Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
AbstractWe review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Van Bressem, M.-F.; Duignan, P.J.; Banyard, A.; Barbieri, M.; Colegrove, K.M.; De Guise, S.; Di Guardo, G.; Dobson, A.; Domingo, M.; Fauquier, D.; Fernandez, A.; Goldstein, T.; Grenfell, B.; Groch, K.R.; Gulland, F.; Jensen, B.A.; Jepson, P.D.; Hall, A.; Kuiken, T.; Mazzariol, S.; Morris, S.E.; Nielsen, O.; Raga, J.A.; Rowles, T.K.; Saliki, J.; Sierra, E.; Stephens, N.; Stone, B.; Tomo, I.; Wang, J.; Waltzek, T.; Wellehan, J.F. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Viruses 2014, 6, 5145-5181.
Van Bressem M-F, Duignan PJ, Banyard A, Barbieri M, Colegrove KM, De Guise S, Di Guardo G, Dobson A, Domingo M, Fauquier D, Fernandez A, Goldstein T, Grenfell B, Groch KR, Gulland F, Jensen BA, Jepson PD, Hall A, Kuiken T, Mazzariol S, Morris SE, Nielsen O, Raga JA, Rowles TK, Saliki J, Sierra E, Stephens N, Stone B, Tomo I, Wang J, Waltzek T, Wellehan JF. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Viruses. 2014; 6(12):5145-5181.Chicago/Turabian Style
Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A.; Jepson, Paul D.; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E.; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F. 2014. "Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions." Viruses 6, no. 12: 5145-5181.