The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these
manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers
submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Cetacean morbillivirus: a review of current knowledge
Authors: Marie-Françoise Van Bressem1, Padraig Duignan2, Michelle Barbieri3,4, Kathleen M Colegrove5, Sylvain De Guise6, Giovanni Di Guardo7, Andrew Dobson8, Mariano Domingo9, Deborah Fauquier10, Antonio Fernandez11, Tracey Goldstein12, Bryan Grenfell8, Katia Groch13, Frances Gulland4,14, Brenda A Jensen15, Paul J Jepson16, Ailsa Hall17, Thijs Kuiken18, Sandro Mazzariol19, Sinead E Morris8, Ole Nielsen20, Juan A Raga21, Teresa K Rowles10, Jeremy Saliki22, Eva Sierra11, Nahiid Stephens23, Brett Stone24, Ikuko Tomo25, Thomas Waltzek26 and Jim FX Wellehan27
Affiliations: 1Cetacean Conservation Medicine Group (CMED), Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research (CEPEC), Museo de Delfines, Pucusana, Lima 20, Peru; 2Department of Ecosystem and Public Health; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 3NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Honolulu, HI, USA; 4The Marine Mammal Centre, Sausalito, California, USA; 5Zoological Pathology Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA; 6University of Connecticut - Avery Point, Marine Science Building, Groton, Connecticut, USA; 7University of Teramo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Teramo, Italy; 8Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA; 9Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; 10National Marine Fisheries Service, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA; 11Department of Veterinary Pathology, Institute of Animal Health, Veterinary School, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain; 12One Health Institute School of Veterinary Medicine University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 13Department of Animal Pathology, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 14Marine Mammal Commission, 4340 East-West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA; 15Department of Biology, Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA; 16Institute of Zoology, Regent’s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK; 17Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK; 18Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 19Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 20Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Central and Arctic Region, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 21Marine Zoology Unit, Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 22Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Georgia, USA; 23Cetacean Research Unit, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 24QML Vetnostics, Metroplex on Gateway, Murarrie, Queensland, Australia; 25South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, Australia; 26Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, FL, USA; 27Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, FL, USA.
Abstract: We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease. Six morbillivirus strains have been detected in dolphins, porpoises and whales worldwide. CeMV represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Phylogenetic data suggest that a virus discovered in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from Western Australia is divergent from the other CeMV strains. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in odontocetes and mysticetes. It shares more amino acid identities with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, as expected from the evolutionary history of cetaceans. In the Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may cause higher affinity for the virus. CeMV has caused epidemics of severe disease in Delphinidae from Europe, the U.S. and Australia. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes likely serve as reservoirs and vectors. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute form may develop fatal, secondary infections, and a chronic form of encephalitis. Contagion likely occurs through inhalation of aerosolized virus but vertical transmission may occur. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology.