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Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process
Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1M0C8, Canada
INRA, UR50, Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne, F-11100, France
Caledonian Centre for Scientific Research, Department of Built and Natural Environment, Caledonian College of Engineering, P.O. Box 2322, CPO Seeb 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 January 2013; in revised form: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Abstract: This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; agro-food wastewater; biogas; high-rate systems; sustainable wastewater treatment
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Rajagopal, R.; Saady, N.M.C.; Torrijos, M.; Thanikal, J.V.; Hung, Y.-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water 2013, 5, 292-311.
Rajagopal R, Saady NMC, Torrijos M, Thanikal JV, Hung Y-T. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process. Water. 2013; 5(1):292-311.
Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Saady, Noori M.C.; Torrijos, Michel; Thanikal, Joseph V.; Hung, Yung-Tse. 2013. "Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process." Water 5, no. 1: 292-311.