolide-type limonoids, carapanolides T–U (12), and three new phragmalin-type limonoids, carapanolides V–X (35), were isolated from the seeds of Carapa guianensis (andiroba). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Clones of FeSOD, MDHAR, DHAR Genes from White Clover and Gene Expression Analysis of ROS-Scavenging Enzymes during Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20939-20954; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119741
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Increased transcriptional levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes play important protective roles in coping with excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. To fully elucidate different evolutions and functions of ROS-scavenging enzymatic genes, we isolated iron
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Increased transcriptional levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes play important protective roles in coping with excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. To fully elucidate different evolutions and functions of ROS-scavenging enzymatic genes, we isolated iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) from white clover for the first time and subsequently tested dynamic expression profiles of these genes together with previously identified other antioxidant enzyme genes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in response to cold, drought, salinity, cadmium stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) or spermidine (Spd) treatment. The cloned fragments of FeSOD, DHAR and MDHAR genes were 630, 471 and 669 bp nucleotide sequences encoding 210, 157 and 223 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both amino acid and nucleotide sequences of these three genes are highly conservative. In addition, the analysis of genes expression showed the transcription of GR, POD, MDHAR, DHAR and Cu/ZnSOD were rapidly activated with relatively high abundance during cold stress. Differently, CAT, APX, FeSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD exhibited more abundant transcripts compared to others under drought stress. Under salt stress, CAT was induced preferentially (3–12 h) compared to GR which was induced later (12–72 h). Cadmium stress mainly up-regulated Cu/ZnSOD, DHAR and MDHAR. Interestingly, most of genes expression induced by ABA or Spd happened prior to various abiotic stresses. The particular expression patterns and different response time of these genes indicated that white clover differentially activates genes encoding antioxidant enzymes to mitigate the damage of ROS during various environmental stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Absolute Configuration and Antitumor Activity of the Enantiomers of 5-Bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20926-20938; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119740
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pyridinesulfonamide is an important fragment which has a wide range of applications in novel drugs. R- and S-isomers of 5-bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide have been synthesized, and the stereostructures have been researched. Single crystals of both compounds were obtained for X-ray analysis,
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Pyridinesulfonamide is an important fragment which has a wide range of applications in novel drugs. R- and S-isomers of 5-bromo-2-chloro-N-(1-phenylethyl)pyridine-3-sulfonamide have been synthesized, and the stereostructures have been researched. Single crystals of both compounds were obtained for X-ray analysis, and the absolute configurations (ACs) have been further confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotation (OR) and quantum chemical calculations. The crystal structures and calculated geometries were extremely similar, which permitted a comparison of the relative reliabilities of ACs obtained by ECD analyses and theoretical simulation. In addition, the effect of stereochemistry on the PI3Kα kinase and anticancer activity were investigated. Compounds 10a and 10b inhibit the activity of PI3Kα kinase with IC50 values of 1.08 and 2.69 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking was performed to analyze the binding modes of R- and S-isomers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle New Flavones, a 2-(2-Phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one Derivative, and Anti-Inflammatory Constituents from the Stem Barks of Aquilaria sinensis
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20912-20925; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119736
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the current study, two new flavones, 4′-O-geranyltricin (1) and 3′-O-geranylpolloin (2), and a new 2-(2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivative, 7-hydroxyl-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (3), have been isolated from the stem barks of A. sinensis, together
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In the current study, two new flavones, 4′-O-geranyltricin (1) and 3′-O-geranylpolloin (2), and a new 2-(2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivative, 7-hydroxyl-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (3), have been isolated from the stem barks of A. sinensis, together with 21 known compounds 424. The structures of new compounds 13 were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Compounds 2, 3, 5, 6, and 810 exhibited inhibition (IC50 ≤ 12.51 μM) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compounds 3, 6, 8, 10, and 19 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤ 15.25 μM. This investigation reveals bioactive isolates (especially 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 19) could be further developed as potential candidates for the treatment or prevention of various inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of the Polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima Root
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20901-20911; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119734
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Box-Behnken design (BBD), one of the most common response surface methodology (RSM) methods, was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root (PRM). The antioxidant abilities and anticancer activity of purified polysaccharide fractions were also measured.
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Box-Behnken design (BBD), one of the most common response surface methodology (RSM) methods, was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root (PRM). The antioxidant abilities and anticancer activity of purified polysaccharide fractions were also measured. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasound exposure time, 21 min; ratio of water to material, 46 mL/g; ultrasound extraction temperature, 63 °C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of PRM was 16.95% ± 0.07%. Furthermore, the main monosaccharides of purified fractions were Ara and Gal. PRM3 and PRM5 exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing power in vitro. PRM3 showed strong inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cells in vitro. The above results indicate that polysaccharides from R. minima root have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants and anticancer ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Quaternary Alkylammonium Conjugates of Steroids: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Biological Studies
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20887-20900; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119735
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 15 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The methods of synthesis as well as physical, spectroscopic (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR, ESI-MS), and biological properties of quaternary and dimeric quaternary alkylammonium conjugates of steroids are presented. The results were contrasted with theoretical calculations (PM5 methods) and potential pharmacological
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The methods of synthesis as well as physical, spectroscopic (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and FT-IR, ESI-MS), and biological properties of quaternary and dimeric quaternary alkylammonium conjugates of steroids are presented. The results were contrasted with theoretical calculations (PM5 methods) and potential pharmacological properties (PASS). Alkylammonium sterols exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity comparable to squalamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Tertiary and Quaternary Amine Derivatives from Wood Resin as Chiral NMR Solvating Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20873-20886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119732
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 8 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3877 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chiral tertiary and quaternary amine solvating agents for NMR spectroscopy were synthesized from the wood resin derivative (+)-dehydroabietylamine (2). The resolution of enantiomers of model compounds [Mosher’s acid (3) and its n-Bu4N salt (4)]
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Chiral tertiary and quaternary amine solvating agents for NMR spectroscopy were synthesized from the wood resin derivative (+)-dehydroabietylamine (2). The resolution of enantiomers of model compounds [Mosher’s acid (3) and its n-Bu4N salt (4)] (guests) by (+)-dehydroabietyl-N,N-dimethylmethanamine (5) and its ten different ammonium salts (hosts) was studied. The best results with 3 were obtained using 5 while with 4 the best enantiomeric resolution was obtained using (+)-dehydroabietyl-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonimide) (6). The compounds 5 and 6 showed a 1:1 complexation behaviour between the host and guest. The capability of 5 and 6 to recognize the enantiomers of various α-substituted carboxylic acids and their n-Bu4N salts in enantiomeric excess (ee) determinations was demonstrated. A modification of the RES-TOCSY NMR pulse sequence is described, allowing the enhancement of enantiomeric discrimination when the resolution of multiplets is insufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Phytochelators Intended for Clinical Use in Iron Overload, Other Diseases of Iron Imbalance and Free Radical Pathology
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20841-20872; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119725
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron chelating drugs are primarily and widely used in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in thalassaemia and similar conditions. Recent in vivo and clinical studies have also shown that chelators, and in particular deferiprone, can be used effectively in many conditions involving
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Iron chelating drugs are primarily and widely used in the treatment of transfusional iron overload in thalassaemia and similar conditions. Recent in vivo and clinical studies have also shown that chelators, and in particular deferiprone, can be used effectively in many conditions involving free radical damage and pathology including neurodegenerative, renal, hepatic, cardiac conditions and cancer. Many classes of phytochelators (Greek: phyto (φυτό)—plant, chele (χηλή)—claw of the crab) with differing chelating properties, including plant polyphenols resembling chelating drugs, can be developed for clinical use. The phytochelators mimosine and tropolone have been identified to be orally active and effective in animal models for the treatment of iron overload and maltol for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. Many critical parameters are required for the development of phytochelators for clinical use including the characterization of the therapeutic targets, ADMET, identification of the therapeutic index and risk/benefit assessment by comparison to existing therapies. Phytochelators can be developed and used as main, alternative or adjuvant therapies including combination therapies with synthetic chelators for synergistic and or complimentary therapeutic effects. The development of phytochelators is a challenging area for the introduction of new pharmaceuticals which can be used in many diseases and also in ageing. The commercial and other considerations for such development have great advantages in comparison to synthetic drugs and could also benefit millions of patients in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of RNA Oligonucleotides Binding to Several Proteins from Potential G-Quadruplex Forming Regions in Transcribed Pre-mRNA
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20832-20840; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119733
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical DNA/RNA structures formed by guanine-rich sequences. Recently, G4s have been found not only in aptamers but also in the genomic DNA and transcribed RNA. In this study, we identified new RNA oligonucleotides working as aptamers by focusing on G4-forming
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G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical DNA/RNA structures formed by guanine-rich sequences. Recently, G4s have been found not only in aptamers but also in the genomic DNA and transcribed RNA. In this study, we identified new RNA oligonucleotides working as aptamers by focusing on G4-forming RNAs located within the pre-mRNA. We showed that the G4 in the 5′ UTR and first intron of VEGFA bound to the protein encoded in VEGFA gene, VEGF165, with high affinity. Moreover, G4-forming RNAs located within the PDGFA and the PDGFB introns bound to PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB, respectively, indicating that G4 in the pre-mRNA could be an aptamer. It had been reported that the putative G4-forming RNA sequences are located in some parts of most genes, thus our strategy for aptamer identification could be applicable to other proteins. It has been reported that some G4-forming RNAs in 5′ UTRs are involved in translation control; however, G4-forming excised intronic RNA function has not been revealed previously. Therefore, these findings could not only contribute to the identification of RNA aptamers but also provide new insights into the biological functioning of G4-forming RNAs located within intronic RNA sequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamers: Past, Present, and Future)
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Open AccessCommunication Two New Cyototoxic Cardenolides from the Whole Plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20823-20831; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119722
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito. resulted in the isolation and identification of two new cardenolides—adonioside A (1) and adonioside B (6)—as well as four known cardenolides: tupichinolide (2)
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A phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Adonis multiflora Nishikawa & Koki Ito. resulted in the isolation and identification of two new cardenolides—adonioside A (1) and adonioside B (6)—as well as four known cardenolides: tupichinolide (2) oleandrine (3), cryptostigmin II (4), and cymarin (5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, MS, and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed significant cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HepG2, HeLa, SK-OV-3, and SK-MEL-5, and SK-BR-3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A 7-Deazaadenosylaziridine Cofactor for Sequence-Specific Labeling of DNA by the DNA Cytosine-C5 Methyltransferase M.HhaI
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20805-20822; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119723
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA methyltransferases (MTases) catalyze the transfer of the activated methyl group of the cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet or SAM) to the exocyclic amino groups of adenine or cytosine or the C5 ring atom of cytosine within specific DNA sequences. The DNA adenine-N6 MTase
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DNA methyltransferases (MTases) catalyze the transfer of the activated methyl group of the cofactor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet or SAM) to the exocyclic amino groups of adenine or cytosine or the C5 ring atom of cytosine within specific DNA sequences. The DNA adenine-N6 MTase from Thermus aquaticus (M.TaqI) is also capable of coupling synthetic N-adenosylaziridine cofactor analogues to its target adenine within the double-stranded 5′-TCGA-3′ sequence. This M.TaqI-mediated coupling reaction was exploited to sequence-specifically deliver fluorophores and biotin to DNA using N-adenosylaziridine derivatives carrying reporter groups at the 8-position of the adenine ring. However, these 8-modified aziridine cofactors were poor substrates for the DNA cytosine-C5 MTase from Haemophilus haemolyticus (M.HhaI). Based on the crystal structure of M.HhaI in complex with a duplex oligodeoxynucleotide and the cofactor product, we synthesized a stable 7-deazaadenosylaziridine derivative with a biotin group attached to the 7-position via a flexible linker. This 7-modified aziridine cofactor can be efficiently used by M.HhaI for the direct, quantitative and sequence-specific delivery of biotin to the second cytosine within 5′-GCGC-3′ sequences in short duplex oligodeoxynucleotides and plasmid DNA. In addition, we demonstrate that biotinylation by M.HhaI depends on the methylation status of the target cytosine and, thus, could provide a method for cytosine-C5 DNA methylation detection in mammalian DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nucleic Acid Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview DNA Catalysis: The Chemical Repertoire of DNAzymes
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20777-20804; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119730
Received: 25 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (5193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxyribozymes or DNAzymes are single-stranded catalytic DNA molecules that are obtained by combinatorial in vitro selection methods. Initially conceived to function as gene silencing agents, the scope of DNAzymes has rapidly expanded into diverse fields, including biosensing, diagnostics, logic gate operations, and the
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Deoxyribozymes or DNAzymes are single-stranded catalytic DNA molecules that are obtained by combinatorial in vitro selection methods. Initially conceived to function as gene silencing agents, the scope of DNAzymes has rapidly expanded into diverse fields, including biosensing, diagnostics, logic gate operations, and the development of novel synthetic and biological tools. In this review, an overview of all the different chemical reactions catalyzed by DNAzymes is given with an emphasis on RNA cleavage and the use of non-nucleosidic substrates. The use of modified nucleoside triphosphates (dN*TPs) to expand the chemical space to be explored in selection experiments and ultimately to generate DNAzymes with an expanded chemical repertoire is also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanozymes and Beyond)
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Open AccessReview Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20741-20776; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119714
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (10832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development
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Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Condensation of Diacetyl with Alkyl Amines: Synthesis and Reactivity of p-Iminobenzoquinones and p-Diiminobenzoquinones
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20719-20740; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119716
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
PDF Full-text (2052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Condensation reactions between diacetyl and α-branched primary alkylamines under mild and neutral conditions provided a mixture of 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(alkylimines), 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(bis-alkyldiimines), and N,N′-dialkyl-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamines, which were efficiently separated as pure products by column chromatography. Both 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(alkylimines) and 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(bis-alkyldiimines) underwent
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Condensation reactions between diacetyl and α-branched primary alkylamines under mild and neutral conditions provided a mixture of 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(alkylimines), 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(bis-alkyldiimines), and N,N′-dialkyl-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamines, which were efficiently separated as pure products by column chromatography. Both 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(alkylimines) and 2,5-dimethylbenzoquinone(bis-alkyldiimines) underwent an interchange of the alkylimino group when treated with anilines, followed by reductive aromatization, to provide diarylamines and 1,4-dianilinobenzenes, respectively. Evaluation was also made of the reactivity and selectivity of these compounds in the presence of anilines, thiophenols and alkylhalides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication An Efficient and Recyclable Nanoparticle-Supported Cobalt Catalyst for Quinoxaline Synthesis
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20709-20718; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119731
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The syntheses of quinoxalines derived from 1,2-diamine and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds under mild reaction conditions was carried out using a nanoparticle-supported cobalt catalyst. The supported nanocatalyst exhibited excellent activity and stability and it could be reused for at least ten times without any loss
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The syntheses of quinoxalines derived from 1,2-diamine and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds under mild reaction conditions was carried out using a nanoparticle-supported cobalt catalyst. The supported nanocatalyst exhibited excellent activity and stability and it could be reused for at least ten times without any loss of activity. No cobalt contamination could be detected in the products by AAS measurements, pointing to the excellent activity and stability of the Co nanomaterial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Nanocatalysts in Green Synthesis and Energy Applications)
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