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Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2287-2327; doi:10.3390/v6062287

Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection of Small Ruminants: A Comprehensive Review

1
Virology Laboratory, Division of Animal Health, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, P.O. Farah, Mathura, UP 281122, India
2
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001, India
3
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana 125004, India
4
Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1988 Fitch Ave., Ste 295, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
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Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR is an acute, highly contagious and fatal disease primarily affecting goats and sheep, whereas cattle undergo sub-clinical infection. With morbidity and mortality rates that can be as high as 90%, PPR is classified as an OIE (Office International des Epizooties)-listed disease. Considering the importance of sheep and goats in the livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in Africa and South Asia, PPR is an important concern for food security and poverty alleviation. PPR virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. Rinderpest has been globally eradicated by mass vaccination. Though a live attenuated vaccine is available against PPR for immunoprophylaxis, due to its instability in subtropical climate (thermo-sensitivity), unavailability of required doses and insufficient coverage (herd immunity), the disease control program has not been a great success. Further, emerging evidence of poor cross neutralization between vaccine strain and PPRV strains currently circulating in the field has raised concerns about the protective efficacy of the existing PPR vaccines. This review summarizes the recent advancement in PPRV replication, its pathogenesis, immune response to vaccine and disease control. Attempts have also been made to highlight the current trends in understanding the host susceptibility and resistance to PPR. View Full-Text
Keywords: Peste des petits ruminants; PPR; PPRV; vaccination; virus replication; disease resistance Peste des petits ruminants; PPR; PPRV; vaccination; virus replication; disease resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Kumar, N.; Maherchandani, S.; Kashyap, S.K.; Singh, S.V.; Sharma, S.; Chaubey, K.K.; Ly, H. Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection of Small Ruminants: A Comprehensive Review. Viruses 2014, 6, 2287-2327.

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