Next Article in Journal
Action Research’s Potential to Foster Institutional Change for Urban Water Management
Next Article in Special Issue
CO2 Emission Factor for Rainwater and Reclaimed Water Used in Buildings in Japan
Previous Article in Journal
Inorganic Nitrogen Deposition and Its Impacts on N:P-Ratios and Lake Productivity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process
Water 2013, 5(2), 342-355; doi:10.3390/w5020342
Article

Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater

1,2
 and 1,*
Received: 22 January 2013; in revised form: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2162 KB, uploaded 26 March 2013]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: In this paper, a new ferric chloride-(polyvinylpyrrolidone-grafted-polyacrylamide) hybrid copolymer was successfully synthesized by free radical polymerization in solution using ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The hybrid copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Response surface methodology (RSM), involving central composite design (CCD) matrix with two of the most important operating variables in the flocculation process; hybrid copolymer dosage and pH were utilized for the study and for the optimization of the wastewater treatment process. Response surface analyses showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted to quadratic polynomial models. Under the optimum conditions, the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were 96.4% and 83.5% according to RSM optimization, whereas the optimum removals based on the genetic algorithm (GA) were 96.56% and 83.54% for the turbidity and COD removal models. Based on these results, wastewater treatment using this novel hybrid copolymer has proved to be an effective alternative in the overseeing of turbidity and COD problems of municipal wastewater.
Keywords: ferric chloride; polyvinylpyrrolidone; polyacrylamide; hybrid copolymer; wastewater treatment; RSM; genetic algorithm; optimization ferric chloride; polyvinylpyrrolidone; polyacrylamide; hybrid copolymer; wastewater treatment; RSM; genetic algorithm; optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Dawood, A.S.; Li, Y. Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater. Water 2013, 5, 342-355.

AMA Style

Dawood AS, Li Y. Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater. Water. 2013; 5(2):342-355.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dawood, Ammar S.; Li, Yilian. 2013. "Modeling and Optimization of New Flocculant Dosage and pH for Flocculation: Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater." Water 5, no. 2: 342-355.


Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert