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Special Issue "Morbillivirus Infections"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Rik L. de Swart

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The open access journal Viruses is devoting a special issue to the topic ‘morbillivirus infections’. Over the last decades we have seen exciting developments in this field. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. Moreover, in 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. However, other animal morbilliviruses continue to cause significant disease, both in wildlife and domestic animals. The identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in different animal models have provided important new insights into the pathogenesis of morbillivirus infections, and their interactions with the host immune system.

In light of your expertise in the area of morbillivirus infections, I would like to invite you to submit a review article on your subject for this special issue.

Dr. Rik L. de Swart
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction
Viruses 2015, 7(2), 699-706; doi:10.3390/v7020699
Received: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated [...] Read more.
Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Profiling of Measles-Specific Humoral Immunity in Individuals Following Two Doses of MMR Vaccine Using Proteome Microarrays
Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1113-1133; doi:10.3390/v7031113
Received: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Introduction: Comprehensive evaluation of measles-specific humoral immunity after vaccination is important for determining new and/or additional correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Methods: We used a novel proteome microarray technology and statistical modeling to identify factors and models associated with measles-specific functional [...] Read more.
Introduction: Comprehensive evaluation of measles-specific humoral immunity after vaccination is important for determining new and/or additional correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Methods: We used a novel proteome microarray technology and statistical modeling to identify factors and models associated with measles-specific functional protective immunity in 150 measles vaccine recipients representing the extremes of neutralizing antibody response after two vaccine doses. Results: Our findings demonstrate a high seroprevalence of antibodies directed to the measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P), nucleoprotein (N), as well as antibodies to the large polymerase (L) protein (fragment 1234 to 1900 AA). Antibodies to these proteins, in addition to anti-F antibodies (and, to a lesser extent, anti-H antibodies), were correlated with neutralizing antibody titer and/or were associated with and predictive of neutralizing antibody response. Conclusion: Our results identify antibodies to specific measles virus proteins and statistical models for monitoring and assessment of measles-specific functional protective immunity in vaccinated individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)

Review

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Open AccessReview Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5093-5134; doi:10.3390/v6125093
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic [...] Read more.
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5145-5181; doi:10.3390/v6125145
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (2600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. [...] Read more.
We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview New Aspects of the Pathogenesis of Canine Distemper Leukoencephalitis
Viruses 2014, 6(7), 2571-2601; doi:10.3390/v6072571
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a member of the genus morbillivirus, which is known to cause a variety of disorders in dogs including demyelinating leukoencephalitis (CDV-DL). In recent years, substantial progress in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of CDV-DL has been made. In [...] Read more.
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a member of the genus morbillivirus, which is known to cause a variety of disorders in dogs including demyelinating leukoencephalitis (CDV-DL). In recent years, substantial progress in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of CDV-DL has been made. In vivo and in vitro investigations provided new insights into its pathogenesis with special emphasis on axon-myelin-glia interaction, potential endogenous mechanisms of regeneration, and astroglial plasticity. CDV-DL is characterized by lesions with a variable degree of demyelination and mononuclear inflammation accompanied by a dysregulated orchestration of cytokines as well as matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. Despite decades of research, several new aspects of the neuropathogenesis of CDV-DL have been described only recently. Early axonal damage seems to represent an initial and progressive lesion in CDV-DL, which interestingly precedes demyelination. Axonopathy may, thus, function as a potential trigger for subsequent disturbed axon-myelin-glia interactions. In particular, the detection of early axonal damage suggests that demyelination is at least in part a secondary event in CDV-DL, thus challenging the dogma of CDV as a purely primary demyelinating disease. Another unexpected finding refers to the appearance of p75 neurotrophin (NTR)-positive bipolar cells during CDV-DL. As p75NTR is a prototype marker for immature Schwann cells, this finding suggests that Schwann cell remyelination might represent a so far underestimated endogenous mechanism of regeneration, though this hypothesis still remains to be proven. Although it is well known that astrocytes represent the major target of CDV infection in CDV-DL, the detection of infected vimentin-positive astrocytes in chronic lesions indicates a crucial role of this cell population in nervous distemper. While glial fibrillary acidic protein represents the characteristic intermediate filament of mature astrocytes, expression of vimentin is generally restricted to immature or reactive astrocytes. Thus, vimentin-positive astrocytes might constitute an important cell population for CDV persistence and spread, as well as lesion progression. In vitro models, such as dissociated glial cell cultures, as well as organotypic brain slice cultures have contributed to a better insight into mechanisms of infection and certain morphological and molecular aspects of CDV-DL. Summarized, recent in vivo and in vitro studies revealed remarkable new aspects of nervous distemper. These new perceptions substantially improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of CDV-DL and might represent new starting points to develop novel treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview Viral Oncolysis — Can Insights from Measles Be Transferred to Canine Distemper Virus?
Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2340-2375; doi:10.3390/v6062340
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in [...] Read more.
Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly suitable translational animal model for the benefit of humans and dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection of Small Ruminants: A Comprehensive Review
Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2287-2327; doi:10.3390/v6062287
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR is an acute, highly contagious and fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep, whereas cattle undergo sub-clinical infection. With morbidity and mortality rates that can [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR is an acute, highly contagious and fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep, whereas cattle undergo sub-clinical infection. With morbidity and mortality rates that can be as high as 90%, PPR is classified as an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed disease. Considering the importance of sheep and goats in the livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in Africa and South Asia, PPR is an important concern for food security and poverty alleviation. PPR virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. Rinderpest has been globally eradicated by mass vaccination. Though a live attenuated vaccine is available against PPR for immunoprophylaxis, due to its instability in subtropical climate (thermo-sensitivity), unavailability of required doses and insufficient coverage (herd immunity), the disease control program has not been a great success. Further, emerging evidence of poor cross neutralization between vaccine strain and PPRV strains currently circulating in the field has raised concerns about the protective efficacy of the existing PPR vaccines. This review summarizes the recent advancement in PPRV replication, its pathogenesis, immune response to vaccine and disease control. Attempts have also been made to highlight the current trends in understanding the host susceptibility and resistance to PPR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
Open AccessReview The Tumor-Associated Marker, PVRL4 (Nectin-4), Is the Epithelial Receptor for Morbilliviruses
Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2268-2286; doi:10.3390/v6062268
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
PVRL4 (nectin-4) was recently identified as the epithelial receptor for members of the Morbillivirus genus, including measles virus, canine distemper virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. Here, we describe the role of PVRL4 in morbillivirus pathogenesis and its promising use in [...] Read more.
PVRL4 (nectin-4) was recently identified as the epithelial receptor for members of the Morbillivirus genus, including measles virus, canine distemper virus and peste des petits ruminants virus. Here, we describe the role of PVRL4 in morbillivirus pathogenesis and its promising use in cancer therapies. This discovery establishes a new paradigm for the spread of virus from lymphocytes to airway epithelial cells and its subsequent release into the environment. Measles virus vaccine strains have emerged as a promising oncolytic platform for cancer therapy in the last ten years. Given that PVRL4 is a well-known tumor-associated marker for several adenocarcinoma (lung, breast and ovary), the measles virus could potentially be used to specifically target, infect and destroy cancers expressing PVRL4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)

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