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Viruses 2014, 6(12), 5093-5134; doi:10.3390/v6125093

Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

1
Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada
2
Cetacean Conservation Medicine Group (CMED), Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research (CEPEC), Pucusana, Lima 20, Peru
3
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 1845 WASP Blvd., Building 176, Honolulu, Hawaii 96818, USA
4
The Marine Mammal Centre, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA
5
Zoological Pathology Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
6
Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, and Connecticut Sea Grant College Program, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
7
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands
8
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy
9
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-2016, USA
10
Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University, 620 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
11
Greg Early, Integrated Statistics, 87 Water St, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
12
National Marine Fisheries Service/National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
13
One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
14
School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
15
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2220, USA
16
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-270, Brazil
17
Marine Mammal Commission, 4340 East-West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
18
Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK
19
Department of Natural Sciences, Hawai'i Pacific University, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA
20
Keith Matassa, Pacific Marine Mammal Center, 20612 Laguna Canyon Road, Laguna Beach, CA 92651, USA
21
Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro Padua, Italy
22
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Central and Arctic Region, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N6, Canada
23
David Rotstein, Marine Mammal Pathology Services, 19117 Bloomfield Road, Olney, MD 20832, USA
24
Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, GA 30602, USA
25
Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover 30173, Germany
26
Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, FL 32611, USA
27
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, FL 32610, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morbillivirus Infections)
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Abstract

Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: Morbillivirus; pinnipeds; sea otter; CD150/SLAM; phylogeny; pathology; epidemiology; immunity; vaccine Morbillivirus; pinnipeds; sea otter; CD150/SLAM; phylogeny; pathology; epidemiology; immunity; vaccine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Duignan, P.J.; Van Bressem, M.-F.; Baker, J.D.; Barbieri, M.; Colegrove, K.M.; De Guise, S.; de Swart, R.L.; Di Guardo, G.; Dobson, A.; Duprex, W.P.; Early, G.; Fauquier, D.; Goldstein, T.; Goodman, S.J.; Grenfell, B.; Groch, K.R.; Gulland, F.; Hall, A.; Jensen, B.A.; Lamy, K.; Matassa, K.; Mazzariol, S.; Morris, S.E.; Nielsen, O.; Rotstein, D.; Rowles, T.K.; Saliki, J.T.; Siebert, U.; Waltzek, T.; Wellehan, J.F. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Viruses 2014, 6, 5093-5134.

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