Water 2013, 5(1), 292-311; doi:10.3390/w5010292
Review

Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; agro-food wastewater; biogas; high-rate systems; sustainable wastewater treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajagopal, R.; Saady, N.M.C.; Torrijos, M.; Thanikal, J.V.; Hung, Y.-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water 2013, 5, 292-311.

AMA Style

Rajagopal R, Saady NMC, Torrijos M, Thanikal JV, Hung Y-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water. 2013; 5(1):292-311.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Saady, Noori M.C.; Torrijos, Michel; Thanikal, Joseph V.; Hung, Yung-Tse. 2013. "Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process." Water 5, no. 1: 292-311.

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