Special Issue "Morbillivirus Infections"


A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2014

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Rik L. de Swart
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
E-Mail: r.deswart@erasmusmc.nl

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The open access journal Viruses is devoting a special issue to the topic ‘morbillivirus infections’. Over the last decades we have seen exciting developments in this field. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. Moreover, in 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. However, other animal morbilliviruses continue to cause significant disease, both in wildlife and domestic animals. The identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in different animal models have provided important new insights into the pathogenesis of morbillivirus infections, and their interactions with the host immune system.

In light of your expertise in the area of morbillivirus infections, I would like to invite you to submit a review article on your subject for this special issue.

Dr. Rik L. de Swart
Guest Editor


Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers

No papers have been published in this special issue yet, see below for planned papers.

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR): A Comprehensive Review
V. Balamurugan
Peste des petits ruminnants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, world organization for animal health (WOAH-OIE) notifiable and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats associated with high morbidity and mortality and caused by PPR virus. PPR is considered as one of the main constraints in augmenting the productivity of small ruminants in developing and under developed countries and particularly severely affects poor farmer’s economy. Though, natural transmission of the virus occurs in other species of animals viz. cattle, buffaloes and camels, the clinical form of disease is generally not seen. The PPR virus causes retrogressive and necrotic changes in epithelial tissues resulting in oral, gastrointestinal and lung lesions besides lymphocytolysis in lymphoid tissues. The disease is clinically manifested by high fever (pyrexia), oculo-nasal discharges, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea and bronchopneumonia. The disease can be diagnosed from its clinical signs, pathological lesions, and specific detection of virus antigen / antibodies / genome in the clinical samples by various serological tests and molecular assays. PPR is the one of the priority animal diseases whose control is considered important for poverty alleviation in developing and under developed countries. Availability of effective and safe live attenuated cell culture PPR vaccines has boosted the recently launched centrally sponsored control programme in goats and sheep in India. This review article primarily focus on the current scenario of PPR with advancement of research areas that have taken place in the recent years with future perspectives.
Keywords: PPR; pathogenesis; symptoms; diagnosis; vaccines; control

Type of Paper: Review
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus: A Concern for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in South-Asia and Africa
Naveen Kumar
Virology Laboratory, Division of Animal Health, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, P.O.–Farah, Mathura, UP-281122, India; Email:naveenkumar.icar@gmail.com
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR is an acute, highly contagious and fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep whereas cattle undergo sub-clinical infection. With morbidity and mortality rates that can be as high as 90%, PPR is classified in the group of animal diseases that are notifiable to OIE (Office International des Epizooties). Sheep and particularly goats (also known as poor man’s cow), contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Considering the importance of sheep and goats in the livelihood of poor and marginal farmers, PPR, with high mortality rate is an important concern for food security and poverty alleviation in South-Asia and Africa. PPR virus (PPRV) and Rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. Rinderpest has been globally eradicated by mass vaccination. The considerations that the PPRV emerged from RPV by natural passage (sub-clinical infection) in sheep and goats have now raised similar concern about possible origin of a new virulent Morbillivirus in cattle. Now the important concern is whether or not to include the cattle in PPR vaccination programme being directed exclusively in sheep and goats. Though a live attenuated vaccine is available against PPR for immunoprophylaxis but due to its instability in subtropical climate (thermo-sensitivity), unavailability of required doses and insufficient coverage (herd immunity), the disease control programme has not been a significant success. Further, emerging evidence of poor cross neutralization between vaccine strain and PPRV strains currently circulating in the field has raised the concerns about the protective efficacy of the existing PPR vaccines. Moreover, at the time of epidemic, there are no therapeutics (antivirals) available to control the disease and hence to reduce the risk of virus transmission to the incontact susceptible population. This review summarizes the recent advancement in PPRV replication, its pathogenesis, immune response to vaccine, epidemiology and disease control. Attempts have also been made to highlight suitable viral and host factors that may be targeted for the development of future antiviral therapeutics against PPRV.

Last update: 1 April 2014

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