Water 2013, 5(1), 292-311; doi:10.3390/w5010292
Review

Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

1 Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1M0C8, Canada 2 INRA, UR50, Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne, F-11100, France 3 Caledonian Centre for Scientific Research, Department of Built and Natural Environment, Caledonian College of Engineering, P.O. Box 2322, CPO Seeb 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman 4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
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Abstract: This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; agro-food wastewater; biogas; high-rate systems; sustainable wastewater treatment

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajagopal, R.; Saady, N.M.C.; Torrijos, M.; Thanikal, J.V.; Hung, Y.-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water 2013, 5, 292-311.

AMA Style

Rajagopal R, Saady NMC, Torrijos M, Thanikal JV, Hung Y-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water. 2013; 5(1):292-311.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Saady, Noori M.C.; Torrijos, Michel; Thanikal, Joseph V.; Hung, Yung-Tse. 2013. "Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process." Water 5, no. 1: 292-311.

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