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Special Issue "New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Nigel Brunton (Website)

School of Agriculture & Food Science, Science Centre South, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Interests: natural product chemistry; recovery of biologically active molecules from plant and marine matrices with particular interests in the development of low-cost; energy efficient and industry friendly techniques including ultrasound and pulsed electric field assisted extraction
Guest Editor
Dr. Mohammad Hossain (Website)

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
Interests: extraction and characterisation of phytochemicals from herbs, spices, fruits and vegetables; valorization of low value industrial by-products and application of various separation techniques to purify bioactive compounds for phyto-pharmaceutical and functional food industries
Guest Editor
Dr. Dilip Rai (Website)

Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre Ashtown, Ireland
Phone: +35318059569
Interests: structural elucidation of natural bioactive molecules extracted from terrestrial plant-food, animals and marine sources; recovery and characterisation of phytochemicals from food processing by-products and waste streams; assessing the effect of industrial or domestic processing of food on retention and alteration of bioactive molecules or affecting the food quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products continue to find extensive applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. There is, however, increasing demands for methods which can extract these valuable substances from natural sources more efficiently, in less time, more energetically efficiently and with higher yields than traditional methods. In many cases, the efficiencies of traditional solid liquid extraction methods are limited by their inability to release intracellular contents and low mass transfer rates. For this reason, many researchers are examining new technologies, such as pulsed electric field, ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and enzyme assisted extraction, to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional extraction methods. Some existing literature suggests that these technologies could serve as rapid, efficient and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional extraction techniques. However, like many other emerging technologies, further investigations in a wider range of matrices and target analytes are required to fully validate the advantages of these new technologies. Furthermore, the effect of treatment parameters individually or combined, or synergy between different technologies, have to be explored further. Therefore, the current special issue will focus on the use of these new technologies to liberate natural products from plant, animal, fungal and microbial sources. Contributions in the form of original research articles, short communications and review articles are welcome.

Dr. Nigel Brunton
Dr. Mohammad Hossain
Dr. Dilip Rai
Guest Editor
s

Submission

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Keywords

  • natural products
  • new technologies
  • rapid
  • energy efficient
  • environmentally friendly
  • extraction/recovery

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Ardipusilloside-I Metabolites from Human Intestinal Bacteria and Their Antitumor Activity
Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20569-20581; doi:10.3390/molecules201119719
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 7 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ardipusilloside-I (ADS-I) is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Ardisia pusilla DC, and has been demonstrated to have potent antitumor activity. However, ADS-I metabolism in humans has not been investigated. In this study, we studied the biotransformation of ADS-I in human intestinal bacteria, [...] Read more.
Ardipusilloside-I (ADS-I) is a triterpenoid saponin extracted from Ardisia pusilla DC, and has been demonstrated to have potent antitumor activity. However, ADS-I metabolism in humans has not been investigated. In this study, we studied the biotransformation of ADS-I in human intestinal bacteria, and examined the in vitro antitumor activity of the major metabolites. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) was used to detect ADS-I biotransformation products, and their chemical structures were identified by high performance liquid chromatography–nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC–NMR). The antitumor activity of the major metabolites was determined by the MTT assay. Here, we show that main reaction seen in the metabolism of ADS-I in human intestinal bacteria was deglycosylation, which produced a total of four metabolites. The structures of the two major metabolites M1 and M2 were confirmed by using NMR. MTT assay showed that ADS-I metabolites M1 and M2 have the same levels of inhibitory activities as ADS-I in cultured SMMC-7721 cells and MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates deglycosylation as a primary pathway of ADS-I metabolism in human intestinal bacteria, and suggests that the pharmacological activity of ADS-I may be mediated, at least in part, by its metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 15550-15571; doi:10.3390/molecules200915550
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849), for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764), and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806). Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System for Extraction and Enrichment of Zanthoxylum armatum Lignans
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15273-15286; doi:10.3390/molecules200815273
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasound was employed to extract lignans from Zanthoxylum armatum. Three standard lignans, namely (−)-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin, were used as marker compounds, and extraction was optimized and projected by response [...] Read more.
In the study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasound was employed to extract lignans from Zanthoxylum armatum. Three standard lignans, namely (−)-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin, were used as marker compounds, and extraction was optimized and projected by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The optimal condition for ATPS with 20% n-propanol and 24% (NH4)2SO4 coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction including a solvent to solid ratio of 15:1, a temperature of 40 °C, and a treatment time of 55 min was obtained. Under the condition, the yield of (−)-fargesin increased 15.12%, and the purities of (−)-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin reached 2.222%, 1.066%, and 1.583%, with an increase of 44.38%, 25.70%, and 26.34% compared to those extracted with 95% ethanol, respectively. Coefficient of the determined (0.9855) and mean squared error (0.0018) of ANN model suggested good fitness and generalization of the ANN. Taken together, the results showed that ultrasonic-assisted ATPS can be a suitable method for extraction and enrichment of lignans from Z. armatum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Secoisolariciresinol Diglycoside from Flaxseed Cakes
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11076-11089; doi:10.3390/molecules200611076
Received: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) technique was applied firstly to extract secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed cakes. The significant extraction parameters were screened by fractional factorial design (FFD). The optimal parameters were determined using the central composite design (CCD) with the two [...] Read more.
The negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) technique was applied firstly to extract secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed cakes. The significant extraction parameters were screened by fractional factorial design (FFD). The optimal parameters were determined using the central composite design (CCD) with the two variables, NaOH amount and the liquid/solid ratio. The conditions of the extraction were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimal conditions, the extraction yield and the extraction purity of SDG was 16.25 mg/g and 3.86%, respectively. The efficiency of NPCE was compared with that of conventional extraction methods. Our results demonstrated that NPCE was comparable to the well-known ultrasound-assisted extraction in term of extraction yield and purity. This extraction technique has advantages of less time-consuming, low solvent usage and high throughput capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 9686-9702; doi:10.3390/molecules20069686
Received: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid [...] Read more.
The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Anthocyanins in Perilla frutescens var. acuta Extract by Advanced UPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn Method and Their Anticancer Bioactivity
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 9155-9169; doi:10.3390/molecules20059155
Received: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The anthocyanin extract from a domestic Perilla cultivar (Perilla frutescens var. acuta) were isolated and characterized with high mass accuracy and multi-dimensional fragmentation by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-IT-TOF-MS [...] Read more.
The anthocyanin extract from a domestic Perilla cultivar (Perilla frutescens var. acuta) were isolated and characterized with high mass accuracy and multi-dimensional fragmentation by means of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-IT-TOF-MSn). The new developed and applied LC-MS method focused on in-depth screening of anthocyanin compounds with similar structures which also provided a new approach of anthocyanin characterization without the use of external standards. Selective detection of interested anthocyanins was achieved utilizing extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) analysis, while MSn spectra were recorded to allow identification of the anthocyanin based on characteristic fragmentation patterns. Seven anthocyanins including one feruloyl (Cyanidin 3-O-feruloylglucoside-5-O-glucoside), two caffeoyl (Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-glucoside, Cyanidin 3-O-caffeoylglucoside-5-O-malonylglucoside) and four coumaroyl substituted anthocyanins (Cis-shisonin, Malonyl-cis-shisonin, Shisonin, and Malonyl-shisonin) were identified. Annexin-V FITC/PI flow cytometric assay was performed to analyze the influence of anthocyanin extract of P. frutescens var. acuta on cell apoptosis. The results suggested that Perilla anthocyanins can induce Hela cell apoptosis by a dose dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Recovery of Steroidal Alkaloids from Potato Peels Using Pressurized Liquid Extraction
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8560-8573; doi:10.3390/molecules20058560
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 29 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the [...] Read more.
A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid–liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Special Effect of Ionic Liquids on the Extraction of Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by Microwave Assistance
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7683-7699; doi:10.3390/molecules20057683
Received: 15 December 2014 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microwave-assisted extraction approach based on ionic liquids of different chain lengths was successfully applied to the extraction of ten flavonoid glycosides from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The pretreated sample was quantified by HPLC-ESI-MSn. The main components [...] Read more.
A microwave-assisted extraction approach based on ionic liquids of different chain lengths was successfully applied to the extraction of ten flavonoid glycosides from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The pretreated sample was quantified by HPLC-ESI-MSn. The main components were identified as flavonoid glycosides, including three luteolin glycosides, three apigenin glycosides, three kaempferide glycosides, and one acacetin glycoside according to the characteristics of the corresponding CID mass spectrometric patterns. Eight ionic liquids from the imidazolium family with different chain lengths, namely, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Cnmim]Br, (n = 2–16) were studied as extraction medium in water. Results indicated that alkyl chain length had an irregular impact on the extraction efficiency. Moreover, the best extraction efficiency was achieved by 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution ([C12mim]Br). Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors influencing extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including concentration of the IL solutions, extraction time, matrix-to-solvent ratio and irradiation power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6611-6625; doi:10.3390/molecules20046611
Received: 6 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) [...] Read more.
The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min) were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v)) as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3) and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Dereplication of Known Nucleobase and Nucleoside Compounds in Natural Product Extracts by Capillary Electrophoresis-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5423-5437; doi:10.3390/molecules20045423
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 26 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nucleobase and nucleoside compounds exist widely in various organisms. An often occurring problem in the discovery of new bioactive compounds from natural products is reisolation of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds. To resolve this problem, a capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HR-MS) [...] Read more.
Nucleobase and nucleoside compounds exist widely in various organisms. An often occurring problem in the discovery of new bioactive compounds from natural products is reisolation of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds. To resolve this problem, a capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HR-MS) method providing both rapid separation and accurate mass full-scan MS data was developed for the first time to screen and dereplicate known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in crude extracts of natural products. Instrumental parameters were optimized to obtain optimum conditions for CE separation and electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) detection. The proposed method was verified to be precise, reproducible, and sensitive. Using this method, known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different marine medicinal organisms including Syngnathus acus Linnaeus; Hippocampus japonicus Kaup and Anthopleura lanthogrammica Berkly were successfully observed and identified. This work demonstrates that CE-HR-MS combined with an accurate mass database may be used as a powerful tool for dereplicating known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different types of natural products. Rapid dereplication of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds allows researchers to focus on other leads with greater potential to yield new substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Processing Parameters on Polyacetylene Extraction from Carrot Slices
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3942-3954; doi:10.3390/molecules20033942
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100–1500), pulse frequency (10–200 Hz) and pulse width (10–30 μs) [...] Read more.
The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100–1500), pulse frequency (10–200 Hz) and pulse width (10–30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001) the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%), FaDOH (164.9%) and FaDOAc (166.8%) levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Extraction and Analysis of Bioactives in Oat and Barley and Scope for Use of Novel Food Processing Technologies
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10884-10909; doi:10.3390/molecules200610884
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as [...] Read more.
Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for the Recovery of Natural Products)

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