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Special Issue "Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung (Website)

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, USA
Phone: 1-440-238-0407
Fax: +1 216 6872596
Interests: water supply and water treatment; municipal wastewater treatment; industrial waste treatment; hazardous waste treatment; biological waste treatment; water pollution control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wastewater comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from drinking water treatment, industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes. Pollutants generated from wastewater and sludge may cause adverse effect on the environment.  If not dealt properly they can cause pollution to surface and ground waters, create health problems and effect the environment.  Therefore, we would like to call for papers to disseminate and share findings on wastewater and sludge related research in addressing the problem scientifically.

Papers are selected by a rigorous peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, development and application.

Original research paper or reviews are invited in the following and related areas:

  • Characterization and treatment processes for wastewater, biosolids and sludge
  • Wastewater ,biosolids, and sludge management including their quality, planning, standards, regulations, policy, monitoring and the analysis
  • Water pollution control
  • The application of mathematical and modeling techniques in wastewater, biosolids, and sludge related research
  • Economic and social aspects of wastewater, biosolids, and sludge management
  • Case study on wastewater, biosolids,  and sludge treatment
  • Wastewater reuse and sludge processing/recycling technology
  • Risk assessment and management related to wastewater, biosolids, and sludge
  • Ultimate disposal of biosolids and sludge
  • Waste minimization and life cycle assessment
  • Industrial waste treatment
  • Hazardous waste treatment
  • Radioactive waste pollution and treatment
  • Other related research

Prof. Dr. Yung-Tse Hung
Prof. Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Prof. Dr. Khim Chu
Dr. Hana Salman
Dr. Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • wastewater and waste treatment
  • sludge treatment and disposal
  • niosolids treatment
  • wastewater and waste management
  • wastewater reuse
  • sludge management
  • industrial waste treatment
  • hazardous waste treatment
  • radioactive waste treatment
  • water pollution control

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Displaying articles 1-10
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Sustainable and Innovative Solutions for Sewage Sludge Management
Water 2011, 3(2), 702-717; doi:10.3390/w3020702
Received: 16 March 2011 / Revised: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 10 June 2011 / Published: 22 June 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sludge produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) amounts to only a few percent by volume of the processed wastewater, but its handling accounts for up to 50% of total operating costs. Moreover, the need to achieve a sustainable sludge management strategy [...] Read more.
Sludge produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) amounts to only a few percent by volume of the processed wastewater, but its handling accounts for up to 50% of total operating costs. Moreover, the need to achieve a sustainable sludge management strategy has become of great concern. It follows that as conventional and more traditional options, such as land spreading for agricultural purposes, are progressively restricted, and often legally banned, the development of innovative systems to maximize the recovery of useful materials and/or energy is required. A change toward more sustainable procedures can be promoted through an integrated approach, including the assessment of management routes capable of maximizing the recycle/recovery benefits, through low energy impact systems, and the development of operational systems appropriate to local circumstances. Based on the above considerations, an integrated system is proposed in this paper. It includes Anaerobic digestion, Dewatering/Drying, and Pyrolysis/Gasification processes which are efficiently coupled for the recovery of products for material reuse and/or energy purposes. Such an integrated system should also allow the recovery of one or more materials, depending on the combination of processes which best fit specific local situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessArticle Biosorption Parameter Estimation with Genetic Algorithm
Water 2011, 3(1), 177-195; doi:10.3390/w3010177
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 29 January 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In biosorption research, a fairly broad range of mathematical models are used to correlate discrete data points obtained from batch equilibrium, batch kinetic or fixed bed breakthrough experiments. Most of these models are inherently nonlinear in their parameters. Some of the models [...] Read more.
In biosorption research, a fairly broad range of mathematical models are used to correlate discrete data points obtained from batch equilibrium, batch kinetic or fixed bed breakthrough experiments. Most of these models are inherently nonlinear in their parameters. Some of the models have enjoyed widespread use, largely because they can be linearized to allow the estimation of parameters by least-squares linear regression. Selecting a model for data correlation appears to be dictated by the ease with which it can be linearized and not by other more important criteria such as parameter accuracy or theoretical relevance. As a result, models that cannot be linearized have enjoyed far less recognition because it is necessary to use a search algorithm for parameter estimation. In this study a real-coded genetic algorithm is applied as the search method to estimate equilibrium isotherm and kinetic parameters for batch biosorption as well as breakthrough parameters for fixed bed biosorption. The genetic algorithm is found to be a useful optimization tool, capable of accurately finding optimal parameter estimates. Its performance is compared with that of nonlinear and linear regression methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Silica Sand in Semi-Aerobic Stabilized Landfill Leachate Treatment
Water 2010, 2(4), 904-915; doi:10.3390/w2040904
Received: 10 October 2010 / Revised: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 6 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS) [...] Read more.
This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS) in Penang, Malaysia. The above-mentioned contaminants are highlighted in this study because of their unsafe concentrations at PBLS. The effects of shaking time, settling time, and silica sand dosage on the study parameter removal efficiencies were investigated to predict the performance of the process. The adsorptions of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc were judiciously described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum removal efficiencies of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc obtained were 51%, 44.4%, and 39.2%, respectively, with a shaking time of 90 min, a settling time of 60 min, and with a dosage of 60 g (0.5 kg/L) of silica sand. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2) values obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc adsorption were better fitted to the Freundlich model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessArticle Improvement of Hydraulic and Water Quality Renovation Functions by Intermittent Aeration of Soil Treatment Areas in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems
Water 2010, 2(4), 886-903; doi:10.3390/w2040886
Received: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 1 December 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS [...] Read more.
We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS at three state-owned medical group homes in Washington County, RI, USA. Testing was conducted in two phases, with Phase I (before intermittent soil aeration (ISA)) comprising the first 6 months of the study, and Phase II (during ISA) the remaining 7 months. Intermittent soil aeration restored STA hydraulic function in all three systems despite a marked reduction in the STA total infiltrative surface. Soil pore water was collected from 30 and 90 cm below the STA during both phases and analyzed for standard wastewater parameters. Although the STA infiltrative surface was reduced—and the contaminant load per unit of area increased—after installation of the ISA system, no differences were observed between phases in concentration of total N, NO3, total P, or dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Apparent removal rates—which do not account for dilution or differences in infiltrative area—for total N, total P, and DOC remained the same or improved during Phase II relative to the pre-operation phase. Furthermore, intermittent soil aeration enhanced actual removal rates —which do account for dilution and differences in infiltrative area. The effects of ISA on actual removal of contaminants from STE increased with increasing hydraulic load—a counterintuitive phenomenon, but one that has been previously observed in laboratory studies. The results of our study suggest that intermittent soil aeration can restore and maintain hydraulic flow in the STA and enhance carbon and nutrient removal in conventional OWTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Biofilm Fixed Film Systems
Water 2011, 3(3), 843-868; doi:10.3390/w3030843
Received: 31 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area [...] Read more.
The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area or reactor types. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in two sections, Biofilm Measurement and Characterization and Growth and Modeling. The reactor types covered are: trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, submerged bed biofilm reactors, biological granular activated carbon, membrane bioreactors, and immobilized cell reactors. Innovative reactors, not easily classified, are then presented, followed by a section on biofilms on sand, soil and sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes
Water 2011, 3(3), 806-818; doi:10.3390/w3030806
Received: 30 May 2011 / Revised: 12 June 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; [...] Read more.
A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; oxygen transfer; and solids separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Chemicals and Allied Products Waste Treatment
Water 2011, 3(2), 629-648; doi:10.3390/w3020629
Received: 1 May 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 26 May 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse. [...] Read more.
A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review
Water 2011, 3(2), 551-565; doi:10.3390/w3020551
Received: 13 April 2011 / Revised: 4 May 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of [...] Read more.
Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment
Water 2011, 3(2), 495-525; doi:10.3390/w3020495
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 18 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment [...] Read more.
A review of the literature published in from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to electrochemical treatment within wastewater was presented. The review included several sections such as optimization, modeling, various wastewater treatment techniques, analytical and instrumentation, and comparison with other treatment methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Dye Waste Treatment
Water 2011, 3(1), 157-176; doi:10.3390/w3010157
Received: 5 January 2011 / Revised: 24 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dye wastes represent one of the most problematic groups of pollutants because they can be easily identified by the human eye and are not easily biodegradable. This literature review paper highlights and provides an overview of dye waste treatments performed over the [...] Read more.
Dye wastes represent one of the most problematic groups of pollutants because they can be easily identified by the human eye and are not easily biodegradable. This literature review paper highlights and provides an overview of dye waste treatments performed over the three years period from 2008–2010. Noteworthy processes for the treatment of dye waste include biological treatment, catalytic oxidation, filtration, sorption process and combination treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)

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